Nationalism in India Class 10 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers

CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Extra Questions and Answers is available here. Students can learn and download PDF of these questions for free. These extra questions and answers are prepared by our expert teachers as per the latest NCERT textbook and guidelines. Learning these questions will help you to score excellent marks in the board exams.

Nationalism in India Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 2

Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. What is the meaning of ‘Begar’? [CBSE (AI) 2017]

Answer: Meaning of Begar: Labour that villager was forced to contribute without any payment.

2. Name the writer of the novel ‘Anandamath.’ [CBSE Delhi 2017]

Answer: Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

3. Who financed the defence expenditure of World War I?

Answer: War was financed by war loans and increasing taxes. Customs duties were raised and income tax was introduced.

4. Why were people in rural areas angry with Britishers?

Answer: There was forced recruitment of soldiers in rural areas. Crops failed resulting in acute storage of food, accompanied by influenza epidemic.

5. When did Mahatma Gandhi return to India?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915. He had come back from South Africa.

6. Explain the ‘Idea of Satyagraha’.
OR
What is meant by Satyagraha? [CBSE (AI) 2017]

Answer: The idea of Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for the truth.

7. How can battles be fought with Satyagraha?

Answer: Idea of Satyagraha suggested that if the cause is true, if the struggle is against injustice, then physical force is not necessary to fight the oppressor. Without being aggressive, battle could be won.

8. What was ‘Champaran Movement’?

Answer: It was the first satyagrahi movement that took place in 1916, in which Mahatma Gandhi travelled to Champaran to inspire the indigo planters to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.

9. Why did Kheda farmers protest against Britishers?

Answer: Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue and demanded that revenue collection be released.

10. What was Rowlatt Act of 1919?

Answer: It gave the British government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

11. What was Mahatma Gandhi’s reaction on ‘Rowlatt Act’?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws, which would start with a hartal on 6th April.

12. How did people react to Rowlatt Act?

Answer: Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops and shops were closed down. Alarmed by the popular upsurge, British started arresting the nationalists.

13. Why was Martial Law imposed in Amritsar?

Answer: Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Mahatma Gandhi was not allowed to enter Delhi. On 10th April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession, provoking widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations, so Martial Law was imposed.

14. Why did General Dyer fire on innocent people gathered peacefully in Jallianwala Bagh?

Answer: His object was, as he declared, was to ‘produce a moral effect’ and to create the feeling of terror and awe in the minds of Satyagrahis.

15. What did British do to repress the Rowlatt Satyagrahis?

Answer: Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets and do Salam to all Sahibs. People were flogged and villages were bombed.

16. Why did Mahatma Gandhi join Khilafat issue?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi now felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue.

17. Explain the Khilafat Movement.

Answer: Turkey was defeated in World War I and there were rumors that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on Ottoman Emperor—the spiritual head of the Islamic world. To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay.

18. Who were the two main leaders of the Khilafat Movement?

Answer: Two young brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali started Khilafat Movement.

19. What resolution was passed at Calcutta session of Congress in September 1920?

Answer: At the Calcutta session of the congress in September 1920, Gandhiji convinced other leaders of the need to start a Non-cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as Swaraj.

20. Name the famous book written by Mahatma Gandhi. [CBSE (AI) 2017]

Answer: Famous book written by Mahatma Gandhi is ‘Hind Swaraj’.

21. Why many Congress leaders were reluctant to boycott council elections?

Answer: They were reluctant to boycott council elections scheduled for November 1920, as they feared that if they would join Non-cooperation Movement, it might lead to popular violence.

22. What decision was made in Congress session at Nagpur in December 1920?

Answer: At the congress session at Nagpur in December 1920, a compromise was worked out and the Non-cooperation Movement was adopted.

23. Why were Council elections not boycotted in Madras?

Answer: The Council Elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the justice party, the party of non-Brahmans felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power — something that usually only Brahmans had access to.

24. What was the impact of reduction of imports?

Answer: As the boycott movement spread and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

25. Under which agreement the Indian ‘Depressed Classes’ got reserved seats in the Provincial and Central Legislative Councils in 1932? [CBSE Delhi 2017]

Answer: Poona pact

26. Why did people start buying mill cloth instead of Khadi?

Answer: Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy the Khadi cloth.

27. Why did boycott of British Institutions pose a problem?

Answer: For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian Institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. But these were slow to come up and teachers and the students started trickling back to government schools.

28. Why did Awadh Movement of Peasants begin?

Answer: The movement was against talukdars and landlords, who demanded from peasants exorbitant rents and a variety of other taxes. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords farms without any payment.

29. What were the demands of peasants in Awadh?

Answer: The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords.

30. How was ‘Oudh Kisan Sabha’ formed?

Answer: In June 1920, Jawaharlal Nehru began going around the villages in Awadh, talking to the villagers and trying to understand their grievances. By October, the Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others.

31. How was Awadh movement materialised?

Answer: As the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted and grain hoards were taken over.

32. Which movement of Andhra Pradesh did Mahatma Gandhi join in NCM?

Answer: In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s—not a form of struggle that the Congress could approve.

33. Why was this movement started in Andhra?

Answer: Here in Gudem Hills, the colonial government had closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits. This enraged the hill people.

34. What do you know about Alluri Sitaram Raju?

Answer: Alluri Sitaram Raju was the leader of Andhra Movement. He claimed that he had a variety of special powers: he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people, he could even survive bullet shots.

35. To what extent was Raju inspired by Mahatma Gandhi?

Answer: Raju talked of the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi, said he was inspired by the Non-cooperation Movement and persuaded people to wear khadi and give up drinking. But at the same time, he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force and not non-violence.

36. What action was taken by the tribals of Gudem Hills in their movement?

Answer: The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.

37. What did freedom mean to plantation workers in Assam?

Answer: For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space, in which they were enclosed and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.

38. What was Inland Emigration Act of 1859?

Answer: Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission and in fact, they were rarely given such permission.

39. How did plantation workers of Assam react to NCM call?

Answer: When they heard of the Non-cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home. They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages.

40. What was the tale of Assam plantation workers when they left?

Answer: They, however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.

41. What was Chauri Chaura Movement?

Answer: It took place in Gorakhpur, Chauri Chaura, when a peaceful demonstrations in a bazaar turned into a violent clash with the police. Then those demonstrators went to the police station, locked the policemen inside and put the police station on fire, burning about 11 policemen alive. Hearing of the incidence, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Non-cooperation Movement.

42. Why Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off Non-cooperation Movement?

Answer: In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-cooperation Movement. He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they could be ready for mass struggles.

43. Who formed Swaraj Party?

Answer: C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics.

44. Which two factors shaped Indian Politics towards the late 1920s?

Answer: (i) The effects of worldwide economic depression.
(ii) Agricultural prices began to fall from 1926 and collapsed after 1930.

45. Why was countryside in turmoil by 1930?

Answer: As the demand for agricultural goods fell and exports declined, peasants found it difficult to sell their harvests and pay their revenue. By 1930, the countryside was in turmoil.

46. Who was Sir John Simon?

Answer: Sir John Simon came from England and sent by new Tory government of Britain and forced a statutory commission to look into functioning of the constitutional system in India.

47. Why was Simon Commission rejected in India?

Answer: The problem was that the commission did not have a single Indian member. They were all British.

48. How was Simon Commission greeted in India?

Answer: When Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, he was greeted with the slogan, ‘Go back Simon’. All parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations.

49. Why was demand for abolition of Salt tax made?

Answer: Salt was something consumed by the rich and poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food. The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production, Mahatma Gandhi declared, revealed the most oppressive face of British rule.

50. How long was Dandi March and how much time did it take?

Answer: It was over 240 miles. Gandhiji walked for 10 miles a day and took 24 days to reach Dandi.

51. How did Mahatma Gandhi declare Civil Disobedience Movement?

Answer: On 6th April, Mahatma Gandhi along with his 78 followers and many other reached Dandi coast and ceremonially violated law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM).

52. Why did rich peasant communities join CDM?

Answer: They were hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices. As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government revenue demand. And the refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread resentment.

53. How did poor peasants join CDM?

Answer: Poor peasants were not interested in the lowering of the revenue demand. As the depression continued and cash income dwindled, the small tenants found it difficult to pay their rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted.

54. How did Business classes relate to the CDM?

Answer: They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports. They now reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities.

55. Which organisations did business classes form?

Answer: To organise business interests, Indian merchants and industrialists formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI).

56. Name some prominent Industrialists of that time.

Answer: Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G.D. Birla.

57. In what way women participated in CDM?

Answer: They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.

58. What was ‘Poona Pact’?

Answer: Poona Pact gave the Depressed Classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils but they were to be voted in by the general elections.

59. What was Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s proposal for Muslims?

Answer: Jinnah, one of the leaders of the Muslim league, was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates, if muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces of Bengal and Punjab.

60. Who created the first image of ‘Bharat Mata’?

Answer: The first image was created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.

61. Who was Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay? He was a Bengali poet, writer & a journalist.

Answer: He wrote ‘Vande Matram’ as a hymn to motherland. Later it was included in his novel ‘Anandamath’ and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal.

62. How was Bharat Mata depicted in the painting of Abanindranath Tagore?

Answer: In his painting, Bharat Mata was portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual.

63. What kind of Indian flag was introduced during Swadeshi Movement?

Answer: A tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses, representing eight provinces of British India and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.

64. What changes were brought in Indian flag by Mahatma Gandhi?

Answer: In 1921, Gandhiji had designed the swaraj flag. It was again a tricolor (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.

65. How was reinterpretation of Indian History used as a symbol of Nationalism?

Answer: The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves. In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievement. The Nationalist histories urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

66. Who wrote the song ‘Vande Mataram’? [CBSE (F) 2017]

Answer: “Vande Mataram” was written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.

67. By what means does hand spun khadi provide large scale employment to weavers? [CBSE Sample Question 2017]

Answer: It provides large scale employment to weavers as it is a cottage industry, can be set up at home.

Short Answer Type Questions

1. What was Satyagraha Name any two places where Satyagraha was launched by Gandhiji.
Or
Name the two main ‘Satyagraha’ movements organised by Mahatma Gandhi successfully in favour of peasants in 1916 and 1917.
[CBSE 2008 (D), March 2011] 

Answer: (i) Satyagraha was a non-violent method of mass agitation against the oppressor. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
(a) Champaran : Gandhiji launched the Satyagraha to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
(b) Kheda : He launched the Kheda Satyagraha to support the peasants who were not in a position to pay the revenue due to crop failure.

2. Who was the writer of the book, ‘Hind Swaraj’. What was the theme of the book?
Or
Explain the ideas of Gandhiji as he expressed in the famous book ‘Hind Swaraj’ regarding Non-cooperation. [CBSE 2012]

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi wrote the Hindi Swaraj. In the book, Gandhiji declared that the British rule was established in India with the
cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation.
If Indians refused to cooperate, the British rule in India would collapse within a year, and Swaraj would be established.

3. Mention any four factors which were responsible in arousing the spirit of nationalism in India.

Answer: (i) Political unification of the country under the Britishers.
(ii) Destruction of India’s old social and economic system.
(iii) Development of modern trade and industry.
(iv) The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups.

4. What was the impact of the First World War on India [CBSE 2015]
Or
Explain new economic and political situations created in India during the First World War. [CBSE 2008 (O)]
Or
What was the impact of the First World War on the economic conditions in India? [CBSE March 2011, 2013 (D)]

Answer: The War created a new economic and political situation :
(i) It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes, customs duties were raised, and income tax introduced.
(ii) Through the war years, prices increased – doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardships for the common people.
(iii) Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.

5. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nation wide ‘Satyagraha’ against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919 Explain any three reasons. [CBSE 2010 2014(0) (D) 2015 (D)] 
Or
What was the Rowlatt Act How it affected the National Movement

Answer: (i) Rowlatt Act was passed through the Imperial Legislative Council on a report of the Sedition Committee, headed by Justice Rowlatt.
(ii) It was the black act which gave the government and the police to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without tried for two years.
(iii) The Act was passed despite the united opposition of the Indian members of the Council.
This Act became one of the factors due to which Gandhiji launched Non-Cooperation Movement.

6. What were the three local issues in which Gandhiji experimented his technique of Satyagraha during the years 1917-1918 How were these issues resolved [CBSE March 2011]

Answer: The three local issues were Champaran satyagraha ; Kheda satyagraha and Ahmedabad satyagraha.
(i) Champaran Satyagraha. In the first experiment indigo farmers were encouraged to raise their voice against the oppressive policies of the British. Their demands were sanctioned.
(ii) Kheda Satyagraha : The second experiment was for the farmers who were unable to pay the revenue because of famine and plague epidemic. The recovery was waived off.
(iii) Ahmedabad Satyagraha : The third was for the mill workers who were protesting for better wages. The British had to increase the wages along with reforms in working conditions.

7. What was Rowlatt Act How did the Indians show their disapproval towards this Act     [CBSE March 2011]

Answer: Rowlatt Act was an oppressive act introduced by the British Government in 1919. It gave the Government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
Indian Disapproval
* Mahatma Gandhi reacted sharply and decided to launch a non violent civil disobedience against such unjust law.
* Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railways, workshops and shops closed down.
* Peaceful protest meeting were organised at Jallianwala Bagh-Amritsar.

8. Who launched the Khilafat Movement Why was the Movement launched [CBSE March 2012] 

Answer: Khilafat movement was a united struggle launched by Muhammed Ali and Shaukat Ali with the cooperation of Mahatma Gandhi.
The First World War ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. There were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor, the spiritual head of the Islam world. The Sultan was deprived of real authority even over those territories which were left under his control. This angered the Muslims in India.
To defend the powers of Khalifa and to avert harsh peace treaty to be imposed on the Ottoman empire the Khilafat Committee was formed in 1919 in Bombay.

9. Why Gandhiji supported the Khilafat Movement [CBSE March 2011, 2012] 

Answer: (i) As the Rowlatt Satyagraha was limited to cities and towns Gandhiji felt the need to launch a more broad based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims close together. So he took up the Khilafat issue.

(ii) A new generation of Muslim leaders like the Ali brothers, Muhammed Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring the Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.

10. Mention three main proposals with reference to the Non-Cooperation Movement as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi.  [CBSE 2008 (D)]
Or
Gandhiji proposed that the Non-­Cooperation should unfold in stages. Explain. [CBSE 2013]

Answer: The Non-Cooperation had two aspects, i.e., one relating to the struggle and the other relating to the norms of conduct and constructive work. Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in the following stages :
(i) Surrender of titles, honours and honorary posts,
(ii) Boycott of Legislative Councils,
(iii) Boycott of law courts by the lawyers,
(iv) Boycott of Government schools and colleges, and withdrawal of children from these schools and colleges.
(v) Boycott of British goods, To get a popular support for the movement, Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively throughout India.

11. Why was the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Gandhiji

Answer: (i) After returning from Africa in 1915 Gandhiji launched some local satyagraha’s but he was looking for an opportunity to launch a national level movement against the Britishers.
(ii) The Non-Cooperation Movement was launched by Gandhiji to support the Khilafat
(iii) It was also launched against Rowlatt Act and the Jallianwala Bagh incident.
(iv) Gandhiji merged the Khilafat Movement with the Non-cooperation Movement to bring the Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.

12. How was the Non-Cooperation Movement converted into a national movement by Gandhiji?

Answer: (i) Hindu-Muslim Unity : Mahatma Gandhi felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. He was certain that no such movement could be organized without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together.

(ii) Merging Khilafat issue with the movement : So to unite the both the communities he decided to take up the Khilafat issue. The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on Ottoman emperor – the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa).

(iii) Talking to Muslim leaders : A young generation of Muslim leaders like the brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement. At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.

13. “The effects of Non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramtic.” Explain.
Or
Explain the effects of Non-Cooperation Movement on the economic front.
[CBSE 2014 (F)]
Or
Explain the impact of Non-Cooperation Movement in the economic field.
[CBSE 2012]

Answer: (i) Fall in imports : Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs.  102 crore to Rs. 57 crore.
(ii)  Boycott of Foreign goods : In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
(iii) Boost for Indian industry : As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

14. Who formed the Swaraj Party Why was the party formed

Answer: The Swaraj Party was formed by CR Das, and Moti Lai Nehru.
The Non-cooperation movement failed to achieve its objective of Swaraj. So within the Congress some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils that had been set up by the Government of India Act of 1919. They felt that it was important to oppose British policies within the councils, argue for reform and also demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics.

15. What were the factors responsible for the gradual slow down of the Non­Cooperation movement [CBSE 2008 (D), 2013 (D)] 
Or
Why did the Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slow down in the cities Give reasons.  [CBSE March 2011, 2014, 21015 (D)]

Answer: (i) Expensive Khadi : The Khadi cloth was often more expensive than the mass- produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.

(ii) No alternative : The boycott of British institutions posed a problem. For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions, had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British institutions but these were slow to come up. So students and teachers had no option except joining back government schools, and lawyers joined back work in government courts.

(iii) Local movements with different interpretation: Workers, industrialists, peasants, traders had their own understanding, of Gandhiji’s notion of ‘Swaraj.’ They started using violent methods for their demands. All this was not approved by Gandhiji and the Congress. So the movement started losing its shine.

16. Describe briefly any three economic effects of the Non-Cooperation Movement. [CBSE 2009 (O)]

Answer: (i) Boycott of foreign goods : People decided to boycott foreign goods and wear Swadeshi clothes, and use Swadeshi goods.
(ii) Impact on imports : As people began discarding imported clothes, the import of foreign clothes halved between 1921 and 1922. Its value dropped from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore.
(iii) Impact on Indian industry: As people decided to boycott foreign clothes, production of Indian textile mills and handloom went up.

17. What were circumstances which led to Jallianwala Bagh incident Describe in brief the reaction of the people immediately after the incident. [CBSE 2009 (F)] Or
Explain the impact of Jallianwala Bagh incident on the people. [CBSE 2014 (O)]

Answer: (i) Rowlatt Act : The Rowlatt Act was passed by the government despite the united opposition of the Indian members. The act gave enormous powers to the police to arrest any one without any trail.

(ii) Rowlatt Satyagraha : Gandhiji decided to launch Rowlatt Satyagraha. Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike, and shops were closed down. Alarmed by the popular upsurge, British government decided to arrest Indian leaders. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Delhi.

(iii) Martial Law : Seeing the people’s reaction against the arrest of their leaders police imposed Martial law in Amritsar. On 13th April 1919 General Dyer fired at the people who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh killing many.

People’s Reaction :
(a) As the news spread, crowd took to the streets in many north Indian towns.
(b) There were strikes, clashes with the police and attack on government buildings.

18. “Plantation workers too had their own understanding of Gandhiji’s notion of Swaraj.” Explain.

Answer: (i) For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
(ii) The government had passed the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 under which plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea estates without permission, and in fact, they were rarely given such permission.
(iii) When the plantation workers heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of them defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed towards their homes.
(iv) The plantation workers believed that the Gandhi Raj was coming, and everyone would be given land in their own villages.

19. Why did the tribal people join the Non-­Cooperation Movement

Answer: Most of the tribal people were dependent on forests for their livelihood but under the new Forest Policy, the government had put several restrictions on the people:

  • Closing large forest area for the tribal people.
  • Forcing the local people to contribute begar.
  • Preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits.

All these steps enraged the hill people. Not only were their livelihoods affected, but they felt that their traditional rights were also being denied. So the people revolted.

20. Explain the circumstances under which Non-cooperation Movement was withdrawn.
Or
Why was the Non-Cooperation Movement withdrawn by Gandhiji in February 1922. Explain the reasons. [CBSE 2015 (D)]
Or
Explain the conditions of the plantation workers during the colonial rule in India. [CBSE 2012]

Answer: In February 1922, Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement due to the following reasons-
(i) The movement was turning violent. At Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur, a peaceful demonstration in a bazar turned into a violent clash in which more than 20 policemen were killed.
(ii) Gandhiji felt that the Satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggle.
(iii) Within the Congress, some leaders were tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils, which were set up under the Government of India Act, 1919.
(iv) Industrialists, workers, peasants etc. interpreted the term ‘Swaraj’ in their own way. At many places like that of Andhra Pradesh, leaders like Alluri Sitaram Raju asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force. But there values were not approved by the Congress.

21. When was the Gandhi-Irwin Pact signed Mention the provisions of the pact.

Answer: Gandhi – Irwin Pact was signed on 5th March, 1931.
Provisions of the pact
(i) Gandhiji consented to participate in the Second Round Table Conference.
(ii) The government agreed to release the political prisoners.

22. Why was the Swaraj Party formed? By whom was the party formed

Answer: There were some Congress leaders who argued or advocated the idea of fighting the British from within the legislative councils. They wanted to pressurise the government for various reforms through councils. They also wanted to demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. Keeping in mind these objectives, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party in 1922.

23. Why was the Simon Commission constituted Why was the commission rejected by the Indians

Answer: The Indian members of the Central Legislative Assembly exposed the drawbacks in the Government of India Act of 1919 A.D. As a result of it, the Simon Commission was appointed in 1927 A.D. to suggest any further constitutional reforms. This commission consisted of seven members and its Chairman was Sir John Simon.

However Indians boycotted the commission, because :
(i) There was no Indian member in this commission.
(ii) The terms of the commission’s appointment did not give any indication of Swaraj while the demand of the Indians was only Swaraj.

24. Under what circumstances, the Puma Swaraj was demanded by the Congress
Or
Mention the main contents of resolution passed in the Lahore Session of Indian National Congress in December 1929 held under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. [CBSE2014]
Or
Explain the reason for the Lahore Session of the Congress in 1929 to be called the historical session. [CBSE 2014]

Answer: (i) The Simon Commission had to face demonstration all over India, and no party was in favour of the Commission. So in an effort to win the political parties the Viceroy, Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929, a vague offer of “dominion status’ for India in an unspecified future and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution.

(ii) The announcement fell short of the expectations of the Congress. At its Lahore Session, presided over by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in December, 1929, the Congress passed a resolution boycotting the Round Table Conference. It declared ‘Purna Swaraj’ (Complete Independence) as its goal, and took steps to launch a programme of Civil Disobedience. The Puma Swaraj Day was celebrated all over India on 26th January, 1930.

25. Why salt was chosen as a weapon by Gandhiji to fight against the Britishers
Or
Why did Mahatma Gandhi perceive “salt’ as a powerful symbol that unite the nation? [CBSE March 2011]

Answer: (i) Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food.
(ii) The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production, revealed the most oppressive face of the British rule.
(iii) Salt was chosen to give the movement a wide base.

26. Why did the poor peasants join the Civil Disobedience Movement Why did the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remain uncertain [CBSE 2014(D)]

Answer: (i) The poor peasants had their own problems.
They were not just interested in lowering of the revenue, but also demanded remission of rent which they had failed to pay during the depression years.
(ii) In some parts of the country, they launched a ‘no rent’ campaign which was not supported by the Congress because this might had upset the rich peasants and landlords.
(iii) These poor peasants joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists. So the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.

27. Why did the business class participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement [CBSE 2014(D)] 

Answer: (i) The business class wanted protection against imports of foreign goods.
(ii) They wanted to free the business from colonial restrictions.
(iii) The business community interpreted Swaraj in their own way. They came to see Swaraj at the time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade industry would flourish without constraints.

28. Who led the business community during |  the Civil Disobedience Movement How did the community provide a big boost to the movement [CBSE 2010 (D), 2014(D)]
Or
Explain with examples the role of industrialist in the freedom struggle of India.
Or
Explain the attitude of the Indian merchants and the industrialist towards the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement.’ [CBSE 2015 (O)]

Answer: The business community was led by prominent : industrialists like Mr. Purshottam Das and Mr G.D. Birla.
(i) By opposing colonial policies:  The industrial class was keen on expanding their business, so they reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities. They I  wanted protection against imports of foreign  goods, and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
(ii) Forming various organisations: To organise business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian  Chamber  of Commerce and Industries  (FICCI) in 1927.
(iii) Support to Civil Disobedience Movement: Led by prominent industrialists like Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G. D. I Birla, the  industrialists attacked colonial control over the Indian economy, and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was first launched.
(iv) Financial aid: They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods. Most businessmen came to see Swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.
(v) Role of working class: The industrial working class also participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement. In 1930 thousands of workers in Chotanagpur participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.

29. Why did the business community later on withdraw from the Civil Disobedience Movement

Answer: (i) After the failure of the Round Table Conference, business groups were no longer uniformly enthusiastic.
(ii) They were apprehensive of the spread of militant activities, and worried about prolonged disruption of business.
(iii) They were worried about the growing influence of socialism amongst the younger members of the Congress.

30. Why the industrial working class did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers Mention any two demands of the workers who participated in the movement. [CBSE 2014(F)]
Or
“The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analyse the reasons. [CBSE 2015 (D)]

Answer: The industrial working classes did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region. This was because industrialists were supporting the Movement and Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demand as part of the Movement.
Demands of workers
(i) They demanded higher wages.
(ii) They demanded proper working conditions.

31. Explain the effects of “worldwide economic depression’ on India, towards late 1920s.[CBSE2013 (O)]

Answer: (i) The depression immediately affected Indian trade. India’s exports and imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934. As international prices crashed, prices in India plunged. Between 1928 and 1934, wheat prices in India fell by 50 per cent.

(ii) The fall in prices had a deep impact on the poor farmers. Though agricultural prices fell sharply but the colonial government refused to give any relief to the farmers in taxes. Peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit

  • Their indebtedness increased.
  • They were forced to sell or mortgage their land.
  • People were forced to sell their assets like T gold and silver.
  • Indian jute producers were worst affected.

(iii) The unrest created by the Great Depression provided an opportunity to Mahatma Gandhi to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1931.

(iv) The depression proved less grim for urban India. Because of falling prices those with fixed income-like town-dwelling landowners who received rents and middle-class salaried employees-now found themselves better off. Everything cost less. Industrial investment also grew as the government extended tariff protection to industries, under the pressure of nationalist opinion.

32. Why was the Civil Disobedience Movement called off by Gandhiji [CBSE March 2012 (O)]

Answer: (i) When Indian leaders were arrested, angry crowds demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
(ii) A month later, when Gandhiji himself was arrested, industrial workers attacked police posts, government buildings, law courts and railway stations and all structures that symbolised the British rule.
(iii) A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal repression. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten, and about 100,000 people were arrested.
(iv) To break the deadline between Congress and the government Lord Irwin invited Gandhiji for a peace pact i.e Gandhi—Irwin pact.
(v) Under such a situation Gandhiji decided to call off the movement.

33. Why was the Civil Disobedience Movement relaunched by Gandhiji?

Answer: (i) Failure of the Second Round Table Conference: In December 1931, Gandhiji went to London for the conference, but the negotiations broke down, and he returned disappointed.
(ii) New cycle of repression : Back in India, Gandhiji discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both in jail, the Congress had been declared illegal, and a series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts. With great apprehension, Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement.

34. Who designed the Swaraj flag? What were the features of this flag? How was it used as a symbol of defiance [CBSE March 2012]

Answer: Gandhi ji designed the swaraj flag.
(i) It was a tricolour (red, green and white).
(ii) It had a spinning wheel in the centre.
(iii) It had eight lotus representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.
People used to carry the flag, holding it aloft, during marches.

Long Answer Type Questions

1. What was Satyagraha Explain some of the Satyagrahas launched by Gandhiji. [CBSE March 2011]
Or
“A satyagraha wins the battle through non­violence.” Explain with examples. [CBSE 2010 (F)]
Or
“Gandhiji’s Satyagraha combines the ideas of truth and non violence”. Explain with three examples. [CBSE 2014 (D) Compt]

Answer: Satyagraha was a non-violent method of mass agitation against the oppressor. The method suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, there is no need for physical force to fight the oppressor.
(i) Gandhiji used the Satyagraha technique successfully against injustice in South Africa.
(ii) In 1916 A.D., he fought for justice for the tenants of Champaran, and the Government had to pass an Act for the welfare of the peasants of Champaran in 1918 A.D.
(iii) He started the Kheda Satyagraha in which Gandhiji asked the people not to pay the taxes due to the failure of crops. Ultimately, the Government had to bow, and the payment of taxes was deferred to the next year.
(iv) Again in 1918 A.D., Gandhiji intervened in the Mill Workrs’ Strike at Ahmedabad, and helped them to get their pay raised, for which he had started a fast unto death.

2. What were the circumstances which led to the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movement
Or
Why did Mahatma Gandhi feel the need to launch a broad-based movement in 1920 Give any three reasons.
Explain any three causes that led to the  Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920. 
[CBSE 2014 (D) Compt]

Answer: (i) Conditions Created by the First World War : The First World War was fought from 1914 to 1918.
 It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by taxes.
 Due to war prices increased many times leading to extreme hardship for common people.
 Crops failed in 1918-19 resulting in acute shortage of food.
 Many people lost their lives in the war and due to epidemic.
 Forced recruitment in the army caused widespread anger.

(ii) Gandhiji’s Return and Satyagraha :
Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa in 1915 where he had successfully fought against the racist regime with his new method of mass agitation and nonviolence known as Satyagraha. In India he launched satyagraha movements at various places. These satyagrahas provided base to the Non-Cooperation Movement.

(iii) The Rowlatt Act : The Act was passed by the Imperial Legislative Assembly. The act provided enormous powers to police. The police got the power to arrest anyone without any trial. The aim of the act was to repress political activities.

(iv) Jallianwalla Bagh : The Jallianwala Bagh added fuel to the fire. People were already agitating against the Rowlatt Act. People had gathered to protest against the new act in the Jallianwala Bagh. General Dyer entered the park and ordered fire killing many people. As the news spread, crowds took to the streets.

(v) United Struggle : The fear of harsh treaty on the Ottoman emperor (the Khalifa) brought the Muslims close to Gandhiji. A young generation of Muslim leaders like Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali was in favour of a united mass action against the Britishers.

3. What was the reaction of the people against the Rowlatt Act [CBSE 2013 (D)]
Or
Explain the reactions of Indian people against the Rowlatt Act passed through the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919. [CBSE March 2012 (O)]

Answer: (i) Gandhiji called for a country wide Hartal on 6th April, 1919. But he was arrested.
(ii) There were disturbances in Delhi, Ahmedabad and Punjab. In Amritsar, two popular leaders, Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Saif- ud-din Kitchlew, were arrested. The people took out a procession in Amritsar to protest against these arrests, and demanded the release of their leaders.
(iii) A public meeting was announced for the 13th April, 1919, at the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar against the arrest of the leaders.
(iv) General Dyer marched there and killed more than 1,000 people.
(v) As the news of the Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets in many North Indian towns. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings.

4. Explain the course of the Non- Cooperation Movement in the towns.
Or
Describe the extent of peoples participation in the Non-cooperation Movement in the towns. What were its economic effects [CBSE March 2011]
Or
How did ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ spread in cities across the country Explain its effects on the economic front. [CBSE 2015(D) ]

Answer: (i) The movement in the cities : The Movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.

(ii) Boycott of council elections : The Council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras (Chennai), where the Justice Party, the party of the non­Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power, something that usually only Brahmans had an access to.

(iii) Swadeshi : The Non-Cooperation Movement had a great impact on the Indian textile industry. Swadeshi goods, especially cloth got a great impetus. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.

(iv) Impact on industry : In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. Due to this, the demand of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up. The increase in demand provided a big relief to the vanishing textile industry of India.

(v) Movement in the countryside: Though people in the countryside interpreted the idea of ‘Swaraj’ in their own way but they participated in the movement on large scale. In Awadh, peasants launched the movement against the talukdars and landlords. Whereas the plantation workers launched the movement against the tea estate owners.

5. Explain the course of the Non- Cooperation Movement in the countryside. [CBSE2015 (O)] Or
How did the Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside.
[CBSE 2010 (F)] Or
Describe the movement led by Baba Ram Chandra in Awadh against the talukdars and landlords.        [CBSE 2012]
Or
How did the peasants of Awadh use different methods to achieve their goal Explain.      [CBSE 2014]
Or
What were the methods used by peasants of Awadh to achieve their goal Explain. [CBSE 2014] Or
Describe any three major problems faced by the peasants of Awadh in the days of Non-Cooperation Movement. [CBSE 2015 (O)]

Answer: (i) Participants : In the countryside, the movement was led by the peasants, tribals and the local leaders. For example, in Awadh, it was Baba Ramchandra sanyasi, who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer.
(ii) Why the rural people participated: The movement here was not against the Britishers but against talukdars and landlords. The problems of the rural people were different from those of the urban people:

  • The talukdars and landlords were demanding very high rents and a variety of other taxes.
  • Peasants had to do begarand work at the landlord’s farms without any payment.
  • The peasants had no security of tenure. They were regularly evicted so that they could acquire no security of tenure.

As the problems of the people were different,
their demands were also different. The peasant movement demanded :

  • Reduction of revenue
  • Abolition of begar
  • Redistribution of land
  • Social boycott of oppressive landlords.

(iii) Ways of protests : The Movement in the countryside had a different angle. In many places, Nai-dhobi bandhs were organised by the Panchayats to deprive the landlords of the services of barbers, cobblers, washermen, etc. Even national leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru went to villages in Awadh to know the grievances of the people. By October, the Awadh Kissan Sabhas were set up headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra, and a few others.
When the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked. The movement turned violent which was not liked by some of the Congress leaders.

6. Under what circumstances the Civil Disobedience or the Salt Movement was launched? Explain. [CBSE 2013 (O)]
Or
Describe the main events leading to Salt March and Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. [CBSE March 2011]

Answer: (i) Failure of the Simon Commission: The Simon Commission was constituted in response to the nationalist movement. But the Commission failed to satisfy the Indian people and the leaders. All the parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations. In an effort to win them over the Viceroy, Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929, a vague offer of dominion status. But even this failed to satisfy the leaders.

(ii) Puma Swaraj: In December 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Lahore Congress formalised the demand of ‘Puma Swaraj’ or full independence for India. It was declared that 26th January, 1930, would be celebrated as the Independence Day when people were to take a pledge to struggle for complete independence. But the celebrations attracted very little attention. So Mahatma Gandhi had to find a way to relate this abstract idea of freedom to more concrete issues of everyday life.

(iii) Rejection of Gandhi’s Eleven Demands: On 31st January, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi, in a statement, put forward Eleven Demands to correct the wrongs done to the Indians.
He assured the Viceroy that he would withdraw the Civil Disobedience on British Government’s acceptance of these demands. However, Gandhi’s demands were declared to be unrealistic by the Viceroy.

(iv) Economic Causes: The Great Depression of 1929 had a deep impact on the Indian economy, especially on agriculture. Prices of agricultural produce began to fall from 1926, and collapsed after 1930. As the demand for agricultural goods fell and export declined, peasants found it difficult to sell their harvest, and to pay their revenue. The government refused to lower the taxes. So by 1930, the farmers were in poor condition.

(v) Support from business class: The business class was keen on expanding their business and were against the colonial policies that restricted business activities. They decided to provide financial support to the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was launched.

7. Explain the course of the Salt March.  [CBSE 2014]

Answer: (i) On January 31st, 1930, Gandhi wrote a long letter to the Viceroy, communicating his decision to start the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) On 12th March, Mahatma Gandhi began his historic march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a village on the Gujarat sea-coast.
(iii) He was accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers, but as Gandhiji advanced, others joined the party.
(iv) On the morning of 6th April, Gandhiji violated the salt laws by picking up some salt from the sea water. Gandhiji’s campaign against the salt laws was a signal to disobey the Government laws.
The Programme of the Movement: The Civil Disobedience campaign involved defiance of salt laws, boycott of liquor, boycott of foreign cloth and British goods of all kinds.

8. ‘Large sections of Muslims did not respond to the call for a united struggle during the Civil Disobedience Movement.’ Explain.
Or
“Some of the Muslim political organisations in India, were lukewarm in their response to the ‘Civil Disobedient Movement’.” Examine the statement. [CBSE2013 (D)]

Answer: (i) Association of Congress with Hindu Mahasabha : After the decline of the Non­-Cooperation – Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. From the mid-1920s, the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
(ii) Communal Clashes : As relations between the Hindus and the Muslims worsened, each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu- Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities. Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities.
(iii) Issue of demand for separate electorates: Some of the Muslim leaders demanded a separate electorate for the Muslims which was not supported by the Congress leaders.
(iv) Status of Muslims in Hindu majority state : Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.
(v) Issue of reserved seats in the Central Assembly : Muslim League leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded reservation of seats for the Muslims in the Central Assembly but this was not acceptable to the Congress leaders. So Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle.

9. Explain the progress of the Civil Disobedience Movement in the countryside.
Or
Why did the rich peasants of Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat join the Civil Disobedience Movement 
Describe any three features of the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930.
Or
Evaluate any three features of the peasant movement during Civil Disobedience Movement in India.
Or
Mention three reasons by which the rich peasant communities took active part in the Civil Disobedience Movement. 

Answer: (i) In the countryside, rich peasant communities-like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh-were active participants.
(ii) They participated in the Movement because they suffered the most due to the economic depression. As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand.
(iii) They demanded a reduction in revenue but the government refused to do so. This led to a widespread resentment. These rich landlords participated in the boycott programmes, and refused to pay revenues. For them, the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
(iv) But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised. So when the movement was restarted in 1932, many of them did not participate.
(v) The poor peasantry also participated on a large scale in a hope that their unpaid rent to the landlords will be remitted.

10. Why for a long time, the Congress had ignored the daiits What role did Gandhiji play in uplifting them?
Or
How did Gandhiji view the Dalits What did he do for them [CBSE 2014]

Answer: For long, the Congress had ignored the daiits, for the fear of offending the Sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus. But Mahatma  Gandhi declared that Swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. Under his constructive programme he laid stress on the removal of untouch­ability.
He called them (untouchable) the harijans – meaning the children of God. He also organised satyagraha to secure their entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools. He himself toured their colonies, and even lived there. He even cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the sweepers.

11.Explain the role of Ambedkar in uplifting the dalits or the depressed classes. [CBSE March 2011]

Answer: (i) Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar was of the opinion that only political empowerment would resolve their problems of social injustice.
(ii) Due to his efforts, Dalits began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions and separate electorate that would choose the dalit members for legislative councils.
(iii) In 1930, Ambedkar entered national politics. In the same year, he organised the Depressed Classes Association to make them politically more strong.
(iv) He was nominated as a delegate of the oppressed classes for the Second Round Table Conference. In that Round Table Conference, he clashed with Mahatma Gandhi by demanding separate electorates for dalits.
(v) He demanded a separate electorates for dalits. To give them political power he signed Poona Pact. The Poona Pact gave the depressed classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils.

12. When and why was the Poona Pact signed? [CBSE March 2011]
Or
Examine the background of the Poona Pact of 1932 in the light of differences between Gandhiji and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. [CBSE 2014]
Examine the background of the Poona Pact of 1932. [CBSE 2014]
Or
Describe the main features of ‘Poona Pact’ [CBSE 2015 (O)]

Answer: (i) Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar was nominated as a delegate of the oppressed classes for the Second Round Table Conference.
(ii) In that Round Table Conference, he clashed with Mahatma Gandhi by demanding separate electorates for the dalits.
(iii) When the British government accepted Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. The issue was eventually resolved through the
(iv) Poona Pact of September 1932.
(v) It gave the Depressed Classes (later to be known as the Scheduled Castes) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.

13.  Analyse any four features of Gudem rebellion of Andhra Pradesh. [CBSE March 2011, 15]
Or
Explain the main features of Gudem rebellion. [CBSE 2014]
Or
Describe the contribution made by Alluri Sitaram Raju to the Non-Cooperation Movement in Andhra Pradesh. [CBSE 2014]

Answer: (i) The Gudem rebellion spread in response to the Non Cooperation Movement in 1921.
(ii) In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrila movement spread in the early 1920s under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju Against forest laws.
(iii) The rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God as he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people.
(iv) Raju talked of the greatness of Mahatma 15. Gandhi and was inspired by Non Cooperation Movement, and persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking.
But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force.
(v) The Gudem rebels attacked police station, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj. Raju was arrested and executed in 1924.

14. Analyse the circumstances which led Gandhiji to choose abolition of salt tax as the most important demand of the Civil Disobedience Movement. [CBSE March 2011]
Or 
Which were the two types of demands mentioned by Gandhiji in his letter to Viceroy Irwin on 31 January 1930 Why was abolition of ‘salt tax’ most stirring demand Explain. [CBSE 2013 (O)]

Answer: On 31 January 1930, Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands.
Some of these were of general interest; others were specific demands of different classes, from industrialists to peasants. The idea was to make the demands wide-ranging, so that all classes within Indian society could identify with them and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign.
(i) The most stirring of all demands to abolish salt tax. Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike. It was one of the most essential items of food. The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production revealed the most oppressive face of British rule.
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a most powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
(iii) The demands were not fulfilled. So on 11th March 1930 Mahatma Gandhi started his famous salt march along with 78 volunteers from his Ashram in Sabarmati.
(iv) On 6th April he reached Dandi and violated the laws by manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.

15. “Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore’. Explain. [CBSE March 2011]
Or
How did the idea of nationalism develop a movement to revive Indian folklore Give three points. [CBSE March 2011, 2012]

Answer: (i) History and fictions, folklore and songs popular prints and symbols all played a part in the making of nationalism.
(ii) In the late nineteenth century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards, and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends.
(iii) This was done to promote the traditional culture that had been corrupted, and damaged by the western forces.
(iv) To revive the folklore, Rabindranath Tagore himself collected ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and led the movement for the folk revival.
(v) A massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India was published by Natesa Sastri. He believed that the folklore was national literature; it was ‘the most trustworthy manifestation of people’s real thoughts and characteristics.’

16. How flag was used to promote the spirit of nationalism among the Indians

Answer: (i) During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses representing the eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing, the Hindus and the Muslims.
(ii) By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj It was again a tricolour (red, green and white), and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
(iii) Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

18. “Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Justify the statement. [CBSE 2013 (D), 2015 (D)]
 Or
Explain the major factors which promoted the sense of nationalism in the Indians.
Or
Explain the contributions of folklore, folk songs and paintings in strengthening  nationalism during the 1870’s. [CBSE 2008]
 Or
How did a variety of cultural processes play an important role in developing a sense of nationalism in India Explain  with examples. [CBSE 2010 (F), CBSE March 2012] 
Or
How did people belonging to different communities, regions or languages group develop the sense of collective belonging ,in India during the freedom struggle. Explain.  [CBSE 2014 (D) Compt]
Or
Explain the major factors which promoted the sense of nationalism in the Indians [CBSE 2012]

Answer: (i) United struggle : The most important factor responsible for arousing the sense of nationalism among the Indians was the united struggle against the Britishers.

(ii) Cultural processes : There were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism.

(iii) Bharat Mata : The identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata, which was created in 1870 by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, who wrote
‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the Motherland. Inspired by the Swadeshi Movement, Rabindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata.

(iv) Revival of Indian Folklore : The idea of nationalism was also developed by reviving the Indian Folklore.
In late-nineteenth-century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. This was done to promote the traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by western forces. It was essential to preserve this folk tradition in order to discover one’s national identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s past.

(v) Reinterpretation of History : By the end of the nineteenth century many Indians began feeling that to instill a sense of pride in the nation, Indian history had to be thought about differently. The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves. In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements. They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times. The nationalist historians urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

19. Describe various problems in unifying people in India by the end of the 19th century. [CBSE 2009 (O)]
Or
What were the limits of the Civil Disobedience Movement? [CBSE March 2012] 
Or
What are the limitations of Civil Disobedience Movement Explain.
Or
Explain any four limitations of Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930. [CBSE 2012]

Answer: (i) Problem of depressed classes : For long, the Congress had ignored the dalits or depressed classes for fear of offending the conservative high caste Hindus. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the dalits into the Depressed Class Association clashed with Gandhiji at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.

(ii) Wedge between Hindu-Muslims : From the mid 1920’s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha. So a large section of Muslims started keeping away from it. Each community started blaming each other for the wedge leading to communal clashes.

(iii) Separate electorates and two nation theory : Muhammad Ali Jinnah the leader of the Muslim League demanded separate electorates for the Muslims as he feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.

(iv) Muslim leaders : Many prominent Muslim leaders like Muhammad Iqbal supported separate electorates. They also proposed a two nation theory under which it was persumed that both communities belong to different nations.

(v) Formation of Muslim league : Muslim League was established in 1920. The formation of Muslim League gave a vital blow to the united struggle.

(v) Non participation of industrial worker :
The industrial working classes did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region. This was because industrialists were supporting the Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region. This was because industrialists were supporting the Movement and Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demand as part of the Movement.

20. Describe any three suppressive measures taken by the British administration to clampdown on nationalists.

Answer: (i) Rowlett Act: Rowlett Act was an oppressive act introduced by the British Government in 1919. It gave the Government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

(ii) Imposing martial law : Whenever the nationalists used to launch a mass movement the government responded with martial law. During Rowlatt Satyagraha, Non-Cooperation movement, Civil Disobedience movement, etc, the government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people : satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs; people were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed.

(iii) Putting the nationalist behind the bars: During every mass movement the nationalist leaders were picked up and put behind the bars. For example during Rowlatt Satyagraha most of the local leaders were arrested and during Civil Disobedience movement Abul Ghaffar, Mahatma Gandhi and other leaders were arrested and put behind the bars.

21. Mention any three efforts made by Gandhiji to get Harijans their rights. [CBSE March 2011]

Answer: (i) He said that the Swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated.
(ii) He organised Satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
(iii) He signed Poona Pact with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar through which some seats were reserved for them in provincial and central legislative councils.

22. How did the British government respond to protests, clashes and attacks by the Indian against the Jallianwala Bagh incident?  [CBSE 2014]

Answer: (i) The government responded with brutal repression.
(ii) Seeking to humiliate and terrorise people, Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground.
(iii) They were forced to crawl on the streets, and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs.
People were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab) were bombed..

23. Explain the contribution of the various social groups in the Civil Disobedience Movement.  [CBSE 2014]
Or
Various classes and groups of Indians participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement for different reasons. Choose any four classes and explain their reason to participate in the movement. [CBSE 2012]

Answer: Following are the contributions of various social groups in the Civil Disobedience Movement:
(i) Rich peasants : Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices. As the government refused to reduce revenue demands, they in great numbers participated in the boycott programmes. For them, the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
(ii) Women : The women participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail. They began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.
(iii) Business class : A large number of merchants and industrialists supported this movement. They reacted against colonial policies that restricted their business activities. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods.
(iv) The industrial working class : The industrial working class did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers except in Nagpur. They selectively adopted some of the ideas of Gandhian programme, like boycott of foreign goods, as part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions.

24. What did the image of Bharat Mata painted by Abanindranath Tagore portray?     [CBSE 2014]

Answer: (i) Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure.
(ii) She is calm, composed, divine and spiritual.
(iii) This mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.
(iv) Mother figure shown as dispensing learning, food and clothing.

25. Who designed Swaraj Flag in 1921 Mention any two features of this flag.
Or
Which flag did Gandhiji design in 1921 Mention its special features. [CBSE 2014] 
Or
Who designed the Swaraj Flag What were the features of this flag How was it used as a symbol of defiance [CBSE 2012]

Answer: (i) In 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj Flag.
(ii) It was given a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
(iii) Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

26. ‘Some icons and symbols were used for unifying the people and sparking in them the feeling of nationalism.’ Give two evidences to support above statement. [CBSE 2011]
State the icons and symbols that advocated nationalism in India.

Answer: (i) The image of Bharat Mata came to be identified with India, the motherland. She was first painted by Abanindranath Tagore as an ascetic figure-calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Later the image was painted by many other artists and acquired different forms. In one image Bharat Mata is shown with a trishul, standing beside a lion and behind an elephant, both symbols of power.
(ii) The flag became a symbol of nationalism. During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal a tricolour flag was designed with eight lotus flowers representing eight provinces of the British India and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims. Gandhiji designed the Swaraj Flag.

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