The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 History Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers

CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation Extra Questions and Answers is available here. Students can learn and download PDF of these questions for free. These extra questions and answers are prepared by our expert teachers as per the latest NCERT textbook and guidelines. Learning these questions will help you to score excellent marks in the board exams.

The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 4

Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. What is proto-industrialisation
Answer: The early phase of industrialisation in which large-scale production was carried out for international market not at factories but in decentralised units.

2. How was proto-industrialisation different from factory production

Answer: Proto-industrialisation was a decentralised method of production which was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers located in different places whereas under factories production became centralised. Most of the processes were brought together under one roof and management.

3.Why was it difficult for the new European merchants to set up business in town in the 17th and 18th centuries
Answer: This was because urban Crafts and trade guilds were very powerful in the town.

4 What were guilds

Answer: These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices. and restricted the entry of new people within the trade. Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products.

5. Which industry was symbol of the new era
Answer: Cotton.

6. Who created the cotton mill [CBSE 2014]
Answer: Richard Arkwright.

7.Who invented the steam engine [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Answer: James Watt.

8. Who discovered the Spinning Jenny [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Answer: James Hargreaves.

9. The introduction of which new technology in England angered women [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Answer: The Spinning Jenny.

10.Which pre-colonial port connected India to the Gulf countries and the Red Sea ports [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]
Answer: Surat

11.What was Spinning Jenny
Answer: It was a machine devised by James Hargreaves io speed up the spinning process. The machine could set in motion a number of spindles and spin several threads at the same time

12.Name any two regions of colonial India which were famous for large-scale industries.
Answer: (i) Bombay (ii) Bengal

13.Which were the two most dynamic industries of Britain in the early 19th century
Answer: Cotton and metal.

14.“In Victorian Britain, the upper classes – the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie – preferred things produced by hand”. Give reason.
Answer: Handmade products came to symbolise refinement and class.

15.Why women workers attacked the spinning Jenny a machine which was introduced in Britain
Answer: The fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the introduction of new technology.

16. Name the goods from India Which dominated the international market before the age of machine industries.
Answer: Silk and Cotton.

17. Name any three pre-colonial ports of India. 
Answer: Surat. Masulipatnam and Hoogly

18. Why the pre-colonial ports i.e. Surat and Masulipatnam declined by the 1750’s
Answer: Because the European companies gradually gained power-first securing a variety of concessions from local courts, then the monopoly rights to trade.

19.Name the ports which grew during the colonial period.
Answer: Bombay and Calcutta

20.Why was the East India Company keen on expanding textile exports from India during 1760’s

Answer: The consolidation of East India Company power after the 1760s did not initially lead to a decline in textile exports from India. British cotton industries had not yet expanded and Indian fine textiles were in great demand in Europe. So the company was keen on expanding textile exports from India.

21. “Before establishing political power in Bengal and Carnatic in the 1760 and 1770s, the East India Company had found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for export. Give reasons.

Answer: The French. Dutch. Portuguese as well as the local traders competed in the market to secure woven cloth. So the weaver and supply merchants could bargain and try selling the produce to the best buyer.

22. Who were Gomasthas
Answer: They were the paid servants o: the East India Company who use to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth.

23. Why there were clashes between weavers and gomasthas

Answer: The new gomasthas were outsiders, with no long term social link with the village. So they acted arrogantly, marched into villages with the police and punished weavers for delay in supply. So. there were reports of dashes between weavers and gomasthas.

24. ‘By 1860. Indian weavers could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality.’ Give reason.

Answer: When the American Civil War broke out and cotton supplies bom the US were cut oil. Britain turned to India. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton ‘hot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies.

25. Name the European Managing agencies which controlled the large sector of Indian industries.
Answer: (i) Bird Heiglers and Co.
(ii) Andrew Yule.
(iii) Jardine Skinner and Co.

26. When was the first cotton mill established in Bombay
Answer: 1854.

27. Name any four major centres of cotton textile of India during the colonial period.
Answer: (i) Bombay – 1854
(ii) Kanpur – I860
(iii) Ahmedabad – 1861
(iv) Madras – 1874

28. Name any four entrepreneurs of India who set factories during colonial period.
Answer: (i) Dwarakanath Tagore
(ii) Dinshaw Petit
(iii) Jamset Ji Nusserwanji Tata
(iv) Seth Hukumchand.

29. “Under the colonial era the Indian merchants were discriminated and space within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited’. Justify.

Answer: They were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods, and had to export mostly raw materials and food grains, raw cotton, opium, wheat and indigo – required by the British. They were also gradually edged out of the shipping business.

30. What was fly shuttle?

Answer: It is a mechanical device used for weaving moved by means of ropes and pullies. It places the horizontal threads (called the weft) into the verticle threads (called the warp). The invention of the fly shuttle made it possible for weavers to operate large looms and weave wide pieces of cloth.

31. What was the impact of the First World War on the British industries

Answer: After the war. Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market. Unable to modernise and compete with the US. Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed ar.d exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

32. Who was a jobber
Answer: Jobber was an old and trusted worker employed by the Indian industrialists to recruit the new workers.

33. During the first world war years industrial production in India boomed. Give reason.
Answer: (i) Manchester imports into India declined as British mills were busy with war production.
(ii) Indian industries were also called upon to supply war needs ;jute bags, cloth for army uniform, tents and leather boots.

34. What was the result of the import of Manchester cloth to India
Answer: (i) It ruined the cloth industry in India because the Manchester cloth was both cheap, showy and durable.
(ii) The weavers were forced to give up their ancestral profession of cloth weaving and had to work as labourers in urban areas.

35. Name the provinces where most of the large-scale industries were located during the colonial period.
Answer: Bengal and Bombay.

36. What technological change helped in improving production of India industry during the 20th century
Answer: The introduction of Fly shuttle.

37. Mow the Indian and British manufacturers tried to expand their market
Answer: They tried to expand their market through advertisements.

38. What was importance of advertisements in expanding the market during the colonial period
Answer: (ii) Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary, (ii) These try to shape the minds of people and create new needs.

39. “When Indian manufacturers advertised, the nationalist message was clear and loud.” What was the message
Answer: if you care for the nation, then buy products that the Indians produce.

Short Answer Type Questions

1. What was the role of trade guilds Explain.

Answer: (i) Trade guilds were associations of producers that trained craft people, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices
(ii)They enjoyed monopoly rights to produce and trade in specific products
(iii) They also had the right to restrict the entry of new producers into the trade.

2. The proto-industrialisation helped in building a close relationship between the town and the countryside”. Explain.

Answer:(i) Merchants were based in towns but the work was done mostly in the countryside by the peasant households.
(ii) A merchant clothier in England purchased wool from a wool stapler, and carried it to the spinners: the yarn (thread) that was
spun was taken in subsequent stages of production to weavers, fullers, and then to dyers.
(iii) The finishing was done in London before the export merchant sold the cloth in the international market.

3. During the first World War years, industrial production in India boomed. Give reasons.

Answer: (i) Manchester imports into India declined as British mills were busy with war production.
(ii) Indian industries were also called upon to supply war needs; Jute bags, doth for the army uniform, tents and leather boots (iii) Even after the war. Manchester failed to recapture its old position.

4. Who created the cotton mill How did it help in improving the production

Answer: Richard Arkwright had created the Cotton mill.
(i) The costly machines could be purchased, set up and maintained in the mills.
(ii) Within the mills, all the processes were brought together under one roof and managed. This allowed a more careful supervision over the production process, a watch over quality and the regulation of labour, all of which had been difficult to do when the production was in the countryside.

5. What were the problems of Indian weavers at the early 19th century [CBSE 2009 (O). Sept. 2010. 2011)
Or
Explain the miserable conditions of Indian weavers during the East India Company’? regime in the eighteenth century. [CBSE 200S IF). Sept. 2010)

Or
Describe any four impacts of Manchester imports on the cotton weavers of India. [CBSE Sept. 2011) 

Answer: (i) Collapse of local and foreign market :
Due to industrialisation in Britain, their export market collapsed.
As British traders started exporting machine- made clothes to India, so their local market shrank.

(ii) Shortage of raw material : As raw cotton was being exported to England, there was a shortage of raw materials. When the American Civil War broke out. and the cotton supplies from the United States were cut off. Britain turned to India. As raw cotton exports Iron India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at higher prices.

(iii) Clashes with Gomasthas : Gomasthas were appointed by the government to supervise weavers to collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth. The Gomasthas acted arrogantly and punished weavers for delays in supply. So. the weavers dashed with them.

(iv) System of advances: The Britishers started the system of advances to regularise the supply of cotton and cloth. The weavers eagerly took the advances, in a hope to cam more but they faded to do so They even started losing small plots of land which they had earlier cultivated.

6. Write a short note on the development of factories in India.
Or
Explain the growth of factories in India.

Answer: (i) Cotton and jute mills were the first to be established in India The first cotton mill was set up in 1854 at Bombay Mumbai (ii) By 1864. the number rose to four The textile null was followed by the jute mill which came into existence in 1855 in Bengal.
(iii) Another jute mill was established in 1862 in Bengal itself.
(iv) In North India, the Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s. and a year later, the first cotton mill of Ahmedabad was set up
(v) By 1874. the first spinning and weaving mill of Madras (Chennai) began is production.

7. How were the Indian merchant industrialists discriminated by the Britishers
Or
Mention some of the problems of the Indian merchant industrialists.

Answer: (i) Limited market : With the introduction ol Manchester good in the Indian market the market within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited
(ii) Restriction on export of manufactured goods : The Indian merchants and traders were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods, and had to export only raw materials and food grains-raw- cotton. opium and wheat, indigo reacquired by the British.
(iii) Introduction of modern ships: With the entry of modem ships Indian merchant were edged out of the shipping business.
(iv) Exclusive chambers of the Europeans : The European merchant-industrialists had their exclusive chamber of commerce, and Indians were not allowed to become its members.

8. Explain the major features of pre-colonial trade and industries.

Answer: (i) Major good: Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles Coarser cottons were produced in many countries, but the finer varieties often came from India
(ii) Trading partners: Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from Punjab to Afghanistan. eastern Persia and Central Asia. Bales of fine textiles were carried on camel back via the north-west frontier, through mountain passes and across deserts.
(iii) Major ports: A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports. Surat cn the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports Masulipatam on the Coromandel coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports.

9. What was the impact of colonisation of India on the Indian traders and merchants

Answer: (i) By the 1970s this network, controlled by Indian merchants, was breaking down.

(ii)The European companies gradually gained power – first securing a variety of concessions from local courts, then the monopoly rights to trade. This resulted in a decline of the old ports of Surat and Hoogly through which local merchants had operated. Exports from those ports fell dramatically, the credit that had financed the earlier trade began drying up and the local banker slowly went bankrupt.

(iii)While Surat and Hoogly decayed. Bombay and Calcutta grew This shift from the old ports to the new ones was an indicator of the growth of colonial power Trade through the new ports came to be controlled by European companies, and was carried in
European ships. While many of the old trading houses collapsed, those that wanted to survive had to now operate within a network shaped by European trading companies.

10. Name the provinces where most of the large-scale industries were located. How can you say that small-scale production continued to predominate even in the late 20th century

Answer: Bengal and Bombay (Mumbai)
(i) Only a small proportion of the total industrial labour force worked in registered factories. i.e., only 5 per cent.
(ii) There was an expansion in the handicraft industries.
(iii) In the 20th century, handloom cloth production expanded steadily, i.e. almost trebling between 1900 and 1940.

11. in the 20th century, the handloom cloth production expanded steadily, i.e.. almost trebling between 1900 and 1940.’ Give reasons.
Or
What led to expansion in handloom craft production between 1900 and 1940 [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Answer: (i) Handicrafts producers adopted a new technology which helped in improving the production without excessively pushing up the costs
(ii) By the second decade of the Twentieth century, most of the weavers started using looms with a fly shuttle. This increased productivity per worker, speeded up production, and reduced the labour demand. By 1941. over 35 per cent of handlooms in India were fitted with fly shuttles: in regions like Travancore, Madras (Chennai) Mysore, Cochin and Bengal where the proportion was 70 to 80 per cent.
(iii) There were several other small innovations that helped weavers to improve their productivity, and compete with the mill sector.

12. “By the 1860s Indian weavers failed to get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality”. Give reason.

Answer: (i) American Civil War : 1860s was the era of American Civil War. When the American Civil War broke out and cotton supplies from The US were cut off, Britain turned to India. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices.
(ii) Industrialisation in India : By the end of the 19th century factories in India began producing machine made cloth. This also reduced the supply of raw cotton ill the market.

13. Why was East India Company keen on expanding textile exports from India during the 1760 Explain any three reasons. [CBSE 2013]

Answer: (i) Consolidation of the Fast India Company’s power after the 1760s did not initially lead to a decline in textile export from India.
(ii) British cotton industries had not yet expanded.
(iii) Fine Indian textiles were in great demand in Europe.

14. Name any two European Managing Agencies which controlled a large sector of the Indian industries. Describe any three functions performed by such agencies. (CBSE 2013)

Answer: European Managing Agencies which controlled a large sector of the Indian industries were : (i) Bird Heiglers & Co.
(ii) Andrew Yule, and
(iii) Jardme Skinner & Co.

Functions :
(i) European Managing Agencies mobilised capital.
(ii) They set up joint stock companies and managed them.
(iii)In most instances. Indian financiers provided the capital while the European Agencies made all investment and business decisions. The European merchants- industrialists had then own chambers of commerce which Indian businessmen were not allowed to join.

15. Mention any five restrictions imposed by the British government upon the Indian merchants in the 19th century. [CBSE 2011]

Answer: (i) The spare within which Indian merchants could function, became limited.
(ii) They were barred from Trading with Europe in manufactured goods.
(iii) They had to export mostly raw materials and foodgrains, raw cotton, opium, wheat and indigo required by the British.
(iv) They were gradually edged out of the shipping business.
(v) Till the First World War, European Managing Agencies controlled a large sector of Indian industries.

16. “Certain group of weavers were in a better position than others to survive the competition with mill industries-. Explain. [CBSE 2014]

Answer: (i) Producers of coarse cloth: Amongst weavers some produced coarse cloth while others wove finer varieties. The coarser cloth was bought, by the poor and its demand fluctuated violently. In times of bad harvests and famines when the rural poor had little to eat. and their cash income disappeared, they could not possibly buy cloth.

(ii) Producers of finer varieties: The producers of finer varieties were in a better position because the demand for the finer varieties bought by the well- to-do was more stable. The rich could buy these even when the poor starved. Famines did not affect the sale of Banarasi or Baluchari saris. Moreover, as you have seen, mills could not imitate specialised weavers. Saris with woven borders, or the famous lungis and handkerchiefs of Madras, could not be easy displaced by mill production.

17. Who was a jobber Explain his functions. [CBSE 200S. Sept. 2010. 2011. 2012} Or
Why was a jobber employed How did jobber misuse his position and power Explain. (CBSE 2013]

Answer: Getting lobs was always difficult, even when mills multiplied, and the demand for workers increased. The numbers seeking work wore always more than the jobs available. Entry into the mills was also restricted. Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits. Very often, the jobber was an old and trusted worker. He got people from his village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city, and provided them money in times of crisis. The jobber, therefore, became a person with some authority and power. He begun demanding money and gifts for his favour, and began. controlling the lives of the workers.

18. Why could Britain not recapture her hold on the Indian market after the Rrst World War Explain. [CBSE 2009 (F)]
Or
Explain the impact of the First World War on Britain’s economy [CBSE Sept. 2010.2011]

Answer: During the war British mills were busy in war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester’s imports into India declined.
(ii) After the war. Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian marker. Unable to modernise and compete With the United States. Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after she war. Cotton production collapsed, and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically.
(iii) Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated the:: position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

19. Why did the upper class people prefer to use hand products in the Victorian period Explain with examples.
Why in Victorian Britain, the upper classes preferred things produced by hand Give three reasons. (CBSE Sept. 2010)

Answer: The upper class people preferred to use hand products In the Victorian period because :
(i) They symbolized refinement and class.
(ii) They were better finished, in They were individually produced and carefully designed.

Long Answer Type Questions

1. ‘In the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, the merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside.’ Give reasons.
Or
Explain any three major problems faced by the new European merchants in setting up their industries in towns before the Industrial Revolution. [CBSE 2008 (D) Sept. 2012]
Or
What is meant by proto-industrialisation Why was it successful in the countryside in England in the 17th century [CBSE Sept. 2008. 2011. 2012]
Or
Throw light on production during the proto-industrialisation phase in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries with an example. [CBSF. Sept. 2010]

Answer: The earlier phase of industrialisation in which large scale production was carried out for international market not at factories but in decentralised units.

(i) Huge demand : The world trade expanded at a very fast rate during the 17th and the 18th centuries. The acquisition of colonies was also responsible for the increase in demand. The town producers failed to produce the required quantity.

(ii) Powerful town producers :
• The town producers were very powerful,
• The producers could not expand the production. This was because in the towns, urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful. These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people within the trade.

(iii) Monopoly rights : The rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products It was therefore difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns. So they turned to the countryside.

(iv) New economic situation in the countryside : Open fields were disappearing in the countryside and the commons were being enclosed. Cottagers and poor peasants who were earlier depended on common lands became jobless So when merchants came around and offered advances to produce, peasants households eagerly agreed.

2. Why did the peasants agree to accept advances made by the merchants to produce goods for them in Europe during the 17th and the 18th centuries* Explain three reasons. [CBSE Comp. (D) 2008]
Or
How were new merchant groups in Europe able to spread their business in the countryside before the Industrial Revolution Explain.
Or
Briefly explain the method and system of production in the countryside in England.
[CBSE 2013]

Answer: (i) Disappearing open field system : In the countryside, the open field system was prevailing. i.e.. land was free and anyone could use it for production. But as the population increased, the open field system started disappearing. The rich landlords started enclosing the open fields.
(ii) Cottagers and poor peasants: They had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering the firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw. Now they had to look for alternative sources of income.
(iii) Small fields i As most of the land was acquired by the rich landlords, the poor had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all the members of the household. So when merchants came around, and offered advances to produce goods for them, peasant households eagerly agreed.
(iv) Full utilisation of family labour resources : By working for the merchants, the poor peasants and the artisans could continue to remain in the countryside, and cultivate their small plots
(v) Income : Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.

3. Mention any four features of the protoindustrial system. [CBSE Svpt. 2010]
Or
Explain the main features of protoindustrialisation. [CBSE 2010 (0)]
Or
What was proto-industrialisation Why did the poor peasants and artisans in the countryside begin to work for the merchants from the towns [CBSE 2012]

Answer: (i) Impact on cottagers and peasants : After the disappearing of open field system cottagers and poor peasants ‘who had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering their firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw, had to now look for alternative sources of income. Many had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all members of the household. So when merchants cam around and offered advances to produce good; for them, peasant households eagerly agreed. By working for the merchants, they could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots. Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.

(ii) Closed relationship between countryside and towns : Within this system a close relationship developed between the town and the countryside. Merchants were based in towns but the work was done mostly in the countryside.

(iii) Role of merchants : The whole system of production was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers working within their family farms, not in factories At each stage of production 20 to 25 workers were employed by each merchant.

(iv) Market : With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing. So the Merchants were producing these goods for international market.

(v) Not factories : The goods were no: produced in factories by the cotta cottagers and Hie peasants and their families.

4. Explain any five causes of industrial revolution in England. [CBSE 2013.2014]

Answer: (i) Growing International Market: In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market.

(ii) Increase in demand: With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different pans of the world, the demand for goods began growing. It was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers working within their family farms, not in factories.

(iii) Proto-industrial System: The expansion of market and demand lead to proto-industrial growth which provided a base to Industrial Revolution.

(iv) New Inventions: A series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling’1 They enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more, and they made possible the production or stronger threads and yarn. Then Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill.

(v) Availability of Capital : The vast amount of capital which England had accumulated out of profits of her growing trade enabled her to make large expenditure on machinery and buildings. This led to new technological developments.

(vi) Availability of Raw Material : The availability of coal and iron ores in large quantities greatly helped the growth of numerous industries in England.

5. Why the production of cotton industry boomed in the late 19th century
Or
How had a series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficiency of each step of the production process in cotton textile industry Explain. [CBSE 2008]

Answer: (i) New inventions : A series of inventions in the eighteenth century simplified each step of the production process (carding, twisting, spinning, and rolling).
(ii) Increase in output : The new inventions helped in increasing the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more. (iii) Improvement in Quality : Along ‘with quantity, there was improvement in quality also The new invention made possible the production of stronger threads and yam.
(iv) Creation of cotton mill : It was Richard .Arkwright who created the cotton mill. Mow. the costly new machines could be purchased, set up and maintained in the mill Within the mill, all the processes were brought together under one roof and management.
(v) All under single roof : This allowed a more careful supervision over the production process, a watch over quality and the regulation of labour, all of which had been difficult to do so when production was in the countryside.

6. Why did the network of export trade in textiles controlled by the Indian merchants break down by the 1750s Mention any two effects of such a breakdown [CBSE 2013]

Answer: (i) European trading companies gained power. First, they acquired trading concessions from local rulers, then monopolised rights to trade.
(ii)This resulted in the decline of the old ports of Surat and Hoogly.
(iii)Exports from the old ports fell dramatically and local bankers slowly went bankrupt.

Impacts :
(a) Weavers devoted entire time to weaving. They were forced to accept the prices fixed by the company.
(b) There were reports of dashes between weavers and gomasthas. The new gomasthas were outsiders. They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delays in supply. The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers
(c) Weavers deserted villages and migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family relations.

7. Why were most of the producers reluctant to use the new technology Explain by giving examples.
Or
Why did industrialists not want to get rid of hand labour once machines were introduced? [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Or
“The modem industrialisation could not marginalise the traditional industries in England”. Justify the statement with any four suitable arguments. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Or
Why did the industrialists of Europe prefer hand labour over machines during the 19’1, century Explain any five reasons. [CBSE Sept. 2012. 2013]

Answer: (i) Expensive new technology: New technologies and machines were expensive, so the producers and the industrialists were cautious about using them.
(ii) Costlier repair : The machines often
broke down and the repair was costly.
(iii) Less effective : They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.
(iv) Availability of cheap workers : Poor peasants and migrants moved to cities in large numbers in search of jobs. So the supply of workers was more than the demand. Therefore, workers were available at low wages.
(v) Uniform machine-made goods: A range of products could be produced only with hand labour. Machines were oriented to producing uniforms, standardised goods for a mass market. But the demand in the market was often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes.
In the mid-nineteenth century. Britain, for instance. 500 varieties of hammers were produced, and 15 kinds of axes. These required human skill, not mechanical technology.

8. Explain the major features of the industrialisation process of Europe in the 19th century. [CBSE Compt. 2008 (O)]  

Answer: (i) Major industries : Cotton and metal industries were the most dynamic industries in Britain. Cotton was the leading sector i:i the first phase of industrialisation up to the 1840s. but the iron and steel industry led the way after 1840. With the expansion of railways in England from the l840s and in the colonies from the l860s. the demand tor iron and steel increased rapidly. By 1873. Britain was exporting iron and steel worth about 577 million, double the value of its cotton export.

(ii) Domination of traditional industry : The modem machinery and industries could not easily displace traditional industries. Even at the end of the nineteenth century, less than 20 per cent of the total workforce was employed in technologically advanced industrial sectors. Textile was a dynamic sector, but a large portion of the output was produced not within factories, but outside, within the domestic units.

(iii) Base for growth : The pace of change in the ‘traditional’ industries was not set by steam powered cotton or metal industries. They were the ordinary and small innovations which built up the basis o! growth in many non-mechanised sectors such as food processing, building, pottery, glass work, tanning, furniture making and production of implementing sectors.

(iv) New inventions : A series of inventions the eighteenth century increased the efficacy, of each step of the production process (carding, musing and spinning end rolling). They enhanced the output pet worker, enabling each worker to produce more, and they made possible the production of stronger threads and yam. Then Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill.

(v) Slow pace : Though technological inventions were stung place but their pace was very slow. They did not spread dramatically across the industrial landscape New technologies and machines were expensive, so the producers and the industrialists were cautious about using them The machines often broke down, and the repair was costly. They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.

9.‘Historians now have come to increasingly recognise that the typical worker in the mid- 19th century was, not a machine operator, but the traditional craftsperson and a labourer.’ Justify by giving examples. [CBSE 2009]
Or
Why do historians agree that the typical worker in the mid-nineteenth century was not a machine operator but the traditional craftsperson and labourer [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2013]

Answer: (i) Slow pace of technology of new machines : Though Technological inventions were taking place, bur their pace was very slow They did not spread dramatically across The industrial landscape.

(ii) Expensive : New technologies and machines were expensive, so the producers and the industrialists were cautious about using them. The machines often broke down and the repair was costly. They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.

(iii) Limited use of machines : James Wat improved the seam engine produced by Newcomen, and patented the new engine in 1781. His industrialist friend Mathew Boulton manufactured the new model. But they could no: find sufficient buyers. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, there were approximately 321 steam engines, all over England. Of these, 9 in wool industries, and the rest in mining, canal works and iron works. No other industry was using steam engine even in the late 19th century. So even the most powerful new- technology that enhanced the productivity of labour manifold was slow to be accepted by the industrialists.

10. ‘The process of industrialisation brought with it miseries for the newly emerged class of industrial workers.’ Explain. [CBSE 2014]
Or
Explain the miserable conditions of industrial workers in Britain during the nineteenth century. [CBSE 2009]
Or
How did the abundance of labour in the market affect the lives of the workers in Britain during the nineteenth century Explain with examples. [CBSE 2008 (O) Compt.]
Or
Describe the lifestyle of the British workers of the nineteenth century. [CBSE 2010 IO). 2014]
Or
Explain how the condition of the workers steadily declined in the early twentieth century Europe. [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2011]

Answer: (i) More workers than the demand : There was an abundance of workers in the market than the demand This had an adverse impact on the lives of the workers. Due to the shortage of work, most of the workers failed to get jobs So they offered their services at lower wages.
(ii) Seasonality of work : Seasonality of work any industries meant prolonged periods without work. After the busy season was over, the poor were on the streets again. Some returned to the countryside after the winter, when the demand for labour in the rural areas opened up in places. But most looked for odd jobs, which till the mid-nineteenth century were difficult to find.
(iii) Low real wages : Though the wages increased somewhat in the early 19th century, but the increase was nullified by increase in prices. During the Napoleonic ware, the red wages fell significantly.
(iv) Poverty and unemployment : At the best of times, till the mid-nineteenth century, about 10 per cent of the urban population was extremely poor The unemployment rate was also very high.
(v) Housing problem : Factory or workshop owners did not house live migrant workers. Many job seekers had to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or night in shelters.

11. Mention the major features of Indian textiles before the age of machine industries.

Answer: (i) The Age of Indian Textiles : Historically, India was one of the leading producer; of cotton textile. Silk and cotton products of India dominated the international market. India was known for its finer varieties of cotton. The Armenian and Persian merchants took these goods from Punjab to Afghanistan. Persia and Central Asia. Though most of the trade was carried through land routes, but the sea route was and Hoogly were the most important pore; which were used for trade.
(ii) A complex and complete market i Before the arrival of the outsiders, the Dade was handled by a variety of Indian merchants and bankers. The whole process of Dade basically involved three steps :

  • Financing production
  • Carrying or transporting goods
  • Supplying goods to the exporters

Supply merchant; linked the port towns to the inland regions. They gave advances to weavers, procured the woven cloth from weaving village;, and carried the supply to the ports At the port, the big shippers and export merchants had brokers, who negotiated the price. and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland.

12 ‘The port of Surat and Hoogly declined by the end of the I8th century.’ Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2012]

Answer: (i) Most of the European companies had huge resources, so it was very difficult for the Indian merchants and traders to face the competition.
(ii) The European companies were gaining power by securing a variety of concessions from the local courts
(iii) Some of the companies got the monopoly rights to Dade.
All this resulted in the decline of the old ports of Surat and Hoogly through which local merchants had operand. Exports from these ports fell dramatically, the credit that had financed the earlier trade began drying up. and the local bankers slowly went bankrupt.
(iv)In the last years of the seventeenth century, the gross value of -race that passed through Sura: had been t 16 million. By the 1740s. it had slumped to 3 million rupees.
(v) With the passage of time. Surat and Hoogly decayed. Bombay (Mumbai), and Calcutta (Kolkata) grew.

13. What steps were taken by the East India Company to control the market of cotton and silk goods[CBSE 2009 (D)]
Or
The establishment of political power by the East India Company resulted in ruination of the Indian weavers. Support the statement with suitable examples. [CBSE 2012]

Answer: (i) Monopoly right : Once the East India Company established political power, it asserted a monopoly right to trade
(ii) New system : After establishing monopoly over trade :t proceeded to develop a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. This it did through a series of steps.
(iii) Appointing Gomasthas : The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the doth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weavers. It appointed a paid secant called the Gomostha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
(iv) System of advances : To have a direct control over the weavers, the company- started the system of advances. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those, who took loans had to hand over the doth they produced to the Gomastha. They could not take it to any other trader.
(v) Use of power : The places where the weaver refused to cooperate the Company used its police. At many places weaver were often beaten and flogged for delays in supply.

14. Why the system of advances proved harmful for the weavers

Answer: (i) No chance of bargaining : The weavers lost any chance of bargaining.
(ii) Leasing of land : Most of the weavers had to lease out the land and devote all their time to weaving. Weaving in fact, came to absorb the labour of the entire family.
(iii) Dependency for food on others: Most of the weavers after losing their land became dependent on others tor the food supplies.
(iv) Clashes with Gomasthas : The new Gomaszhcs were outsiders, with no long term social link with the village. So they acted arrogantly, marched into villages with the police, and punished weavers for delay in supply.
So. there were reports of clashes between weavers and Gomasthas.

15. ‘By the beginning of the 19th century, there was a long decline of textile exports from India.’ Explain by giving reasons. [CBSE 2008]
Or
Explain three reasons for the decline of Indian textile industry by the end of 19th century. [CBSE Sept. 2010]

Answer: (i) Development of cotton industries in England : As cotton industries developed in England, industrial group; began worrying about imports from other countries. They pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing any competition from outside.

(ii) Growth of mills and falling demand :
With growing mill; and falling home demand British industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indian markets as well.

(iii) Two edge policy : To sell its manufactures in India East India Company followed a two edged policy i.e. no taxes on import; but high taxes on exports.

(iv) Manchester goods in India : Cotton weavers and small producer; in India thus faced two problems at the same time, their export market collapsed and the local market shrank, being glutted with Manchester imports. Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could no: easily compete with them.

(v) Shortage of raw material : By the 1860;, weavers faced a new problem. They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality When the American Civil War broke out and cotton supplies from the US were cut off. Britain turned to India. .As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this, situation weaving could not pay.

16. Who were the entrepreneurs or business groups in India during the 19th century

Answer: (i) Dwarakanath Tagore : He was a leading trader of 3engal. Dwarakanath Tagore accumulated his wealth through China trade, before he turned to industrial investment. He set up six joint stock companies in the 1830s and 40s. Though his enterprises sank in the 19th century, yet he showed way to many of the China traders, who later became successful industrialists.
(ii) Dinshaw Petit : He was a Parsi entrepreneur, and was the founder of the first textile mill in India.
(iii) Jamsetji Nusseruanji Tata : He is generally accepted as the “Father of Indian industry.” He had accumulated his wealth partly from exports to China and partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
(iv) Seth Hukumchand : Seth Hukumchand was a Marwari businessman, who set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta (Kolkata) in 1917.
(v) Birlas : The Birias belonged to the Marwari group, who had established a business in cotton dealership.

17. By the first decade of the 20th century, a series of changes affected the pattern of industrialisation in India. Explain. [CBSE 2008. Sept. 2013]

Answer: (i) Swadeshi and Boycott Movements : The launching of Swadeshi and Boycott Movements after the Partition of Bengal provided impetus to indian industries. There was an increase in the demand of Indian goods, especially of clothes.
(ii) Industrial groups : Industrial groups had also organised themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff, the protection, and grant other concessions.
(iii) Decline of exports to China : From 1906. moreover, the export of Indian yarn to China declined since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills had flooded the Chinese markets.
(iv) First World War : For explanation see No. 19 Long Answer Type Questions. 0.18. What was the condition of Indian industries before the. First World War

18 How did it change after the First World War [CBSE 2013]

Answer: Before the First World War :
(i) The early cotton mills in India produced coarse cotton yam rather than fabric. Only imported yam was of the superior variety, (ii) By the first decade of the 20th century, a series of changes affected the pattern of industrialisation. Industrialists in India began shifting from yam to cloth production.
(iii) Till the First World War. industrial growth was slow. The war created a dramatically new situation.

After the First World War :
(i) With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army. Manchester imports into India declined. Suddenly. Indian mills had a vast home marker to supply.
(ii) As the war prolonged. Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs e.g.. jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents, leather boots, etc.
(iii) New factories were set up and old one; ran multiple shifts Over the war years industrial production boomed.
(iv) After the war. local industrialists gradually consolidated their position. Substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

19. Explain the impact of the First World War on the Indian industries. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Or
Describe the peculiarities of Indian industrial growth during the First World War. [ICBSE 2010(0)]
Or
How did the World War prove to be a boon to the Indian Industries Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2012]

Answer: (i) Decline of Manchester : With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army. Manchester imports into India declined.
(ii) Increase in demand : With the decline of imports suddenly. Indian mills had a vast home market to supply.
(iii) Demand from army : As the War prolonged. Indian factories were called upon to supply war need;i.e.. jute bags, doth for the army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles, and a host of other items.
(iv) New factories : New factories were set up. and old ones ran multiple shifts. Many new workers were employed, and everyone was made to work for longer hours. Over the war years, industrial production boomed.
(v) Downfall of British industry and boon for home industry : After the war Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market. Unable to modernise and compete with the US. Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.

20. Explain the methods used by producers to expand their markets in the 19th century. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Or
How did the British manufacturers attempt to take over the Indian market with the help of advertisements Explain with three examples. [CBSE 200S (D). 2014]
Or
“Consumers are created through advertisement.” Support the statement with three suitable examples. [CBSE Sept. 2012]

Answer: (i) Advertisement : Advertisements through newspapers, magazines, hoarding; were the most important method used by the producers to expand the market. It played a major role in expanding the markets, and shaping a new consumer culture. Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary.

(ii) Labelling : Labelling was another method used by the producers to expand their market. When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they cut labels on the cloth bundles.
When buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written in bold on the labels, they were expected to feel confident about buying the cloth.
But labels did not only carry words and texts. They also carried images, and were very often beautifully illustrated.

(iii) Calendars : By the nineteenth century, manufacturers were printing calendars to popularise their products. Unlike newspapers • and magazines, calendars were used even by people, who could not read. They were hung in tea shops and in poor people’s homes just as much as in offices and middle- class apartments. Those, who hung the calendars had to see the advertisements, day after day, through the year. Even in these calendars, images of gods and goddesses were used to attract the consumers.

(iv) Images of important personages : Along with the images of gods, figures of important personages, of emperors and nawabs were also used. The message very often seemed to say ; if you respect the royal figure, then respect this product; when the product was being used by kings, or produced under royal command, its quality could not be questioned.

(v) Advertisement by Indian producers :
Indian manufacturers were also using the same tactics. When Indian manufacturers advertised, the nationalist message was clear and loud. If you care for the nation, then buy products that Indians produce. Finally, advertisements became a vehicle of the nationalist message of Swadeshi.

21. ‘Industrialisation was a mixed blessing.’ Explain by giving examples. [CBSE 2014]

Answer: (i) Cheap goods : The machine made goods were cheap and fine. So people of colonies could purchase cheap, fine and a variety of goods.
(ii) New entrepreneurs : The process of industrialisation provided an opportunity to Indian entrepreneurs to factories. Though they were junior players, but they earned a good amount.
(iii) Growth of industrial sector : Before the arrival of outsiders, most of the people were involved in agriculture, but the process of industrialisation provided them opportunity to work in other fields.

Life of the workers :
The process of industrialisation brought with it miseries for the newly emerged class of industrial workers.
(i) More workers than the demand : There was an abundance of workers in the market than the demand This had an adverse impact on the lives of the workers. Due to the shortage of work, most of the workers failed to get jobs So they offered their services at lower wages.
(ii) Seasonality of work : Seasonality of work any industries meant prolonged periods without work. After the busy season was over, the poor were on the streets again. Some returned to the countryside after the winter, when the demand for labour in the rural areas opened up in places. But most looked for odd jobs, which till the mid-nineteenth century were difficult to find.
(iii) Low real wages : Though the wages increased somewhat in the early 19th century, but the increase was nullified by increase in prices. During the Napoleonic ware, the red wages fell significantly.
(iv) Poverty and unemployment : At the best of times, till the mid-nineteenth century, about 10 per cent of the urban population was extremely poor The unemployment rate was also very high.
(v) Housing problem : Factory or workshop owners did not house live migrant workers. Many job seekers had to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or night in shelters.

Impact on weavers :
To have a direct control over the weavers, the company started the system of advances. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material, for their production. Those who took loans had to handover the cloth they produced to the Gomastha. They could not take it to any other trader.
The system of advances proved very harmful for the weavers.
(i) The weavers lost any chance of bargaining.
(ii) Most of the weavers had to lease out the land, and devote all their time to weaving. Weaving in fact, came to absorb the labour of the entire family.
(iii) Impact on merchants and traders : The coming of machine-made clothes to India had some serious implications on the merchants on the Indian economy :
1. Collapse In the export market: Before the industrialisation, the Indian traders were exporting their products to different countries of the world. But with the entry of machine-made cloth, they lost their world market.
2. Shrinking of the local market : The machine-made clothes were finer and cheaper. So the producers failed to compete with them. So along with the world market, they started losing the home market also.

22. Explain the role of Indian merchants and bankers in the network of export trade.
Or
What role did the Indian merchants play in the growth of textile industries before 1750 Explain any three points. [CBSE 2011]

Answer: (i) From the late eighteenth century, the British in India began exporting opium to China and took tea from China to England (it) Many Indians became junior players in this trade, providing finance, procuring supplies, and shipping consignments.
(iii) Having earned through trade, some of these businessmen had visions of developing industrial enterprises in India
(iv) Some merchants from Madras traded Burma while others had links with the Muddle East and East Africa. There were yet other commercial groups, but they were not directly involved in external trade. They operated within India, carving goods from one place to another, banking money, transferring funds between cities, and financing traders.

23. Give reasons why the handloom weavers in India survived the onslaught of the machine made textiles of Manchester [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Or
How did small scale industries survive in India despite of Industrialisation [CBSE 2013]

Answer: (i) Many started adopting new technology without excessively pushing up costs. By the second decade of the 20th century most of the weavers were using looms with a fly shuttle.
(ii) The new technology increased productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand.
(iii)Some weavers who wove fine varieties managed to survive as the machine made products failed to attract rich and nobles. There were many weavers who were producing specialised products likeBansari or Baluchari saris, lungis. and handkerchiefs. (iv)Swadeshi movement launched by Indian nationalist provided a boost to handloom demand.

HOTS Questions and Answers

1. What is meant by proto-industrialisation How did it affect the rural peasants and artisans [CBSE 2012]
Or
How did the poor peasants and artisans benefit during the proto-industrialisation phase? [CBSE 2011]

Answer: It was the phase of industrialisation before the Industrial Revolution, where there was large- scale industrial production for an international market which was not factory based.
Impact:
(i) Full utilisation of family labour resources : By working for the merchants the poor peasants and the artisans could continue to remain in the countryside and cultivate their small plots.
(iii) Income: Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.

2. How were machines and technology. glorified in England in the early 20th century through pictures on the cover pages of some books [CBSE 2013]

Answer: (i) The cover page of a music book published by E.T. Paul in 1900 shows the sign of progress as the picture of railway, camera, machines, printing press and factory. Above all, ‘DAWN OF THE CENTURY’ is printed, (ii) The glorification of machines and technology is even more marked on the cover page of a trade magazine.
(ii) The trade magazine shows two magicians. Aladdin is shown as representing the East and the past. Whereas the one is the motor mechanic with modern tools and builds bridges, ships, towers and high rise buildings. He represents the west and modernity.

3. When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they put labels with pictures on the cloth bundles. Why did they do so Explain.

Answer: (i) They used these pictures to advertise their products and to expand their markets.
(ii) Images of Indian gods and goddesses regularly appeared on these labels. It was as if the association with gods gave divine approval to the goods being sold. The imprinted image of Krishna or Saraswati was also intended to make the manufacturer from a foreign land appear somewhat familiar to Indian people.
(iii) Figures of important personages, emperors and nawabs, adorned advertisements and calendars. The messages very often seemed to say; if you respect the royal figure, then respect this product; when the product was being used by kings, or produced under royal command, its quality could not be questioned.

4. How did the abundance of labour in the market affect the lives of the workers in Britain during the nineteenth century? Explain with examples. [CBSE Comp. (O) 2008] 

Answer: (i) Many job-seekers had to wait for weeks, spending nights under bridges or in night shelters. Some stayed in night refuges that were set up by private individuals; others went to the Casual Wards maintained by the Poor Law authorities.

(ii) Seasonality of work in many industries meant prolonged periods without work. After the busy season was over, the poor were on the streets again. Some returned to the countryside after the winter, when the demand for labour in the rural areas opened up in places. But most looked for odd jobs, which till the mid-nineteenth century were difficult to find.

(iii) Wages increased somewhat in the early nineteenth century. But they tell us little about the welfare of the workers. The average figures hide the variations between trades and the fluctuations from year to year. For instance, when prices rose sharply during the prolonged Napoleonic War, the real value of what the workers earned fell significantly, since the same wages could now buy fewer things.

5. Mention any three social causes of the clashes between Gomasthas and Villagers. [CBSE 2014]
Answer: (i) Gomasthas were outsiders and had no long term social link with the village.
(ii) They acted arrogantly.
(iii) They marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delays in supply -often beating and flogging them.

6. ‘Industrialisation brought a big change in social structure. Do you agree? Justify.

Answer: Yes, I do agree with the statement.
(i) Industrialisation forced the workers to migrate from urban areas to cities.
(ii) It encouraged spirit of individualism among both men and women, and a freedom from the collective values that were a feature of the smaller rural communities.
(iii) It widened the gap between rich and poor.

7. Explain the impact of industrialisation on
(a) Women
(b) Children
(c) Do you think child labour is still a major problem? Suggest any two ways to check child labour.

Answer: (i) Industrialisation provided an opportunity to women to come out and work.
(ii) Industrialisation had a negative impact on the children as they were also employed in hazardous factories.
(iii) Very often the entire household -including all the women and children had to work at various stages of the production process. But they were not simply remnants of past times in the age of factories. Their life and labour was integral to process of industrialisation.
(iv) Yes, child labour still is a major problem. Child labour can be checked by :
(i) Spread of education
(ii) Removal of poverty.

8. What is the importance of advertisement? How advertisement was used by the Britishers to expand the market for their products?

Answer: (i) Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary. Advertisement shape the minds of people and create new needs.
(ii) They help in forming a new consumer culture.
(iii) When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they put labels on the cloth bundles. The label was needed to make the place of manufacture and the name of the company familiar to the buyer. The label was also to be a mark of quality. When buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written in bold on the label, they were expected to feel confident about buying the cloth.

9. Assess the impact of the American Civil War on the plight of Weavers in India during second half at the 18th century. [CBSE 2014]

Answer: As raw cotton was being exported to England, there was a shortage of raw materials.
When the American Civil War broke out, and the cotton supplies from the United States were cut off, Britain turned to India. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at higher prices.

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