Consumer Rights Class 10 Economics Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers

CBSE Class 10 Economics Chapter 5 Consumer Rights Extra Questions and Answers is available here. Students can learn and download PDF of these questions for free. These extra questions and answers are prepared by our expert teachers as per the latest NCERT textbook and guidelines. Learning these questions will help you to score excellent marks in the board exams.

Consumer Rights Class 10 Extra Questions Economics Chapter 5

Very Short Answer Questions

1. Who are Producers?

Answer: People who make goods and provide services are called producers. As producers of goods and services, we could be working in any of the sectors such as agriculture, industry or services.

2. Who are Consumers?

Answer: Consumers participate in the market when they purchase goods and services that they need. These are final goods that people as consumers use.

3. What is the need of rules and regulations in the market?

Answer: Rules and regulations are needed to protect workers in unorganised sector or protect people from high interest rates charged by moneylenders in the informal sector or for protecting a consumer in the market.

4. Why do individual consumers often find themselves in a weak position?

Answer: Whenever there is a complaint regarding a good or service that they had bought, the seller tries to shift all the responsibility on to the buyer.

5. How can large companies with huge wealth and power manipulate the market?

Answer: At times, false information is given through media, and other sources to attract consumers. Such big companies with huge wealth and power can manipulate the market.

6. Give an example to prove how big companies can manipulate market with wealth and power.

Answer: A long battle had to be fought with court to make cigarette–manufacturing companies accept that their product could cause cancer.

7. Why did consumer movement arise in India?

Answer: Consumer movement arose out of the dissatisfaction of the consumers as many unfair practices were being indulged in by the sellers.

8. Who does the standardisation of products at National level?

Answer: Standardisation of products is done at the national level by the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986. ISI, AGMARK, Hallmark are well known, certification marks for national standardisation.

9. Name two certification marks for international standardisation.

Answer: Standardisation of product is done at the international level. ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 are the well-known certification marks for international standardisation.

10. Which logo will you like to see on the electric heater to be sure of its quality?
OR
Which quality logo would you like to see on the electric goods to be sure about their quality? [CBSE (F) 2016], [CBSE (F) 2017]

Answer: ISI.

11. Initially what was done by consumers to protect themselves from the exploitation?

Answer: Initially when a consumer was not happy with a particular brand, product or shop, he or she generally avoided buying that brand product, or would stop purchasing from that shop.

12. Why did the consumer movement begin as a social force in India?

Answer: In India, the consumer movement as a ‘social force’ originated with the necessity of protecting and promoting the interests of consumers against unethical and unfair trade practices.

13. What was the status of consumer movement in 1960s?

Answer: Rampant food shortages, hoarding, black marketing, adulteration of food and edible oil gave birth to consumer movement in an organised form in 1960s.

14. What efforts were done in 1970s by consumer groups?

Answer: Till 1970s, consumer organisations were largely engaged in writing articles and holding exhibitions. They formed consumer groups to look into the malpractices in ration shops and overcrowding in the road passenger transport.

15. What is COPRA?

Answer: A major step taken in 1986 by the Indian government was the enactment of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, popularly known as COPRA to protect consumer’s interests.

16. When and why was ‘Consumer International’ adopted?

Answer: In 1985, United Nations adopted the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection. This was a tool for nations to adopt measures to protect consumers’ advocacy groups to press their governments to do so.

17. What is the status of Consumer International today?

Answer: Today, Consumer International has become an umbrella body of over 250 member organisations from in 120 countries.

18. Give any one example of consumer’s ‘right to choose.’ [CBSE Delhi 2017]

Answer: If a person wants to buy toothpaste and the shop owner says that she can sell the toothpaste only if the customer buys toothbrush. If you are not interested in buying the brush, you have right to deny.

19. Why should Right to Safety be practised by the consumers?

Answer: While using many goods and services, we as consumers, have the right to be protected against the marketing of goods and delivery of services that are hazardous to life and property.

20. Why do producers need to strictly follow the required safety rules and regulations?

Answer: There are many goods and services that we purchase that require special attention to safety. For example, pressure cookers have a safety valve which, if defective, can cause a serious accident. The manufacturers of the safety valve have to ensure high quality.

21. What information is needed on the packaged food?

Answer: This information is about ingredients used, price, batch number, date of manufacture, expiry date and address of the manufacturer.

22. What information is needed on the packed medicines?

Answer: When we buy medicines, on the packed medicines, we must find directions for proper use, information related to its side effects, risks associated with usage of that medicine, manufacturing date and expiry date.

23. Give an example of a catchy advertisement to attract consumers. [CBSE (F) 2017]

Answer: “Win a Gold Coin inside a pack”

24. What special instructions are needed on the garments?

Answer: When we buy garments, information on the instruction of washing or dry cleaning should be there.

25. Why does manufacturer need to display information for the consumers?

Answer: It is because consumers have the right to be informed about the particulars of goods and services that they purchase. Consumers then complain and ask for the compensation or replacement if the product proves to be defective in any manner.

26. If you want to extract information about the functions of any government department, which right would you exercise? [CBSE (F) 2017]

Answer: RTI Act (Right to Information Act).

27. Give one example why right to information is needed by a consumer in the market.

Answer: If we buy a product and find it defective well within the expiry period, we can ask for a replacement. If the expiry period was not printed, the manufacturer would blame the shopkeeper and will not accept the responsibility.

28. What is MRP?

Answer: MRP is Maximum Retail Price.

29. How does MRP help a consumer?

Answer: One can protest and complain if someone sells goods at more than the printed price on the packet. In fact, consumers can bargain with the seller to sell at less than the MRP.

30. Give example to tell how your ‘Right to choice’ is denied?

Answer: Suppose you want to buy a toothpaste, and the shop owner says that she can sell the toothpaste only if you buy a toothbrush. Your right to choice is denied.

31. What are ‘Consumer Forums’?

Answer: Consumer forum: Its a VCO (Voluntary Consumer Organisation) for consumers to keep them aware of their rights, responsibilities and how to raise their grievances.

32. What is the role of Consumer Forums?

Answer: They guide consumers on how to file cases in the consumer courts. On many occasions, they also represent individual consumers in the consumer courts.

33. What is a three tier quasi-judicial machinery at various levels.

Answer: At District Level: District Consumer Redressal Forum.
At State Level: State Consumer Redressal Commission.
At National Level: National Consumer Redressal Commission.

34. Which organisation does recognize ‘Political Parties’ in India? [CBSE (Comptt.) 2017]

Answer: Political Parties in India are recognized by the Election Commission.

35. What are the claim limits of the consumer court cases?

Answer: (i) District level court: Upto ₹ 20 lakh.
(ii) State level court: Between ₹ 20 lakh and ₹ 1 crore.
(iii) National level court: Deals with the cases involving claims exceeding ₹ 1 crore.

36. What are standardisation logos?

Answer: Following are the standardisation logos.

(i) ISI mark: For industrial product. Certifies that a product conforms to a set of standards laid by the bureau of Indian Standards.

(ii) FPO mark: A mandatory mark for all processed fruit products in India. Certifies that the product was manufactured in a hygienic ‘food-safe’ environment.

(iii) Agmark for all agricultural products.

(iv) The Non Polluting Vehicle mark on motor vehicles certifying conformity to the Bharat Stage emission standards.

(v) BIS hallmark: Certifies the purity of gold jewellery.

37. Suppose you want to purchase a Television from market, then which logo of quality should have been marked on the Television? [CBSE (Comptt.) 2017]

Answer: Logo of Quality is ISI.

38. Which companies are given these standardisation logos?

Answer: The organisations that monitor and issue these certificates allow producers to use their logos provided they follow certain quality standards.

39. For which products are these logos of standardisation mandatory?

Answer: For some products that affect the health and safety of consumers or of products of mass consumption like LPG cylinders, food colours and additives, cement, packaged drinking water, it is mandatory on the part of the producers to get certified by these organisations.

40. Which day is observed as National Consumers day in India?

Answer: India has been observing 24th December as the ‘National Consumers Day’.

41. Why has 24th December been selected to celebrate National Consumer Day in India?

Answer: It was on this day that the Indian Parliament enacted the Consumer Protection Act in 1986.

42. How many organised groups are working for Consumer Movement in India?

Answer: Today, there are more than 700 consumer groups in the country of which only about 20-25 are well organised and recognised for their work.

43. Why is it difficult for poor to get loan from Banks? [CBSE (Comptt.) 2017]

Answer: Absence of Collateral is one of the major reasons which prevent the poor from getting bank loans.

44. Why do you think that the consumer redressal process is becoming cumbersome, expensive and time consuming?

Answer: Many a time, consumers are required to engage lawyers. These cases require time for filing and attending the court proceedings, etc.

45. Reema bought a pack of brown bread later she realized that it was expired. Which right does she have to counter this problem? [CBSE Sample Paper 2017]

Answer: Right to Seek Redressal

46. What is COPRA? When was it introduced? [CBSE Sample Paper 2016]

Answer: Consumer Protection Act is popularly known as COPRA. It was introduced by the Government of India in 1986.

47. Suppose you want to buy a packed bottle of drinking water, which logo will you expect to see to be sure about its quality? [CBSE (Comptt.) 2016], [CBSE (Comptt.) 2017]

Answer: The logo: ISI/Indian Standard Institutions.

48. If any damage is done to a consumer by a trader, under which consumer right one can move to consumer court to get compensation. [CBSE (AI) 2016]

Answer: If any damage is done to a consumer by a trader, the consumer can move to the court and get compensation under—Right to seek redressal.

49. If you are not interested to buy a brush with tooth-paste but shopkeeper denied to sell tooth-paste only. In this case which consumer right is being violated by the seller? [CBSE (F) 2016]

Answer: Right to choose.

50. Give an example of violation of consumer’s right to choose. [CBSE (AI) 2017]

Answer: If you want to buy toothpaste and the shop owner says that she/he can sell the toothpaste only if you buy a toothbrush. If you are not interested in buying the brush, your right to choice is denied.

Short Answer Type Questions

1. Explain any five rights of consumers that protect them from exploitation in the market place. [CBSE Sample Paper 2017]
OR
Describe any three right of consumer which can help him / her against unfair trade practices and exploitation. [CBSE Delhi 2017]

Answer: Rights of consumers
(i) Right to information
(ii) Right to seek redressal
(iii) Right to choose
(iv) Right to be heard
(v) Right to safety
(vi) Right to represent
(vii) Right to consumer education
(Any five or three-as per question)

2. Why do we need rules and regulations that would promote development?

Answer: (i) These could be for the protection of workers in the unorganised sector.
(ii) These are needed to protect people from high interest rates charged by moneylenders.
(iii) Rules and regulations are also required for protecting the environment.
(iv) Similarly, rules and regulations are required for the protection of the consumers in the marketplace.

3. How do you exercise the right to seek redressal?

Answer: (i) Consumers have the right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices and exploitation.
(ii) If any damage is done to a consumer, he or she has the right to get a compensation, depending on the degree of damage.
(iii) There is a need to provide an easy and effective public system by which this can be done.

Example: Prakash had sent a money order to his village for his daughter’s marriage. The money did not reach his daughter at the time when she needed it, nor did it reach months later. So, Prakash filed a case in the district level consumer court and practised right to seek redressal.

4. Describe any three duties of a consumer in the market. [CBSE (Comptt.) 2017]

Answer: (i) To be careful while buying a commodity or service.
(ii) Always look for the direction for proper use and information relating to the risk associated with commodity.
(iii) Needs to be well informed.
(iv) Should be aware of his rights (Right to Information)

5. Describe any three rights of consumer which can help him / her against unfair trade practices and exploitation. [CBSE (Comptt.) 2017]

Answer: (i) Right to Information
(ii) Right to choose
(iii) Right to seek Redressal
(iv) Right to safety
(v) Right to represent
(vi) Right to consumer education

6. What is the judicial structure of consumer disputes in India?

Answer: Under COPRA, a three-tier quasi-judicial machinery at the district, state and national levels was set up for redressal of consumer disputes.

(i) District level courts: They deal with cases involving claims upto ₹ 20 lakh.

(ii) State level courts: They deal with cases involving claims between ₹ 20 lakh to ₹ 1 crore.

(iii) National level courts: They deal with cases which are exceeding ₹ 1 crore.

If a case is dismissed in the district level court, the consumer can also appeal at the state and then at the national level court.

7. Who are producers and consumers?

Answer: We participate in the market, both as producers and consumers.

(i) As producers of goods and services, we could be working in any of the sectors like primary, secondary or tertiary.

(ii) Consumers participate in the market when they purchase goods and services that they need. These are the final goods that people as consumers use.

8. What is information needed on the packed goods?

Answer: (i) On the packed goods, details of ingredients used, price, batch number, date of manufacture, expiry date and address of manufacturer is needed.

(ii) On the packets of medicines, we must get ‘directions for proper use’ and information relating to side effects, its expiry date and risks associated with usage of that medicine.

(iii) When we buy garments, we must find information on ‘instructions for washing’.

9. How has the ‘Right to Information’ been expanded to cover various services provided by the government?

Answer: In October 2005, the government of India enacted a law, popularly known as RTI or Right to Information Act, which ensures its citizens all the information about the functions of government departments.

The effect of the RTI Act can be understood by taking up the following example.

An engineering graduate applied for a government job and submitted all his certificates. But officials did not inform him the status of his selection. He, therefore, filed an application using the RTI Act, saying that it was his right to know the result, so that he could plan his future. He soon got his call letter for appointment.

10. What is the role of consumer forums?

Answer: The consumer movement in India has led to the formation of various organisations known as ‘Consumer Forums’ or ‘Consumer Protection Councils’.

(i) They guide consumers on how to file cases in the consumer court.
(ii) On many occasions, they also represent individual consumers in the consumer courts.
(iii) These voluntary organisations also receive financial support from the government for creating awareness among the people.

11. Who can file a complaint? What is the procedure?

Answer: (i) Individual Consumer.
(ii) Consumer Organisations/Registered Voluntary Consumer Associations.
(iii) Resident Welfare Associations (RWAs).
(iv) The Central Government or any State Government.

There is no court fee for filing complaint in consumer court. The consumer has to file a simple registration form and can even plead his case on his own. The claim up to ` 20 lakh is filed with district forum. If a consumer is not satisfied with the decision of the district forum, then he can make appeal to the state commission. If the consumer is not satisfied with the decision of state commission then he can make appeal to National Commission located in New Delhi. National Commission is the apex body in this regard.

12. What is consumer awareness?

Answer: Consumer awareness means educating the consumer about his rights and duties. As a result of consumer education, consumer becomes familiar with the laws that protect his interests and restrict his exploitation.

13. What is the need for consumer awareness?

Answer: Consumer is exploited in many ways. Consumers are scattered, unorganised and many of them are illiterate. The traders, moneylenders, service-providers exploit the consumers in many ways. Sellers try to shift the responsibility of product/service on the buyer. They plea that the buyer should be aware when he buys the goods. It is the responsibility of the buyer to check the goods while purchasing them. The need for consumer protection and satisfaction has been widely accepted all over the world. All this has resulted in need for creating consumer awareness in India also.

14. What factors led to the beginning of the ‘Consumer Movement’ in India?
OR
Analyse any three reasons for the beginning of the consumer movement in India. [CBSE Delhi 2017]

Answer: (i) The consumer movement arose out of dissatisfaction of the consumers as many unfair practices were being indulged in by sellers.

(ii) There was no legal system available to consumers to protect themselves from exploitation in the marketplace.

(iii) It was presumed that it was the responsibility of the consumers to be careful while buying a commodity or service considering that sellers are indulged in many unfair practices.

(iv) It took many years for organisations in India and around the world to create awareness amongst people.

(v) This has also shifted the responsibility of ensuring the quality of goods and services onto the sellers.

15. Write a short note on ISI and AGMARK.

Answer: ISI: Indian Standards Institute.

AGMARK: ‘AG’ is for agriculture and ‘Mark’ is for certification mark. Agmark: Food Products.

ISI: Electrical Appliances and Industrial products.

These are provided by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). They are a guarantee of the good quality of a product. These marks generate trust among the consumers regarding the good quality of a commodity.

16. How can money easily exchange it for goods or services? Give example to explain. [CBSE (Delhi) 2016]

Answer: Money acts easier to exchange for goods and services:
(i) A person holding money can easily exchange it for any commodity or service that he or she might want.
(ii) Everyone prefers to receive payments in money and exchange the money for things they want.

For example: A shoemaker wants to sell shoes in the market and buy wheat. The shoemaker will first exchange shoes for money and then exchange the money for wheat. If the shoemaker had to directly exchange shoes for wheat without the use of money. He would have to look for a wheat growing farmer who not only wants to sell wheat but also wants to buy the shoe in exchange. Both the parties have to agree to sell and buy each other’s commodities. This process is very difficult, time consuming and unhealthy.

17. “Consumer awareness is essential to avoid exploitation in the market place.” Support the statement. [CBSE (Delhi) 2016]

Answer: Consumer awareness to avoid exploitation: Consumer awareness is essential to avoid exploitation in the market place. Market do not work in a fair manner. Exploitation happen in various ways. Therefore, awareness is essential. Certain details are given on the packing. When we buy medicines, on the packets details are marked. Rules have been made so that the manufacturer displays the information. Consumers can complain and ask for compensation or replacement of the product, if proves to be defective in any manner.

18. “Rules and regulations are required for the protection of the consumers in the market place.” Justify the statement with arguments. [CBSE (AI) 2016]

Answer: Rules and regulations are required for the protection of the consumers in the market place.

(i) Individual consumers often find themselves in a weak position whenever there is a complaint regarding a good or service that had been bought, the seller tries to shift all the responsibility on to the buyer.

(ii) Exploitation in the market place happens in various ways.
For example, sometimes the traders indulge in unfair trade practices such as – when shopkeepers weigh less than what they should or when traders add changes that were not mentioned before or when adulterated or defective goods are sold.

(iii) At times false information is passed on through media to attract consumers.

19. How are consumers exploited in the market place? Explain. [CBSE (AI) 2016], [CBSE (F) 2017]

Answer: Consumers are exploited in the market place in following ways:
(i) Weigh less than what they should. Absence of expiry date on products.
(ii) Traders add charges that were not mentioned before. Rough behaviour of shopkeepers.
(iii) Traders sell adulterated or defective goods.
(iv) False information is passed through the media and other sources to attract consumers.

20. “The consumer movement arose out of dissatisfaction of the consumers”. Justify the statement with arguments. [CBSE (AI) 2016]

Answer: “The Consumer movement arose out of dissatisfaction of the consumers”:

(i) As many unfair practices were being indulged in by the sellers.

(ii) There was no legal system available to the consumers to protect them from exploitation in the market place.

(iii) In India, the consumer movement as a “Social Force” originated with the necessity of protecting and promoting the interest of consumers against unethical and unfair trade practices.

(iv) Rampant Food shortage, hoardings black marketing, adulteration of food and edible oil gave birth to the consumer movement in an organized form in the 1960s

Long Answer Type Questions

1. Why are rules and regulations needed in the market? Explain with examples. [CBSE Delhi 2017]

Answer: Need for rules and regulations:

(i) Individual consumers often find themselves in a weak position. Whenever there is a complaint regarding a good or service that had been bought, the seller tries to shift all the responsibility on to the buyer.

(ii) Sometimes traders indulge in unfair trade practices, such as when shopkeepers weigh less than what they should.

(iii) Markets do not work in a fair manner when producers are few and powerful. A long battle had to be fought with court cases to make cigarette manufacturing companies accept that their product could cause cancer.

(iv) Large companies with huge wealth, power and reach can manipulate the market in various ways. At times false information is passed on through the media and other sources to attract consumers.

(v) Consumer is also exploited when buyers purchase in small amount and are scattered. For example, a company for years sold powder milk for babies all over the world as the most scientific product claiming this to be better than mother’s milk. It took years of struggle before the company was forced to accept that it had been making false claims.

2. How does a consumer exercise his right to be informed?

Answer: (i) Manufacturers display the required information on the goods or medicines we purchase, because consumers have the right to be informed.

(ii) Consumers can then complain and ask for compensation or replacement, if the product proves to be defective in any manner.

(iii) For example, if we buy a product and find it defective well within the expiry period, we can ask for a replacement. If the expiry period is not printed, the manufacturer would blame the shopkeeper and will not accept the responsibility.

(iv) One can protest and complain if someone sells a goods at more than the printed price on the packet. This is indicated by the Maximum Retail Price (MRP). In fact, customers can bargain with the seller to sell at less than the MRP.

(v) In October 2005, the government of India enacted a law known as RTI or the Right to Information Act, which ensures its citizens all the information about the functions of government departments.

3. What problems do we face in taking the consumer movement forward?

Answer: The consumer redressal process is becoming cumbersome, expensive and time consuming. Many times, consumers are required to engage a lawyer. These cases require time for filing and attending the court proceedings, etc. In most purchases, cash memos are not issued, hence, evidence is not easy to gather.

Moreover, most purchases in the market are small retail sales. The existing laws also are not very clear on the issue of compensation to consumers injured by defective products.

After 32 years of the enactment of COPRA, consumer awareness in India is spreading but slowly. Besides this, the enforcement of laws that protects workers, especially in the unorganised sector is weak. Rules and regulations for the functioning of markets are often not followed.

4. Trace the evolution of the consumer movement in India.

Answer: (i) In India, the consumer movement as a ‘social force’ began with the necessity of protecting and promoting the interests of consumers against unfair trade practices.

(ii) Rampant food shortages, hoarding, black marketing, adulteration of food and edible oil gave birth to the consumer movement in an organised form in the 1960s.

(iii) Till the 1970s, consumer organisations were largely engaged in writing articles and holding exhibitions.

(iv) They formed consumer groups to look into the malpractices in ration shops and overcrowding in the road passenger transport.

(v) Because of these efforts, the movement succeeded in bringing pressure on business firms, as well as the government to correct business conduct.

(vi) A major step taken in 1986 by the Indian government, was the enactment of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, popularly known as COPRA.

(vii) More recently, India witnessed an upsurge in the number of consumer groups.

5. Write a note on Consumers International.

Answer: (i) In 1985, United Nations adopted the guidelines for consumer protection.

(ii) This was a tool for nations to adopt measures to protect consumers and for consumer advocacy groups to press their governments to do so.

(iii) At the international level, this has become foundation for consumer movement.

(iv) Today, Consumers International has become an umbrella body of over 250 member organisations in 120 countries, in which India is one of them.

6. How can ‘Right to Safety’ be practised?

Answer: (i) While using many goods and services, we as consumers, have the right to be protected against the marketing of goods and delivery of services that are hazardous to life and property.

(ii) Producers need to strictly follow the required safety rules and regulations.

(iii) There are many goods and services that we purchase that require special attention to safety.

(iv) For example, pressure cookers have a safety valve which, defective, can cause a serious accident. The manufacturers of the safety valve have to ensure high quality. We also need public or government action to see that this quality is maintained.

7. Why are quality measurements used?

Answer: The quality measurements are used to satisfy a consumer.

(i) While buying many commodities, there is a logo with letters like ISI, AGMARK or Hallmark.

(ii) These logos and codification help consumers get assured of quality while purchasing the goods and services.

(iii) The organisations that monitor and issue these certificates allow producers to use their logos provided they follow certain quality standards.

(iv) Though these organisations develop quality standards for many products, it is not compulsory for all the producers to follow standards.

(v) However, for some products that affect the health and safety of consumers or of products of mass consumption like LPG cylinders, food colours, additives, cement, packaged drinking water, it is mandatory on the part of the producers to get their products certified by these organisations.

8. COPRA has enabled the consumers to have the right to represent in the consumer courts. Explain how it benefits the consumers. [CBSE Sample Paper 2016]

Answer: Under COPRA, a three-tier quasi-judicial machinery at the district, state and national levels was set up for redressal of consumer disputes.

The district level court deals with the cases involving claims upto ₹20 lakhs, the state level courts between ₹20 lakhs and ₹1 crore and the national level court deals with cases involving claims exceeding ₹1 crore.

If a case is dismissed in district level court, the consumer can also appeal in state and then in National level courts. Thus, the Act has enabled us as consumers to have the right to represent in the consumer courts.

It strengthened the Consumer Movement and provided the consumers with the right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices and exploitation. If any damage is done to a consumer, she has the right to get compensation depending on the degree of damage.

9. Examine any three conditions which should be taken care of by multinational companies to set up their production units. [CBSE Delhi 2016]

Answer: (i) Close to the market.
(ii) Skilled and unskilled labour available at low cost.
(iii) Government policies.

HOTS Questions (Higher Order Thinking Skills)

1. Identify the factors which encourage the traders to adopt unfair practices. How is consumer exploited?
Or
What are the forms of consumer exploitation?

Answer: When a consumer in the market place is forced to buy a product or sold for higher price or not returned if defective or sold defective product, he is supposed to be exploited.

Consumer is exploited in the following ways:

(1) Deceptive Advertising: In some cases, the advertisers speak very highly of their product by giving exaggerated statements. Taking these advertisements to be true, the consumer is tempted to buy these goods. But on actual use, he finds that he has been deceived. For example: An advertisement of washing powder claims that a spoon-full of powder can wash a full bucket of clothes. On actual use, it was found that it could wash only one or two clothes; this advertisement was held deceptive.

(2) Unreasonable Prices: Sometimes sellers charge a price higher than the maximum retail price (MRP). Traders create artificial scarcity of essential goods by hoarding them. Later, these goods are sold at higher prices, thus leading to consumer’s exploitation.

(3) Adulteration: Adulteration of goods are sometimes dangerous to life or hazardous to health. For example, mixing animal fat with ghee.

(4) Poor Quality Products: There are a large number of deaths and injuries on account of substandard and unsafe domestic products like pressure cookers, electrical gadgets, etc.

(5) Deceptive Packing: Sometimes manufacturers use almost similar brand name with minor changes in the spelling of a reputed brand, but the appearance of the wrapper is kept almost the same so as to give the impression that the product is of reputed brand.

(6) Under weighed Supplies: Some manufacturers sell certain products in packings where actual quantity is less than the quantity written on these packages. For example, each LPG cylinder must contain 14.2 kg of gas but sometimes under weighed cylinders are supplied to the consumers.

(7) Deficiency in Service: Due to this, consumers suffer a lot. For example,
(i) Undue delay by the courier services.
(ii) Wrong billing by the electricity and telephone department.
(iii) Undue delay in settling insurance accident claims.

(8) Negligence in Service: In newspapers, some cases of negligence in service are reported. For example,
(i) By an oversight, the wrong leg of a patient was amputated by a surgeon.
(ii) About 2 dozen persons were operated in a hospital and they lost their eye sight as a result of infection that spread in the operation theatre.

2. “Consumer movement can be effective only with the consumer’s active involvement.” Analyse the statement. [CBSE Delhi 2017]

Answer: The consumer movement is generally a result of dissatisfaction of consumers over unfair practices in a market place. It is true that consumer movement can be effective only with the consumer active involvement. Consumers are the kings in the market place, therefore they should exercise their consumer rights.

Whenever a consumer buys any product or services, must be careful before buying, so that he may not be fooled by the producers and shopkeepers. Consumer should exercise his rights and duties diligently. He should insist on buying a standardised product looking at his own safety.

If consumer is conscious or aware, he should convey this message to others so that this consumer movement may be made more effective. For example in the 1960, there were food shortages and black marketing and adulteration of food. This resulted in strong consumer movement.

3. How can a consumer exercise his right to choice?

Answer: Any consumer who receives a service in whatever capacity, regardless of age, gender and nature of service, has the right to choose, whether to continue to receive the service or not.

For example, suppose you want to buy a shampoo and the shop owner says that he can sell the shampoo only if you buy a body wash. If you are not interested in buying the body wash your right to choice is denied.

So many times you are forced to buy things that you may not wish to as you are left with no choice. But every consumer in a capitalist company has the right to exercise his right to choice.

4. How should consumer become a well-informed consumer?

Answer: (i) When we as consumers become conscious of our rights while purchasing various goods and services, we will be able to discriminate and make informed choices.

(ii) This calls for acquiring the knowledge skill to become a well-informed consumer.

(iii) We should become conscious of our rights.

(iv) The enactment of COPRA has led to the setting up of separate departments of consumer affairs in central and state government.

(v) There are posters in the cities or states, through which government spread information about legal process which people can use.

5. Who is an ideal consumer?

Answer: An ideal consumer is the one who has the following qualities/attributes:

  • Updates his knowledge of consumer’s rights and duties.
  • Has an eco-friendly attitude.
  • Prevents corruption rather than being a party to it.
  • Buys only those goods and services which he needs, so that wasteful and demonstrative consumption is avoided.
  • Cares for health and hygiene in his selection and use of goods and services.
  • Prefers to use such products which can be recycled and which are bio-degradable.
  • Makes purchases only from authorized retailers/shopkeepers.
  • Conscious of standardisation marks like ISO, ISI, AGMARK, Hallmark, etc.
  • Procures and preserves cash memo and warranty card.
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