Agriculture Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers

CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture Extra Questions and Answers is available here. Students can learn and download PDF of these questions for free. These extra questions and answers are prepared by our expert teachers as per the latest NCERT textbook and guidelines. Learning these questions will help you to score excellent marks in the board exams.

Agriculture Class 10 Extra Questions Geography Chapter 4

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. What is agriculture
Answer: The art and science of cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock including animal husbandry and forestry.

2. Name any two farming system (agriculture type) which are practised in India.
Answer: (a) Primitive subsistence (fa) Commercial farming

3. Name any four agricultural products exported by India.

Answer: (a) Tea
(b) Coffee
(c) Spices
(d) Jute

4. What is primitive subsistence farming [CBSE 2014]

Answer: It is a type of agriculture / farming which is practised on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, doa, digging sticks and family / community labour.

5. What is slash and bum agriculture
Answer: Under slash and bum agriculture, farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their family.

6. Which type of agriculture is practised on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools
Answer: Primitive subsistence farming.

7. What is intensive subsistence farming 
Answer: It is a type of farming practised in areas with high density of population using modem inputs

8. Name any two states where commercial farming is practised.
Answer: Punjab and Haryana.

9. Mention any four plantation crops produced in India.
Answer: Tea, coffee, rubber and sugarcane.

10. Mention any two factors which play an important role in the development of plantations.
Answer: (i) Developed network of transport and communication connecting the plantation areas.
(ii) Developed market.

11. Name the cropping seasons of India with examples.
Answer: (i) Rabi – wheat
(ii) Kharif – paddy
(iii) Zaid – watermelon

12. What are rabi crops Give four examples. 

Answer: The crops which are grown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June. Wheat, barley, peas, gram are some examples of rabi crops.

13. What is the period of kharif crop [CBSE 2014]
Answer: Kharif season starts with the onset of the monsoon i.e., June-July and continues till the beginning of winter i.e., October-November. For example, rice, millets etc.

14. What are zaid crops
Answer: These are crops which are sown between the rabi and kharif crops. Watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber and vegetables are some examples of zaid crops.

15. Mention any two important factors responsible for the success of rabi crops. 

Answer: (i) Availability of precipitation during winter months due to the western temperate cyclone.
(ii) The success of Green Revolution in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.

16. Name any four states which are the main producers of kharif crops.
Answer: (a) Assam (b) West Bengal (c) Andhra Pradesh (d) Tamil Nadu

17. Name any two kharif crops. [CBSE 2014]
Answer: Rice, millet, maize, groundnut, jute, cotton.

18. Name any two states where three crops of paddy are grown in a year.
Answer: Assam and West Bengal.

19. Which is the staple crop of a majority of the people in India.
Answer: Rice.

20. Which country is the largest producer of rice in the world
Answer: China.

21. Mention any two factors which have made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.
Answer: (i) Development of dense network of canal irrigation.
(ii) Modern inputs like fertilisers, pesticides etc.

22. Which are the two important wheat growing zones in India
Answer: (i) The Ganga-Satluj plains.
(ii) North-west and black soil region of the Deccan. –

23. Name the two most important wheat producing states of India.
Answer: Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.

24. Name the important millets of India.
Answer: (a) Jowar (b) Bajra (c) Ragi (d) Maize

25. Which states are the major producers of rice in India
Answer: West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Tamil Nadu.

26. Name any four cereal crops of India.
Answer: (a) Wheat (b) Rice (c) Millet (d) Maize

27. Name the state which is the leading producers of the following millets.
(i) Jowar (Ii) Bajra (ili) Ragi
Answer: (i) Jowar – Maharashtra.
(ii) Bajra – Rajasthan.
(iii) Ragi – Kamataka.s

28. What is the importance of millets Mention any two points.
Answer: (i) They have very high nutritional value.
(ii) Maize and bajra is used as fodder.

29. Name a millet which is a rain fed crop, mostly grown in the moist areas. Name the state which is the leading producer of that crop.

Answer: Jowar. Maharashtra is the largest producer of jowar.

30. Name a millet which is used both as food and fodder.
Answer: Maize.

31. Name the states which are the leading producers of maize.
Answer: Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh.

32. Which country is the largest producer of pulses in the world
Answer: India.

33. Name the major pulses of India.
Answer: Tur, moong, masur, peas and gram.

34. Why should the production of pulses be increased Give two reasons. [CBSE 2014]
Answer: (i) These are the major sources of protein for most of the people.
(ii) These plants help in restoring the fertility of the soil.

35. Why pulses are grown as rotation crop? Give two reasons.

Answer: (i) Pulses are grown as a rotation crop because these have the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil into nitrogenous compound. These help to maintain or restore soil fertility.
(ii) These need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions.

36. Name the most important pulses producing states of India.
Answer: (a) M. P (b) U. P (c) Rajasthan (d) Maharashtra

37. Which country is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world
Answer: Brazil.

38. Which are the major sugarcane producing states of India
Answer: U. P, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

39. Name the by products of sugar industry.
Answer: Jaggery, khandsari and molasses.

40. Which country is the largest producer of oilseeds in the world
Answer: India.

41. Name some major oilseeds of India.
Answer: Groundnut, sesamum, rapeseed, mustard and linseed.

42. Which is the most important oilseed of India Name the state which is the largest producer of that oil seed.
Answer: Groundnut. Andhra Pradesh is the leading producer.

43. Name a pulse crop which is grown both as a kharif and rabi crop.
Answer: Castor.

44. Name an oilseed which is grown as kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south.
Answer: Sesamum.

45. Name any four plantation crops.
Answer: (a) Rubber (b) Tea (c) Coffee (d) Coconut

46. Name any two important beverage crops of India with major producers.
Answer: Tea – Assam; Coffee – Tamil Nadu

47. “High humidity is good for the cultivation of tea.” Why
Answer: High humidity helps in the development of tender leaves.

48. Which are the major tea producing states of India
Answer: Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

49. Name a variety of coffee which is produced in India.
Answer: The Arabica variety initially brought from Yemen.

50. What is horticulture
Answer: Intensive cultivation of vegetables, fruits and flowers is known as horticulture.

51. Name the rubber producing states of India.
Answer: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andaman and Nicobar.

52. Name any four fibre crops of India.
Answer: Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops of India.

53. What is sericulture [CBSE 2014]
Answer: Rearing of silkworms for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture.

54. Name a fibre crop which is obtained from cocoons of the silkworm.
Answer: Silk.

55. Name two cotton producing states of India. [CBSE 1999]
Answer: Maharashtra, Gujarat.

56. Which region is ideal for the cultivation of cotton
Answer: Black soil region of Deccan Trap is ideal for the cotton cultivation.

57. Name the states which are the leading producers of cotton.
Answer: Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.

58. Which fibre is known as the golden fibre
Answer: Jute.

59. Name the chief producer of jute in India.
Answer: West Bengal.

60. What is package technology What was its result

Answer: Under package technology combination or package of many improved methods of cultivation are adopted simultaneously in order to increase agricultural production. This leads to ‘Green Revolution’.

62. What is White Revolution
Answer: Increase in production of milk is known as white revolution. It is also known as operation flood.

63. Name two schemes introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers.
Answer: (i) Kissan Credit Card (KCC) were introduced, (ii) Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) was also introduced.

64. ‘The decline share of agriculture in the GDP is a matter of serious concern’. Give reason.
Answer: Because any decline and stagnation in agriculture will lead to a decline in other spheres of the economy having wider implications for the society.

65. What is Gross Cultivated Area

Answer: The net sown area and the land cultivated more than once, together make gross cultivated area.

66. Name any two dry crops
Answer: Jawar, bajra.

67. What is dry land farming
Answer: It is a type of farming which is practised in scanty rainfall areas and where irrigation facilities are inadequate, e.g., cultivation of jowar and bajra.

68. What is wet land farming
Answer: It is a type of farming which is practised in high rainfall and irrigated areas, e.g., cultivation of rice and sugarcane.

69. What is net sown area
Answer: The land cultivated in a year is known as net sown area.

70. Name two natural fibres except cotton. [CBSE 1994]
Answer: Jute and flax.

71. Name any four crops which are cultivated under shifting agriculture.
Answer: (a) Maize (b) Millet (c) Vegetables (d) Dry paddy

72. Why shifting agriculture is discouraged
Answer: (i) It leads to deforestation.
(ii) The per hectare yield is very low.

73. Which states are the major producers of jute in India
Answer: West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalya.

74. Name any three cash crops.
Answer: Rubber, tobacco and cotton.

75. How has climate made our land more valuable from the agricultural point of view Give two points.
Answer: (i) Due to wide climatic variations, all kinds of crops can be grown.

76. List two characteristics of Green Revolution.
Answer: (i) Increase in production of wheat and rice, (ii) Use of high yielding varieties of wheat and rice.

77. ‘Diversification of agriculture can be helpful for the Indian farmers.’ Explain.
Answer: (i) Most of the traditional crops like wheat and rice have very low market value as compare to fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers etc.
(ii) India’s diverse climate can be harnessed to grow a wide range of high value crops.
Marks each
(iii) This type of shifting allows nature to replenish the fertility of the soil through natural processes; land productivity in this.

Short Answer Type Questions

1. Define the following terms:
(i) Agriculture
(ii) Kharif Crop
(iii) Zaid Crop

Answer: (i) Agriculture : The art and science’4 of cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock including animal husbandry and forestry.
(ii) Kharif Crop : The Kharif season starts with the onset of the monsoon, i.e., June-July and continues till the beginning of winter, i.e, October-November.
(iii) Zaid Crop : These are crops which are sown between the rabi and kharif crops. Watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber and vegetables are some examples of the zaid crops.

2. Mention any three features of slash, and burn agriculture.

Answer: (i) Farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their family.
(ii) When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.
(ii) India has tropical climate with ample sunshine. So, we have a long growing season.

3. Diversification of agriculture can be helpful for the Indian farmers. Explain.

Answer: (i) Most of the traditional crops like wheat and rice have very low market value as compare to fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers etc.
(ii) India’s diverse climate can be harnessed to grow a wide range of high value crops.
Marks each
(iii) This type of shifting allows nature to replenish the fertility of the soil through natural processes; land productivity in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer does not use fertilisers or other modem inputs.

4. What is commercial farming Mention its major features. [CBSE 2014]

Answer: Commercial farming is a type of farming under which farmers grow crops to sell in the market. Features:-
(i) Farmers use higher doses of modern inputs, e.g., high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides etc.
(ii) The per hectare productivity is very high.
(iii) Rice, sugarcane, tea, coffee are the major crops which are grown under this.

5. (i) What is a plantation agriculture
(ii) Mention any four plantation crops produced in India.
(iii) Mention any two factors which play an important role in the development of plantations.

Answer: (i) Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming under which a single crop is grown on a large area.
(ii) Tea, coffee, rubber and sugarcane.
(iii) (a) Developed network of transport and communication connecting the plantation areas.
(b) Developed market.

6. Name the cropping seasons of India with one crop of each season.

Answer: (i) Rabi – Wheat
(ii) Kharif – Rice
(iii) Zaid – Watermelon

7. (i) What are rabi crops’ Give four examples.
Or
Mention growing and harvesting periods of rabi crops. [CBSE 2008] 
(ii) Mention any two important factors responsible for the success of the rabi crops.

Answer: (i) The crops which are grown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June are known as rabi crop. *
Examples : Wheat, Barley, Peas and Gram, (ii) (a) Availability of precipitation during the winter months due to the western temperate cyclone.
(b) The success of Green Revolution in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.

8. With reference to kharif crop, answer the following questions :
(i) When are kharif crops sown
(ii) Name any four states which are the main producers of kharif crops.
(iii) Name some kharif crops.

Answer: (i) These are sown with the onset of monsoon.
(ii) (a) Assam
(b) West Bengal
(c) Andhra Pradesh
(d) Tamil Nadu
(iii) Rice, millet, maize, groundnut, jute and cotton.

9. Give any three features of zaid crops. [CBSE 2014]

Answer: (i) The crops which are grown in between rabi and the kharif crops are known as zaid crops.
(ii) These crops are of short duration.
(iii) Watermelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops are most important examples of zaid crops.

10. Mention any four features of the primitive subsistence farming. [CBSE Comp. (O) 2008, 14]

Answer: (i) Primitive subsistence agriculture is practised on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks with the help of family/community labour.
(ii) This type of farming depends upon the monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions for the crops to be grown.
(iii) Under this, farmers produce for self-consumption.
(iv) Per hectare availability of land is very low.

11. Mention any three characteristics of the Shifting Agriculture.

Answer: (i) The patch of land is cleared by cutting and burning the trees.
(ii) Farming depends upon monsoons, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of the other environmental conditions.
(iii) Per hectare productivity is very low as farmers do not use manure, fertilisers or other modem inputs.

12. What is Intensive Subsistence Farming Mention its two features.

Answer: This type of agriculture is practised in those areas or regions, or countries where the cultivable land is limited and the density of population is very high. Major features of intensive agriculture are :
(i) Per hectare yield is high.
(ii) Farmers apply modern inputs like fertilisers, pesticides, high yielding varieties of seeds, etc., to obtain high yield.

13. Name the important millets grown in India. Mention any two features of millets. 

Answer: (i) Jowar, bajra and ragi are the three important millets grown in India.
(ii) Millets are also known as coarse growns.
(iii) Most of millets have a very high nutritional value.

14. Name the two most important food crops of India. Name any states where they are produced. [CBSE 2013]

Answer: (i) The most important food crops of India are rice and wheat.
(ii) Major areas where rice is grown are : Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh.
(iii) Major areas where wheat is grown are : Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

15. Explain any two geographical conditions required for the cultivation of pulses. Name any two important pulses producing states. [CBSE 2013]

Answer: Geographical conditions required for the cultivation of pulses :
(i) Pulses need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions.
(ii) Temperature is required from 25°C to 30°C.
(iii) Pulses grow well in the areas of 50-75 cm rainfall.
(iv) These can be grown on all types of soil but dry light soil is the best suited.
(v) Pulses are leguminous crops which help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air. Thus, pulses are mostly grown in rotation with other crops.
Major pulses producing states are : Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Maharashtra Karnataka.

16. With reference to millets, answer the following questions :
(a) What are the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of millets
(b) Name any two states which are the leading producers of millets.

Answer: (a) (i) Millets need very low rainfall.
(ii) They need sandy and shallow black soil, (b) Rajasthan and Maharashtra are the leading producers of millets.

17. Name two important beverage crops grown in India. Who introduced these crops to the country What type of agriculture is followed for their cultivation [CBSE 2013]

Answer: (i) Tea and coffee are the two important beverage crops grown in India.
(ii) Tea was initially introduced by the British in India. The Arabica variety of coffee initially brought from Yemen is produced in the country.
(iii) Plantation agriculture is followed for their cultivation.

18. What is agricultural term used for cultivation of fruits and vegetables Mention its three features with reference to India. [CBSE 2014]

Answer: Horticulture Features :
(i) India is one of the major producer of fruits and vegetables in the world.
(ii) It is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits.
(iii) India produces about 13% of the world’s vegetable.

19. With reference to fibre crops, answer the following questions :
(i) Name the four fibre crops grown in India.
(ii) Name the fibre crop which is known as golden fibre.

Answer: (i) Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India.
(ii) Jute.

20. With reference to oilseeds, answer the following questions :
(i) Name a kharif oilseed. Also mention the three states which are the leading producers of the crop mentioned by you.
(ii) Name any two rabi oilseeds.

Answer: (i) Groundnut. Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Gujarat are the leading producers of groundnuts.
(ii) Linseed and mustard.

21. Which fibre is known as the ‘golden fibre’? Why is the fibre named by you losing the market?

Answer: Jute. It is losing market because :
(i) High cost of production.
(ii) Cheap substitutes are available.
(iii) Bangladesh giving a tough competition.

22. What was Comprehensive Land Development Programme? 

Answer: Under Comprehensive Land Development programme, institutional and technical reforms were introduced to increase the agricultural production.
Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease, establishment of grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction.

23. Mention any three steps which have been taken by the government to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.

Answer: (i) Announcement of the minimum support price.
(ii) Opening of regulated markets.
(iii) Announcement of procurement price.
(iv) Encouraging cooperation marketing.

24. Name any four factors that have distorted the cropping pattern in India.

Answer: (i) High minimum support price.
(ii) High subsidies for various inputs.
(iii) Committed FCI purchases.
(iv) Assured means of irrigation.

25. Name the state which is the leading producer of.rubber. Give two reasons.

Answer: Kerala leads in the production of rubber because :
(i) Rubber requires high temperature and heavy rainfall throughout the year.
(ii) It requires cheap labour which is easily available in Kerala.

26. Write two differences between intensive and extensive farming. [CBS£ 2014]
Answer: 

Extensive AgricultureIntensive Agriculture
It is practised in areas with low population density, where the labour is scarce.It is practised in areas with high population density.
The size of and land holdings are large.The size of land holdings is small but the cultivation is intense.
Due to large land holdings and scarcity of labourers, most of the work is generally done by machines.Though, cultivation is done on the scientific lines, much of the work is labour intensive.
This type of cultivation is practised in Russia.This kind of farming is practised in the Mediterranean regions.

27. With reference to oilseeds, answer the following questions :
(a) Which is the main oilseed produced in India
(b) Which state is the leading producer of that oilseed
(c) Name two oilseeds which are grown as rabi as well as kharif crop.

Answer: (a) Groundnut (b) Andhra Pradesh (c) Sesamum and Castor.

28. What is the importance of rubber for the Indian economy

Answer: (i) Rubber is an important industrial raw material.
(ii) It is used in automobile industry.
(iii) It is also the major input for the footwear industry.
(iv) India earns foreign exchange by exporting raw rubber and rubber products.

Long Answer Type Questions

1. Why is agriculture called the mainstay of Indian economy
Or
What is the importance of agriculture in Indian economy

Answer: (i) Agriculture is the mainstay of Indian economy because about 60% of our population depends directly or indirectly on agriculture.
(ii) It provides raw materials to the industries.
(iii) India earns foreign exchange by exporting agricultural products.
(iv) It contributes about 29% to the Gross Domestic Product.
(v) It provides food to over 1210.2 million population.

2. What is primitive (subsistence) farming Write any four features of subsistence farming. [CBSE Comp. (O) 2008]
Or
Why is subsistence agriculture still practised in certain parts of the country Give four reasons. [CBSE Sept. 2010] 

Answer: A farming in which the main production is consumed by the farmer’s household is known as subsistence farming.
Features :
(i) Old technology and traditional implements are used.
(ii) Agricultural fields are small and farmers possess scattered land holdings.
(iii) Most of the farmers are poor, and do not use fertilisers and HYV seeds.
(iv) The overall productivity is very low. *

3. What is intensive farming Write some features of intensive farming. [CBSE Sept. 2013]
Or
Why is there enormous pressure on land in Intensive Subsistence Farming [CBSE 2013]

Answer: Intensive farming : It is a type of farming in which the agricultural production is increased by using scientific methods and better agricultural inputs.
Features :
(i) HYV seeds and modern inputs are used to increase the production.
(ii) More than one crop is cultivated during a year.
(iii) It is practised in thickly populated areas.
(iv) The per hectare yield is very high.

4. What is plantation agriculture Write some features of the plantation agriculture. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Or
Describe any four characteristics of plantation agriculture. [CBSE Comp. (D) 2008] 

Answer: This is a type of agriculture which involves growing and processing of a single cash crop purely meant for sale. Rubber, tea, coffee, spices, coconut and fruits are some of the important crops which come under the category of plantation agriculture.

Features :
(i) It is a single crop farming.
(ii) It is a capital intensive farming, i.e., a huge amount of capital is required.
(iii) It needs vast estates, managerial ability, technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilisers, good transport facilities and a factory for processing.
(iv) This type of agriculture has developed in areas of north-eastern India, Sub-Himalayan region, West Bengal and Nilgiri.

5. What is shifting agriculture Why shifting agriculture is being discouraged

Answer: It is that type of agriculture in which farmers clear the forest land and use it for growing crops. The crops are grown for 2 to 3 years, and when the fertility of the soil decreases, the farmer shifts to a new land. Dry paddy, maize, millets and vegetables are the crops commonly grown in this type of farming.
It is being discouraged because :
(i) This leads to deforestation.
(ii) The per hectare yield is very low.

6. Explain the favourable geographical conditions required for the production of rice. Also mention the major rice producing states of India. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013]

Answer: (i) Temperature : It is a kharif crop which requires high temperature, and high humidity. This means monthly temperature of about 25°C with minor variation during the sowing, growing and harvesting season, is suitable for the growth of the plant.

(ii) Rainfall : Rice needs abundant rainfall, i.e., more than 100 cm. It can grow in areas with less rainfall, but with assured irrigation. Rice is grown in Punjab and Haryana with the help of irrigation.

(iii) Soil : Rice can grow in a variety of soils including silts, loams and gravels, but it is grown best in alluvial soil with a sub-soil of impervious clay. Areas of production : Rice is cultivated in almost all the states of India, but most of its cultivation is concentrated in the river valleys, deltas of rivers and the coastal plains.

The main rice producing states are West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Odisha, Karnataka, Assam and Maharashtra.

7. What type of climate is required for the cultivation of wheat Name any four important wheat producing states of India. [CBSE Sept. 2012]

Answer: (i) Temperature : Cool and moist weather during growth, and warm and dry climate during ripening is needed.
(ii) Rainfall : 50-75 cm rainfall is required. Rainfall is necessary and beneficial, 15 days after sowing, and 15 days before ripening. A few light winter showers or assured irrigation ensures a bumper harvest.
(iii) Soil : Light domat (loamy) soil is required. It can also be grown in black soil. Important producers : Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh are the main producers of wheat.

8. Describe three geographical requirements for maize cultivation – temperature, rainfall and soil. Name three maize producing states of India. [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Answer: (i) Temperature : It grows well under temperature between 21°C and 27°C.
(ii) Rainfall : It grows well in areas of 50¬100 cm of rain, and in areas of less rain, if grown under irrigation.
(iii) Soil : It requires well drained alluvial fertile soil or red loams free from coarse materials. Important produces : Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh are the leading producers.

9. Describe the temperature and climatic conditions required for the cultivation of sugarcane. Name two leading producers. [CBSE Comp. 2008,09(D), 2010(0)]
Or
What geographical conditions are required for the cultivation of sugarcane Name two largest producing states of sugarcane. [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Answer: (i) Temperature : Sugarcane needs hot and humid climate with temperature ranging between 21°C to 27°C. Very high temperature is harmful for its growth, while low temperature slows its growth. It cannot withstand frost. Cool temperature is needed at the time of ripening.
(ii) Rainfall : It grows best in areas receiving 75 cm to 100 cm of rainfall. Too heavy rainfall results in low sugar content.
(iii) Soil : Sugarcane grows on well-drained fertile soil. It can grow on a variety of soils including black, alluvial, loamy and reddish loam.

Sugarcane :
But the best soil is the alluvial soil of the Ganga Plain and the black soil of southern India. Sugarcane exhausts the fertility of the soil. Hence, the use of manure is essential to ensure high yields.
Areas of Production :
Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of sugarcane. The other states in the Ganga-Plain are Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.

10. Name the most important beverage crop of India. Describe the suitable climatic conditions required for its growth. Also mention the major states producing that crop. [CBSE 2010(0)]
Or
Describe any three geographical conditions required for tea cultivation. Name any two producing states of tea. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2012]
Or
Name the important beverage crop introduced by the British in India. Explain the geographical conditions needed for its cultivation. Write any two important states where it is grown. [CBSE 2013]
Or
Describe any four ‘ geographical conditions required for the growth of tea. Mention the two major tea producing states of South India. [CBSE 2012]

Answer: Tea is the most important beverage crop of India.
Climatic conditions :
(i) Temperature : The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub tropical climate. Tea bushes require warm and moist, frost-free climate all through the year. Tea bushes need temperature of more than 25°C.
(ii) Rainfall : Tea plant needs heavy rainfall ranging between 150 cm to 250 cm. The rainfall should be well distributed throughout the year.
(iii) Soil : The plant requires a light loamy soil. The soil should be rich in humus and iron content. Tea is a soil exhausting crop, so frequent use of chemical fertilisers and manure is essential.

Producers :
Major tea-producing states are Assam, West Bengal, (Hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri Districts), Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Apart from these, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura are also tea producing states in the country.

11. Explain the favourable climatic conditions required for the production of rubber. Also mention the states producing rubber. [CBSE Comp. (D) 2008, 2008 (F), Sept. 2010, 2011, 2012]

Answer: (i) Temperature : It is a tree of the tropical forests, and requires a constant high temperature above 25°C. Thus, the rubber tree cannot be grown at high altitudes.
(ii) Rainfall : It needs heavy and well distributed rainfall throughout the year. The plant needs rainfall more than 200 cm.
(iii) Soil: The plant requires alluvial or laterite soil. Areas of Production :
India ranks fifth among the world’s natural rubber producers. The state of Kerala is the largest producer of rubber in India. Kerala accounts for about 91% of the total area under rubber plantation. Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and The Andaman and Nicobar islands including the Garo Hills of the Himalayas are the other producers.

12. Explain the climatic conditions required for the production of cotton. Also mention the major cotton producing states of India.

Answer: (i) Temperature : Cotton needs a warm climate. Summer temperatures of 21°C to 27°C, and abundant sunshine is necessary during the growth of the plant. A long growing period of atleast 210 frostfree days is also necessary for the plant to mature.
(ii) Rainfall : Moderate to light rainfall is adequate for cotton cultivation. Rainfall ranging between 50 cm to 80 cm is adequate. The crop can be successfully grown in areas of low rainfall with the help of irrigation.
(iii) Soil : Cotton can be grown on a variety of soils but the black cotton soil of the Deccan Plateau which has the ability to retain moisture is most suitable. It also grows well in alluvial soils of the Satluj-Ganga Plain.

Areas of Production :
The leading cotton producing states are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Punjab and Haryana grow the long staple variety.

13. Which crop is known as the “golden fibre” Explain two geographical conditions essential for the cultivation of this crop. Mention any four uses. [CBSE 2012]
Or
What is known as ‘golden fibre’? Where is it grown in India and why Describe various uses of this fibre.[CBSE 2012]

Answer: (1) Jute is called golden fibre.
(2) Geographical conditions for its cultivation are as follows :
(i) Jute grows well in well-drained fertile soils of the flood plains where the soil is renewed every year.
(ii) High temperature is required during the time of growth.
(3) It grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains.
(4) Therefore, it is grown in West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya.
Uses : It can be used to manufacture gunny bags, mats, ropes, yam, carpets and other artifacts.

14. Differentiate between the commercial agriculture and the subsistence agriculture. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013]

Answer: 
Subsistence farming:
(i) Farming practices in which the entire crops are consumed by  the farmers and their family. They do not have any surplus to sell in the market.
(ii) Farms are small and fragmented.
(iii) food crops are cultivated mostly are cereals like  rice and wheat along with oil seeds, vegetables and sugarcane.
(iv) Old tools and implements are used by the farmers. There is a total absence of modern equipments like tractors  and farm inputs like chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.
(v) Depends on monsoon and there is greater use of manpower.

Commercial farming:
(i) In this  Farming practice most of the  goods produced are mainly sold  in  the market for earning money.
(ii) Landholdings are large and cash crops are cultivated to earn money from them.
(iii) Major commercial crops grown in different parts of India are cotton, jute, sugarcane groundnut.
(iv) In this type of  farming, farmers use inputs like irrigation, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides and high yielding varieties of seeds better.
(v) By the use of modern equipments like tractors e.tc .less  manpower is used .

14. Name any four oilseeds produced in India. What is their economic importance
Or
Name any four oilseeds produced in India. Explain the importance of oilseeds in our day to day life. [CBSE 2012]

Answer: Main oilseeds produced in India are :
(i) Groundnut (ii) Mustard
(iii) Coconut (iv) Sesamum

Economic importance of oilseeds :
(i) Most of these are edible, and used as a cooking medium in the form of oil.
(ii) Extracted oil is also used as raw material for manufacturing large number of items like paints, varnishes, hydrogenated oil, soaps, perfumes, lubricants, etc.
(iii) Oil cake which is the by product, obtained after the extraction of oil from oilseeds is an excellent cattle feed.
(iv) Oil cake is also used as a fertilisers.

15. Which states are the leading producers of the following horticultural crops
(i) Mangoes
(ii) Bananas
(iii) Grapes
(iv) Apples and Apricots

Answer: (i) Mangoes : Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
(ii) Bananas : Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
(iii) Grapes : Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
(iv) Apples and Apricots : Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.

16. “Today Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition.” What are the various factors responsible for this situation
Or
Why is the growth rate in agriculture decelerating [CBSE 2010(F)]

Answer: (i) The Indian government is going ahead with reduction in the public investment in the agriculture sector particularly in irrigation, power, rural roads, market and mechanisation.
(ii) Subsidy on fertilisers is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production.
(iii) Reduction in import duties on agricultural products have proved detrimental to agriculture in the country.
(iv) Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a downfall in the employment in agriculture.

17. Name any three features of Indian agriculture. [CBSE 2013]
Or
What are the factors responsible for the backwardness of Indian agriculture
Or
Describe any four features of agriculture in India. [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Answer: (I) Over dependence on monsoon : Major portion of the cropped area still depends upon monsoons for irrigation. Only one- third of the cropped area is under assured irrigation.
(ii) Subsistence agriculture : (For this, refer Question No. 2, Long Answer Type Questions)
(iii) Small and scattered land holding : Due to the increasing population, the per hectare availability of land is very low. The Jand holding is also scattered.
(iv) Lack of inputs : Most of the farmers are poor so they do not use fertilisers and high yielding varieties of seeds.

18. Describe various technological and institutional reforms which led to the Green and White Revolution in India. [CBSE Sept. 2012]

Answer: No description regarding white Revolution. Green Revolution means revolution in the field of agricultural production due to the introduction of various technological and institutional reforms.

Factors responsible :
(i) Agriculture was given the top priority in Five Year Plans.
(ii) The development of HYV seeds of wheat in the early 60s, and those of rice in 70s laid the foundation of the Green Revolution in India.
(iii) Several schemes for irrigation were undertaken, and arid and semi-arid areas were brought under cultivation.
(iv) Collectivisation, consolidation of holdings, abolition of the Zamindari system, etc., were given top priority to bring about institutional reforms in the country after independence.
(v) Cropped insurance scheme was launched by the government to protect the farmers against losses caused by crop failure on account of natural calamities like drought, flood, hailstorm, cyclone, fire, etc.
(vi) Easy availability of capital or investment, input through a well knit network of rural banking and small scale co-operative societies with low interest rates were other facilities provided to the farmers for the modernisation of agriculture.

19. How is the government helping the Indian farmers in increasing their agricultural production Explain any four points.
Or
Describe any four reforms brought in the Indian agriculture after independence through the efforts of the Indian government. [CBSE 2010(F), Sept. 2010]
Or
What initiatives have been taken by government to ensure an increase in agricultural production [CBSE Sept. 2011]

Answer: (i) Institutional Reforms : To increase production in agriculture, the government has introduced some institutional measures which include collectivisation, consolidation of holding, cooperation and abolition of Zamindari system.

(ii) Comprehensive Land Development Programme : In the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated, which included both institutional and technical reforms. Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease, establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction.

(iii) Subsidies : The government is providing huge subsidies on the agricultural inputs. At present, maximum subsidy is being given on fertilizers.

(iv) HYV Seeds and Agriculture Universities : In order to enhance production, the government is providing HYV seeds to the farmers. Special seminars are also being held. Many new agricultural universities have been established.

(v) Public Procurement System and Agriculture Price Commission : Agriculture Price Commission has been set up which declares the prices of agricultural products in advance so that the farmers may know what they are going to get for their agricultural products. Government agencies like the F.C.I. (Food Corporation of India) purchase the agricultural products from the farmers.

(vi) Crop Insurance and Agricultural Finance : As we are aware that the Indian agriculture mainly depends on nature, so high risk crops are also being insured. The government has established special banks like the NABARD to provide agricultural loans to farmers.

20. (i) Mention the climatic conditions required for the growth of Bajra.
(ii) Mention any four states which are the main producers of this crop.

Answer: Climatic conditions required for the growth of Bajra :
(i) It grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil.
(ii) It needs dry climatic conditions. Producers : Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.

21. Give an account of oil-seeds in India. State the importance of groundnut and name the states where it is grown. [CBSE 2013]

Answer: (1) (i) India is the largest producer of oil-seeds in the world.
(ii) Different types of oil-seeds are grown covering approximately 12 per cent of the total cropped area of India.
(iii) India is an important producer of groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum, soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower.
(iv) Most of these are edible and used as cooking medium and some of these are also used as raw materials in the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.

(2) (i) Groundnut is a kharif crop and accounts for about half of the major oilseeds produced in the country.
(ii) Andhra Pradesh, is the largest producer of groundnut. It is also grown in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

22. Why the Indian fanners should grow more pulses

Answer: (i) India is the one of the largest consumer of pulses as these are the major source of protein in a vegetarian diet.
(ii) Pulses need less moisture and can survive even in dry conditions.
(iii) Pulses are leguminous crops as these help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.

21. Which fibre crop is known as golden fibres Why is the golden fibre losing its market Why the products produced from golden fibre be promoted

Answer: Jute is known as golden fibre. Jute products are loosing market because of high cost. Jute products should be promoted because these are eco-friendly.

22. Explain any four factors which have hindered the pace of agricultural development in India.

Answer: (i) Overcrowding in agriculture : The real problem of Indian agriculture is that there are too many people who depend on agriculture. Since 1901, the proportion of people dependent on agriculture has almost remained constant, i.e., 70%.
(ii) Problem of inputs : Indian agriculture suffered because of the inadequacy of finance, seeds, fertilizers, marketing, transportation, etc.
(iii) Size of landholdings : The average size of holding in India is very low, less than 2 hectares or 5 acres. Not only agricultural holdings are small, but they are also fragmented. In certain parts of the country, plots of land have become so small that it is impossible to use modern machinery.
(iv) Over dependence on nature : In spite of the development of sources of irrigation, most of the farmers in large parts of the country still depend upon monsoon and natural fertility in order to carry on their agriculture.

23. “The decline share of agriculture in the GDP is a matter of serious concern”. Explain. [CBSE 2012]

Answer: (i) More than half the population of India’s work force is employed by the farm sector.
(ii) Any decline in the share of agriculture means low production of foodgrains this may lead to food shortage.
(iii) Any decline and stagnation in agriculture will lead to a decline in other spheres of the economy having wider implications for society.

You cannot copy content of this page