Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Important Questions with Answers

Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 Democracy and Diversity Important Questions and answers cover these topics and help students to understand the concepts better. Students can solve these for practice. They may come across some of these questions in the board exam.

Students can clear their doubts from the chapter by solving these CBSE Class 10 Civics Important Questions and prepare well for the board exams. The links to download the PDF version of these questions are given in a link in this article.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 Democracy and Diversity Important Questions

1. Who are represented by the term ‘African American’? (2014)

Answer: African-Americans or the Blacks is the name given to the descendants of Africans who were brought into America as slaves between 17th century and early 19th century.

2. Name the two athletes who protested at the Mexico Olympics in 1968.

Answer: Tommie Smith, John Carlos.

3. What is a homogeneous society?

Answer: Homogeneous Society: A society that has similar kinds of people, especially where there are no significant ethnic differences, for example: Germany and Sweden.

4. Define the term ‘migrant’.

Answer: Anybody who shifts from one region or country to another region within a country or to another country, usually for work or other opportunities, is called migrant.

5. Explain the meaning of democracy. (2017 OD)

Answer: Democracy can be broadly defined as a form of government where rulers are elected by the people. The representatives are elected through free and fair elections.

6. What did the African-American athletes do in order to draw international attention to ‘black poverty’ in the Mexico Olympic? (2012)

Answer:

  1. At the Mexico Olympics in 1968, two African-American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos protested to draw international attention towards ‘black poverty’.
  2. They had won the bronze and gold medals respectively. They received their medals wearing black socks and no shoes to represent black poverty.
  3. They stood on the victory board with clenched fists upraised and bowed heads as a symbol of ‘black power’. Their motive was to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States.

7. How is that religious differences created social division in Northern Ireland and failed to do the same in Netherlands? Explain. (2012)

Answer: Social division takes place when social difference overlaps with other differences. Both Northern Ireland and Netherlands are predominantly Christian but divided between Catholics and Protestants.

In Northern Ireland, class and religion overlap with each other. The Catholics there are less in number, poor and suffered a history of discrimination. Overlapping social differences created deep social division and tensions in Northern Ireland. As a result Catholic and Protestants have had conflict.

Whereas in the Netherlands, class and religion tend to cut across each other. Catholics and Protestants are about equally likely to be poor or rich. These cross-cutting social differences are easier to accommodate because it is difficult to pit one group of people against the other.

8. How were Carlos, Smith and Norman penalized for their action at 1968 Mexico Olympics? (2013, 2012)
Or
What consequences did Smith and Carlos have to face after their reaction to the social discrimination? (2015)

Answer: Carlos, Smith and Norman won medals in the 200 metre race in the 1968 Olympics held at Mexico city. Carlos and Smith, the two African-Americans received their medals wearing black gloves, black socks and no shoes to represent Black poverty. They stood with clenched fists upraised and heads bowed, while the American national anthem was played to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States.

The silver medalist, white Australian athlete, Peter Norman, wore a human rights badge on his shirt during the ceremony to show his support to the two African-Americans.

  1. The International Olympic Association held Carlos and Smith guilty of violating the Olympic spirit by making a political statement. Their medals were taken back and they were subjected to a lot of criticism in America.
  2. Norman too suffered for his action and was not included in the Australian team for the next Olympics.

9. Explain three factors that determine the outcome of politics of social divisions. (2012)

Answer: Three factors determining the outcome of politics of social divisions are:
(i) How people perceive their identities. If people see their identities in exclusive terms, it becomes difficult to accommodate. As long as people in Northern Ireland saw themselves as only Catholic or Protestant, their differences were difficult to reconcile. It is easier if identities are complementary with national identities. This helps to stay together. This is how most people in our country see their identity. They feel and think as Indian as well as belonging to a State or a language group or a social or religious group.

(ii) How political leaders raise demands of any community. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community. The demand for ‘only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identity of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka.

(iii) How Government reacts to demands of different groups. If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, as in Belgium, social divisions become less threatening for the country. But if the demand is suppressed in the name of national unity, as in Sri Lanka, the end result is quite opposite. Such attempts at forced integration sow the seeds of disintegration.

10. “Assertion of social diversities need not be seen as a source of danger”. Explain the statement with three arguments. (2013)

Answer:

  • In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.
  • Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing their intensity. This leads to strengthening of a democracy.
  • But a positive attitude towards diversity and a willingness to accommodate it do not come about easily. People who feel deprived have to fight against the injustices. Such a fight often takes the democratic path, voicing their demands in a peaceful and constitutional manner.

11. What are the three main factors that determine the outcome of social divisions in politics? Explain. (2014, 2013)

Answer: Three factors determining the outcome of social divisions in politics are:
(i) How people perceive their identities. If people see their identities in exclusive terms, it becomes difficult to accommodate them. As long as people in Northern Ireland saw themselves as only Catholic or Protestant, their differences were difficult to reconcile. It is easier if identities are complementary with national identities. This helps to stay together. This is how most people in our country see their identity. They feel and think as Indian as well as belonging to a State or a language group or a social or religious group.

(ii) How political leaders raise demands of any community. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community. The demand for ‘only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identity of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka.

(iii) How Government reacts to demands of different groups. If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, as in Belgium, social divisions become less threatening for the country. But if the demand is suppressed in the name of national unity, as in Sri Lanka, the end result is quite opposite. Such attempts at forced integration sow the seeds of disintegration.

12. Why do some people think that it’s not correct to politicize social divisions? Give three reasons. 2014

Answer: Social divisions of one kind or another exist in most countries of the world and these divisions are reflected in politics and affect politics. Expression of social divisions in politics lead to disaster. If social divisions do exist in a country, they must never be expressed in politics, because the combination of politics and social divisions is very dangerous.

  • Democracy involves competition among various political parties. Their competition tends to divide society.
  • If they start competing in terms of some existing social division, it can make social divisions into political divisions and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country. In Yugoslavia, political competition along religious and ethnic lines led to disintegration of the country into six independent countries.
  • Social divisions affect voting in most countries. People from one community tend to prefer some party more than others.

13. “In a democracy, political expression of social division is very normal and can be healthy”. Justify this statement with suitable arguments. (2015)

Answer: In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.

Taking the examples of Belgium and Sri Lanka, if the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country. In fact it may prove healthy for a democracy.

Expressions of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their cancelling one another and thus reducing their intensity. This leads to strengthening of democracy.

As long as people in northern Ireland saw themselves as only Catholic or Protestant, their differences were difficult to reconcile. A majority of Belgians now feel that they are as much Belgian as they are Dutch or German-speaking. This helps them to stay together.

14. Explain the two bases of Social differences with examples. (2017D)

Answer: Origins of Social differences:

  1. Accident of birth. We don’t choose to belong to our community. We belong to it simply because we were born into it. We experience social differences based on accident of birth in our everyday lives
  2. Based on choices. Some of the differences are based on our choices. Some people are atheists. They don’t believe in God or any religion. Some people choose to follow a religion other than the one in which they were born. Most of us choose to study a subject of our interest and an occupation where we can excel. All these lead to formation of social groups that are based on our choices.

15. What penalty was imposed on ‘Carlos, Smith and Norman’ for their action at the 1967 Mexico Olympics? (2017 OD)

Answer:

  1. The International Olympic Association held Carlos and Smith guilty of violating the Olympic spirit by making a political statement. Their medals were taken back.
  2. In America, they were subjected to a lot of criticism.
  3. Norman was excluded from the Australian team in the next Olympics.

16. What are the three main factors that determine the outcome of social divisions in politics? Explain.

Answer: Three factors determining the outcome of social divisions in politics are:
(i) How people perceive their identities. If people see their identities in exclusive terms, it becomes difficult to accommodate them. As long as people in Northern Ireland saw themselves as only Catholic or Protestant, their differences were difficult to reconcile. It is easier if identities are complementary with national identities. This helps to stay together. This is how most people in our country see their identity. They feel and think as Indian as well as belonging to a State or a language group or a social or religious group.

(ii) How political leaders raise demands of any community. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community. The demand for ‘only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identity of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka.

(iii) How Government reacts to demands of different groups. If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, as in Belgium, social divisions become less threatening for the country. But if the demand is suppressed in the name of national unity, as in Sri Lanka, the end result is quite opposite. Such attempts at forced integration sow the seeds of disintegration.

16. Distinguish between overlapping and cross-cutting of social differences. (2013)

Answer:

OverlappingCross-cutting
(i) Overlapping social differences create possi­bilities of deep social divisions and tensions.(i) Cross-cutting social differences are easier to accommodate.
(ii) In overlapping one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other and the people start feeling that they belong to a different community. For example, in Nor­thern Ireland, class and religion overlap each other. If you are Catholic, you are likely to be poor, suffering a history of discrimination.(ii) In cross-cutting, groups that share a common interest on one issue, are sometimes on different sides on different issues. For example, in Netherlands, class and religion tend to cut across each other. Catholics and Protestants are about equally likely to be poor or rich.
(iii) Catholics and Protestants have had conflicts in Northern Ireland.(iii) There are no conflicts in the Netherlands.

17. Explain the origins of social differences. (2014, 2013)

Answer: Origins of Social differences:

  1. Accident of birth. We don’t choose to belong to our community. We belong to it simply because we were born into it. We experience social differences based on accident of birth in our everyday lives.
  2. Based on choices. Some of the differences are based on our choices. Some people are atheists. They don’t believe in God or any religion. Some people choose to follow a religion other than the one in which they were born. Most of us choose to study a subject of our interest and an occupation where we can excel. All these lead to formation of social groups that are based on our choices.
    For example, Nagaland, Uttrakhand and Jharkhand.
  3. Restricting of Centre-State relations. The constitutional arrangements for sharing power work depending on how the ruling parties and leaders follow these arrangements. For a long time, the . same party ruled both at the Centre and in most of states. Post-1990 saw the rise of regional parties. Since no single party got a clear majority in the Lok Sabha, the national parties had to enter into an alliance which led to a new culture of power sharing and respect for autonomy of State Governments.
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