Gender, Religion and Caste Class 10 Important Questions with Answers

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Gender, Religion and Caste Important Questions and answers cover these topics and help students to understand the concepts better. Students can solve these for practice. They may come across some of these questions in the board exam.

Students can clear their doubts from the chapter by solving these CBSE Class 10 Civics Important Questions and prepare well for the board exams. The links to download the PDF version of these questions are given in a link in this article.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Gender, Religion and Caste Important Questions

1. What is the percentage of seats reserved for women in local bodies? (2012)

Answer: 33%

2. What is the ‘term’ used for a person who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men? (2012)

Answer: Feminist

3. What proportion of the country’s population do the SC, ST and OBC together account for? (2013)

Answer: The SC, ST and OBC together account for about two-thirds of the country’s population.

4. Define the term ‘feminist’.

Answer: A woman or a man, who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men, is called a feminist.

5. Explain the term ‘feminist movements’.

Answer: Feminist Movements are radical women’s movements aiming at attaining equality for women in personal and family life and public affairs. These movements have organized and agitated to raise channels for enhancing the political and legal status of women and improving their educational and career opportunities.

6. What is a patriarchal society?

Answer: A patriarchal society is essentially male dominated. The line of descent is traced through the father. Men are valued more in terms of work they do and the place they hold in society. This gives them more power than women.

7. Why do Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes have the prefix ‘Scheduled’ in their names?

Answer: Both these broad groups include hundreds of castes or tribes whose names are listed in an official Schedule. Hence, the prefix ‘scheduled’ in their name.

8. What is communal politics?

Answer: When the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another and when State power is used to establish domination of one religious group over the rest, this manner of using religion in politics is called communal politics.

9. Mention any two constitutional provisions that make India a Secular State.

Answer: Two constitutional provisions that make India a Secular State are:

  1. There is no official religion for the Indian State. Unlike the status of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, Islam in Pakistan and Christianity in England, our Constitution does not give a special status to any religion.
  2. At the same time, the Constitution allows the State to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities; for example, it bans untouchability.

10. Suppose a politician seeks your vote on the religious ground. Why is his act considered against the norms of democracy? Explain. (2015)

Answer: If a politician seeks votes on religious grounds, he is acting against the norms of democracy because—

  1. This act of his is against the Constitution. He is exploiting social differences which may create social discard and lead to social division.
  2. Religion becomes a problem when it is expressed in politics and when one religion and its followers are pitted against another.
  3. When beliefs of one religion are presented as superior to those of other religions and the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another and the state power is used to establish the domination of one religious group over the rest, it leads to communal politics.

11. Explain the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies. (2014)

Answer: The one way to ensure that women related problems get adequate attention is to have more women as elected representatives. To achieve this, it is legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies.

  • Panchayati Raj in India has reserved one-third seats in Local Government bodies for women.
  • In India, the proportion of women in legislature has been very low. The percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha is not even 10 per cent and in State Assemblies less than 5 per cent. India is behind several developing countries of Africa and Latin America. Women organisations have been demanding reservations of at least one-third seats in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for women.
  • And only recently, in March 2010, the women’s reservation bill was passed in the Rajya Sabha ensuring 33% reservation to women in Parliament and State Legislative bodies.

12. How does religion influence the political set up in our country? Explain. (2015)

Answer: Gandhiji said, “Religion can never be separated from politics”. By religion he did not mean any particular religion like Hinduism or Islam, but moral values and ethics drawn from religion to guide politics. Religion in politics is not as dangerous as it may seem to us. Ethical values of each religion can play a major role in politics. According to human rights groups, most of the victims of communal riots in our country are from religious minorities.

Government can take special steps to protect them. Family laws of all religions discriminate against women. The government can change laws to make them more equitable. These instances show a relationship between religion and politics. People should be able to express in politics their needs, interests and demands as members of a religious community. Thus, it is the responsibility of those whose political power is able to regulate the practice of religion, to prevent discrimination and oppression. These political acts are not wrong as long as they treat every religion equally.

13. “Gender division is not based on Biology but on social expectations and stereotypes’. Support the statement. (2012)
Or
Mention different aspects of life in which women are discriminated against or disadvantaged in India.

Answer: ‘Gender division is not based on Biology but on social expectations and stereotypes’:

  1. Boys and girls are brought up to believe that the main responsibility of women is house work and bringing up children. There is sexual division of labour in most families where women stay at home and men work outside to play the role of breadwinners.
  2. Literacy rate among women is only 54% in comparison to 76% among men. In studies, girls mostly perform better than boys, but they drop out simply because parents prefer to spend their resources on their sons’ education. A smaller proportion of girls go for higher studies.
  3. On an average, a woman works more than an average man everyday. Since much of her work is not paid for, therefore often not valued. The Equal Wages Act provides for equal wages for equal work, but in almost all areas of work from sports to cinema, from factories to fields, women are comparatively paid less because of the male chauvinistic bent of mind of society.
  4. Child sex-ratio (number of girl children per thousand boys) is very low. In India, the national average is 927. In some places it is even lower because parents prefer to have sons so they get girl child aborted.
  5. In urban areas too, women are not respected and are unsafe even in their homes being subjected to beating, harassment and other forms of domestic violence.
  6.  The role of women in politics in most societies is minimal.

14. State how caste inequalities are still continuing in India.

Answer: Caste has not disappeared from contemporary India and caste division is special to India. Some of the older aspects of caste persist even today.

  1. Even now most people marry within their own caste.
  2. Untouchability has not ended completely despite constitutional prohibition.
  3. Effects of centuries of advantages and disadvantages can be felt today. The caste groups that had access to education under old system have done well, whereas those groups that did not have access to education have lagged behind.
  4. There is a large presence of ‘upper caste’ among the urban middle classes in our country.
  5. Caste continues to be linked to economic status as is evident from National Sample Survey:
    • The average economic status of caste groups still follows the old hierarchy
    • the ‘upper’ castes are best off, the Dalits and Adivasis are worst off and the backward classes are in between.
    • Although every caste has some poor members, the proportion of those living in extreme poverty is higher for lowest castes and much lower for the upper castes.
    • Similarly, every caste has some members who are rich. The upper castes are heavily over-represented among the rich while the lower castes are under-represented.
    • The SC, ST and OBC together account for about two-thirds of India’s population.

15. What factors have brought about a change in the Indian Caste system in modern times? Explain. (2012)

Answer: The castes and caste system in modern India have undergone great changes due to the efforts of social reformers and the socio-economic changes in India. With economic development, large scale urbanisation, growth of literacy and education, occupational mobility and weakening of the position of landlords in the villages, the old notions of caste hierarchy are breaking down. Politics too influences the caste system and caste identities by bringing them into the political arena. The Constitution of India prohibits any caste-based discrimination and has laid foundations of policies to reverse injustices of the caste system.

16. Explain the various forms that caste can take in politics.

Answer: Various forms of caste in politics:

  1. When governments are formed, political parties usually take care that representatives of different castes and tribes find a place in it.
  2. When parties choose candidates, they keep in mind the composition of the electorate and accordingly choose candidates from different castes so as to muster necessary support to win elections.
  3. Political parties make appeals to caste sentiments to gain support. Some political parties are known to favour some castes.
  4. Universal adult franchise and the principle of one-person-one-vote compelled political leaders to mobilise political support. It also brought new consciousness among people belonging to those castes which were treated as inferiors.

17. What was the Feminist Movement? Explain the political demands of the Feminist Movement in India. (2013)

Answer: Feminist Movements are radical women’s movements aiming at attaining equality for women in personal and family life and public affairs. These movements have organised and agitated to raise channels for enhancing the political and legal status of women and improving their educational and career opportunities.

Political demands of the feminist movement in India:
The one way to ensure that women related problems get adequate attention in India is to have more women as elected representatives. To achieve this, it is legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies. Panchayati Raj in India has reserved one-third seats in Local Government bodies for women.

In India, the proportion of women in legislature has been very low. The percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha is not even 10 per cent and in State Assemblies less than 5 per cent. India in behind several developing countries of Africa and Latin America. Women organizations have been demanding reservations of at least one-third seats in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for women.

And only recently, in March 2010, the women’s reservation bill was passed in the Rajya Sabha ensuring 33 per cent reservation for women in Parliament and State Legislative bodies.

18. What have been the consequences of the political expression of gender division in free India? (2013)

Answer: Political expression of gender division and political mobilisation has helped improve women’s role in public life all over the world including India. However, despite some improvements since Independence, ours is still a male-dominated society and women lag behind in all fields.

  • Literacy rate among women is only 54 per cent as compared with 76 per cent among men.
  • Proportion of women among highly paid and valuable jobs in still very small.
  • Equal Wages Act provides that equal wages should be paid for equal work. However, in all areas from sports and cinema, factories to fields, women are paid less than men for the same amount of work.
  • In many parts of India, parents prefer to have sons and find ways to abort the girl child before she is born.

19. Explain the factors that have led to the weakening of the caste system in India. (2014)

Answer: Reasons which have contributed to changes in caste system:

  1. Efforts of political leaders and social reformers like Gandhiji, B.R. Ambedkar who advocated and worked to establish a society in which caste inequalities are absent.
  2. Socio-economic changes such as:
    • urbanisation
    • growth of literacy and education
    • occupational mobility
    • weakening of landlord’s position in the village
    • breaking down of caste hierarchy have greatly contributed.
  3. The Constitution of India prohibited any caste-based discrimination and laid the foundations of policies to reverse the injustices of the caste system.
  4. Provision of fundamental rights has played a major role because these rights are provided to all citizens without any discrimination.

20. How far is it correct to say that it is not politics that gets caste ridden but it is the caste that gets politicised? Explain. (2015)

Answer: Politics too influences the caste system and caste identities by bringing them into the political arena. This takes several forms:

  1. Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within itself neighbouring castes or subcastes.
  2. Various caste groups enter into a coalition with other castes for negotiations.
  3. New caste groups like ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ have come up in the political arena.
  4. Expressions of caste differences in politics give many disadvantaged communities the chance to demand their share of power and thus gain access to decision-making.
  5. Many political and non-political organisations have been demanding and agitating for an end to discrimination against particular castes for more dignity and more access to land, resources and opportunities.

21. What was the Feminist Movement? Explain the political demands of the Feminist Movement in India. (2017 D)

Answer: Feminist Movements are radical women’s movements aiming at attaining equality for women in personal and family life and public affairs. These movements have organised and agitated to raise channels for enhancing the political and legal status of women and improving their educational and career opportunities.

Political demands of the feminist movement in India:

The one way to ensure that women related problems get adequate attention in India is to have more women as elected representatives. To achieve this, it is legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies. Panchayati Raj in India has reserved one-third seats in Local Government bodies for women.

In India the proportion of women in legislature has been very low. The percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha is not even 10 per cent and in State Assemblies less than 5 per cent. India is behind several developing countries of Africa and Latin America. Women organizations had been demanding reservations of at least one-third seats in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for women.

And only recently, in March 2010, the women’s reservation bill was passed in the Rajya Sabha ensuring 33 per cent reservation to women in Parliament and State Legislative bodies.

22. “The Government of India gives holidays for the festivals of most of the religions.” Why is it so? Give your viewpoint. (2015)

Answer: The Government of India gives all religious holidays because India is a secular state.
Certain provisions were adopted in the Constitution to make India a secular state:

  1. There is no official religion for the Indian State. Unlike the status of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and Islam in Pakistan, our Constitution does not give a special status to any religion.
  2. The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion or not to follow any.
  3. The Constitution prohibits discrimination on the grounds of religion.
  4. Constitution allows the State to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities, for example, it bans untouchability.
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