Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Important Questions

Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements Important Questions and answers cover these topics and help students to understand the concepts better. Students can solve these for practice. They may come across some of these questions in the board exam.

Students can clear their doubts from the chapter by solving these CBSE Class 10 Civics Important Questions and prepare well for the board exams. The links to download the PDF version of these questions are given in a link in this article.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements Important Questions

1. Give an example of a Public Interest group. (2011)

Answer: Backward and Minorities Community Employees Federation (BAMCEF).

2. What was the main aim of the movement in Nepal in 2006? (2011)

Answer: The main aim of the movement in Nepal was to re-establish democracy in Nepal.

3. What are sectional interest groups? Give an example. (2011)

Answer: Organizations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as lawyers, teachers, workers, employees are called sectional interest groups.

4. Name the ‘Third World’ country that has won democracy in 1990. (2012)

Answer: Nepal

5. Give a special feature that distinguishes a pressure group from a political party? (2012)

Answer: Pressure groups do not seek to get into power whereas political parties do.

6. Which special feature distinguishes a movement from an interest group? (2012)

Answer: Movements are usually issue specific to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame.

7. What gave rise to the struggle in Bolivia in 2000? (2012)

Answer: In the year 2000, there was a popular struggle in Bolivia against privatization and subsequent increase in the price of water.

8. What is a pressure group? Give an example.

Answer: Pressure groups are organizations that attempt to influence government policies. They could do so by forming an organization and undertaking activities to promote their interest or their viewpoint. These organizations are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.

A few examples are: BAMCEF (Backward and Minorities Community Employees’ Federation), FEDECOR—a Bolivian organization, RWAs, AITUC.

9. Give two dissimilarities of popular struggles in Nepal and Bolivia? (2013)

Answer:

  1. The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy. The struggle in Bolivia involved claims on an elected, democratic government.
  2. The struggle in Nepal was about the foundation of the country’s politics. The struggle in Bolivia was about one specific policy.

10. Which financial agency pressurized the government of Bolivia to give an MNC, control over the water supply arrangements in the city of Cochabamba? (2013)

Answer: Bank of Cochabamba.

11. Give one characteristic feature of a sectional interest group. (2014)

Answer: Sectional interest groups are organisational that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers and lawyers change, etc.

12. With the help of an example each compare a single issue movement and a long-term movement? (2014)

Answer:

  • Single issue movements are those which seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time period. Example, Narmada Bachao Andolan.
  • Long term movements are those which seek to achieve a long goal in a very long term, e.g., environmental movements, etc.

13. With the help of an example each, compare sectional interest groups and public interest groups. (2014)

Answer: Sectional interest group. They seek to promote the interest of a particular section or group of society. They promote selective good and are concerned only about the interest of their section of the society, their own members and not the society in general. For example, FEDECOR.

Public interest group. They seek to promote collective interests rather than selective good. They promote collective good and are concerned with welfare of the society and not just their own members. For example, BAMCEF.

14. Who dissolved the popularly elected parliament in February 2005 in Nepal? (2015)

Answer: King Gyanendra, the new king dismissed the Prime Minister and dissolved the popularly elected Parliament.

15. What was the main role of ‘FEDECOR’ organisation in Bolivia? (2015)

Answer: The main role of FEDECOR involved claims over an elected government to protest against its policy of water privatization.

16. What was the main aim of the popular movement of April 2006, in Nepal? (2015)

Answer: Aim of popular movement of April 2006 in Nepal:

  1. Restoring democracy.
  2. Regaining popular control over the government from the King.

17. How are issue specific movements different from generic movements? (2016)

Answer: Issue specific movements seek to achieve a single objective within limited time frame. General generic movements seek to achieve a broad goal in the very long term.

18. Which organisation led the protest against water privatisation in Bolivia? (2016)

Answer: The protest against water privatisation in Bolivia was led by FEDECOR.

19. Name any two sectional interest groups. (2016)

Answer: Trade Unions and Professional bodies like lawyers, teachers, etc.

20. Distinguish between pressure groups and political parties by stating any one point of distinction. (2016)

Answer: Pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power but political parties directly control and share political power.

21. Explain with examples the two types of political movements. (2011)

Answer: The movement in Nepal and movement in Bolivia are examples of two types of political movements for democracy.
The movement in Nepal was to regain popular control over the government from the King. This was a struggle to restore democracy. The movement in Bolivia was against a specific policy of the elected democratic government. The people of Bolivia agitated and protested against the government’s decision of privatization of water.

Both these movements are instances of political conflicts that led to popular struggles. Even though in both cases public demonstration of mass support clinched the dispute, their level of impact was different.

22. What inspiration do we get from Bolivia’s popular struggle? Explain any three values that we can learn from it. (2014)

Answer: We can identify the following values in Bolivia’s struggle:

  1. It was a conflict between the people and the government to fight for justice and fairness and to fight against the greed of the government.
  2. The Bolivian organization FEDECOR represented the common or general interest. The members of the organization did not necessarily benefit from the cause that the organization represented. They were fighting for collective social good.
  3. The political conflict that led to popular struggle in Bolivia involved mass mobilization. It showed the power of the common people.

23. Mention any three similarities between struggles of Nepal and Bolivia. (2012)

Answer: The struggle in both these countries relates to establishing and restoring democracy. The success of peoples’ struggle is a reminder that popular struggles are integral to the working of democracy. The democratic struggle in Nepal and Bolivia share some elements:

  • The popular struggle in the form of protest turned into indefinite strike.
  • Struggle involved mass mobilization.
  • Political conflict led to popular struggle.
  • Political organization played a critical role.

24. Explain with examples, how movements are different from interest groups. (2013)

Answer: Movements:

  1. Movements have a loose organization.
  2. Movements are issue specific and long-term involving more than one issue.
  3. Their decision-making is more informal and flexible.
  4. They depend much on spontaneous mass participation.
    Example: Narmada Bachao Andolan under Medha Patkar.

Interest groups:

  1. Interest groups form organizations and undertake activities to promote their interests.
  2. Interests groups are both sectional and public. Sectional interest groups promote interest of particular section of society and promotional or public interest groups aim to help groups other than their own members.
  3. They promote collective good and are concerned with welfare of the society and not just their own members.
    Example: BAMCEF (Backward and Minorities Community Employee Federation).

25. Describe the movement for democracy in Nepal. (2011)

Answer: The Nepalese for democracy arose with the specific objective of reversing the king’s order that led to suspension of democracy. The popular struggle in Nepal involved many organizations other than political parties like the SPA or the Nepalese Communist Party. All the major labour unions and their federations joined the movement. Many other organizations of the indigenous people, teachers, lawyers and human rights groups extended support to the movement.

26. Differentiate between sectional interest groups and public interest groups with examples.

Answer:

Sectional interest groupsPublic interest groups
(i) They seek to promote the interest of a particular section or group of society.(i) They seek to promote collective interest rather than selective good.
(ii) They are sectional groups because they represent a section of society.(ii) They are public groups because they represent the general people of the society.
(iii) They promote selective good and are concerned only about the interest of their section of the society, their own members and not the society in general.(iii) They promote collective good and are concerned with welfare of the society and not just their own members.
(iv) For example, FEDECOR (Bolivian organization).(iv) E.g., BAMCEF (Backward and Minorities Community Employee Federation).

27. Explain how the relationship between political parties and pressure groups can take different forms? (2011)

Answer: The relationship between political parties and pressure groups can take different forms, some direct and others very indirect.
In some instances the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. For example, most trade unions and students’ organizations in India are either established by or affiliated to one or the other major political party.

Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. For example, the Assam Movement led by students against the ‘foreigners’ led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad. The roots of parties like the DMK and the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu can be traced to social reform movement during the 1930s and 1940s. When the relationship between parties and interest groups is not so direct they often take positions opposed to each other. Yet they are in dialogue and negotiation. New issues raised by movements have been taken up by political parties.

28. “The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.” Support the statement. (2015)

Answer:

  1. The Nepalese movement for democracy arose with the specific objective of reversing the king’s order that led to suspension of democracy.
  2. The movement of 2006 was aimed at regaining popular control over the government from the king.
  3. The popular struggle in Nepal involved many organisations other than political parties like the SPA or the Nepalese Communist Party.
  4. All major political parties in the Parliament formed a Seven Party Alliance (SPA) and called a four day strike in Kathmandu. This strike turned into an indefinite strike in which the Maoists and other insurgent groups joined hands.
  5. All the major labour unions and their federations joined the movement. Many other organisations of the indigenous people, teachers, lawyers and human rights groups extended support to the movement.
  6. The movement put forward three demands:
    • Restoration of Parliament
    • Power to an all-party government
    • A new Constituent Assembly.
  7. The number of protesters reached between three to five lakhs. They stuck to their demands and the king was forced to concede to all three demands. On 24th April, the SPA chose Girija Prasad Koirala as the new Prime Minister of the interim government.

29. What are sectional interest groups? Describe their functioning. (2016)

Answer: Sectional interest groups are the groups that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or a group of society. For example, FEDECOR (Bolivian organisation).
Functioning:

  • They perform a meaningful role in countering the undue influence of other groups.
  • They create awareness about the needs and concerns of their own society.

30. What is the difference between pressure group and a political party?

Answer:

Pressure groupsPolitical parties
(i) Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies.(i) A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold powers in the government.
(ii) Unlike political parties, pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political powers. The groups wield power without responsibility.(ii) Political parties form and run governments. They play a decisive role in making laws, shaping public opinion.
(iii) Pressure groups are not accountable to the people.(iii) Political parties have to face the people in elections. Parties have to be responsive to peoples’ need and demands. Otherwise people can reject them in next elections.

31. What are public interest pressure groups? Describe their functioning. (2016)

Answer: Public Interest Groups are those that promote collective rather than selective interests. Their functioning is as follows:

  1. It aims to help groups other than their own members.
  2. They represent some common interest that needs to be defended.
  3. The members of the organization may not benefit from the cause that the organization represents. For example, a group fighting against bonded labour fights not for itself but for those who are suffering under such bondage. E.g., BAMCEF.

32. What was common to the democratic struggles in Poland, Nepal and Bolivia?

Answer: The struggles in all the three countries relate to establishing and restoring democracy. The success of peoples’ struggle is a reminder that popular struggles are integral to the working of democracy.
The democratic struggle in Poland, Nepal and Bolivia share some elements:

  • The popular struggle in the form of protest turned into indefinite strike.
  • Struggle involved mass mobilisation.
  • Political conflict led to popular struggle.
  • Political organisations played a critical role.

33. Explain how the activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government.

Answer: Pressure groups and movements have deepened democracy. A democracy must look after the interest of all, not just one section. Putting pressure on the government is a healthy activity in a democracy so long as everyone gets this opportunity. Public interest groups or pressure groups perform a useful role of countering the undue influence of the rich and powerful people on the government and reminding the government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens.

Where different groups function actively, no single group can achieve dominance over society. The government listens to what different sections of the population want. These activities of pressure groups lead to a rough balance of power and accommodation of conflicting interests in a democracy. In a democracy, conflict is resolved through mass mobilisation and it is these pressure groups who make spontaneous public participation effective.

34. The movement in Nepal and the struggle in Bolivia have some elements relevant to the study of democracy. Explain these elements. (2011)

Answer: The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy, while the struggle in Bolivia involved claims on an elected democratic government. Despite the differences, both these struggles share some elements relevant to study of democracies.

(i) Both these are instances of political conflict that led to popular struggles. The Nepalese movement arose with the specific objective of reversing the King’s order that led to the dismissal of the Prime Minister and the dissolution of the popularly elected Parliament.
In Bolivia, the struggle was against the privatization and increase in prices of water after the government sold these rights to an MNC.

(ii) In both cases, the struggle involved mass mobilization. The popular struggle in the form of a protest turned into an indefinite strike. In Nepal, all major political parties in Parliament formed a Seven Party Alliance and called a four-day strike which turned into an indefinite strike in which the Maoists and insurgent groups joined hands.

In the Bolivian struggle against privatization of water, an alliance of labour human rights and community leaders organized a successful four-day general strike.

35. How do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics? Explain with examples. (2012; 2013; 2015)
Or
“Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in different ways.” Support the statement with suitable examples. (2016)

Answer: Interest groups and movements do not directly engage in party politics but they seek to exert influence on political parties. They have a political position on major issues and take political stance without being a party.
Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in the following ways:

  1. They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals through campaigns, organising meetings, filing petitions and influencing the media for attention.
  2. They organise protest activities like strikes, in order to force the government to take note of their demand.
  3. Business groups employ professionals/lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements. Some members from pressure groups participate in official bodies that offer advice to the government.
  4. In some cases the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties.
    For example, most trade unions and students’ organisations such as NSUI, ABVP in India are either established or affiliated to one or the other major political party.
  5. Sometimes political parties grow out of movements.
    For example, the roots of parties like the DMK and the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu can be traced to a long drawn social reform movement during the 1930s and 1940s.

36. “The democracy has been evolved through struggles and movements all over the world.” Support the statement with examples. (2015)

Answer:

  1. Democracy has evolved through struggles and movements all over the world. The struggles in Poland, Nepal and Bolivia all relate to establishing and restoring democracy. The struggled in these countries is a reminder that popular struggles are integral to the working of democracy.
  2. The role of popular struggle does not come to an end with the establishment of democracy. Democracy involves conflict of interests and viewpoints. These views are expressed in organised ways through which ordinary citizens can play a role in democracy.
  3. In a democracy, several different kinds of organisations work behind any big struggle. These organisations influence the decisions in a democracy either by creating parties, contesting elections and forming government. They promote the interest and viewpoints of citizens in a democracy through interest groups or pressure groups.
  4. Democracy evolves through popular struggle. Some major decisions may take place through consensus. But some decisions involve conflict between the groups who have exercised power and those who aspire to share power. Here the popular struggle helps in the expansion of democracy.

37. What is the difference between movements and interest groups?

Answer:

MovementsInterest groups
(i) Movements have a loose organisation.(i) Interest groups form organisations and under-take activities to promote their interests.
(ii) Movements are: issue specific long-term involving more than one issue.(ii) Interest groups are: Sectional-promote interest of parti-cular section of society. Promotional or public interest groups which aim to help groups other than their own members.
(iii) Their decision-making is more informal and flexible.(iii) Since they represent some common or general interest that needs to be defended, they influence the decisions of the government to get their demands.
(iv) They depend much on spontaneous mass participation. For example, Narmada Bachao Andolan, under Medha Patkar.(iv) Since they promote both selective and collective goods, their principal concern is the betterment of their members and the society. Thus they represent an organised section of groups.

38. Describe the popular struggle ‘against privatization of water’ in Bolivia. (2012)
Or
Describe the popular struggle of Bolivia. (2016)

Answer: Bolivia, a poor country in Latin America, witnessed popular struggle against privatization of water:

  1. The World Bank had pressurised the elected democratic government to give up its control of
    municipal water supply. The government sold these rights for the city of Cochambamba to a multinational company (MNC).
  2. The MNC immediately increased the price of water by four times. This led to a spontaneous popular protest. The mass struggle was not led by any political party.
  3. A new alliance of labour human rights and community leaders organized a successful four-day general strike in the city in January 2000.
  4. Ultimately the government agreed to negotiate and the strike was called off. But yet nothing happened.
  5. Later on, an organization comprising local professionals, engineers, environmentalists, farmers, confederation of factory workers union, middle class students and street children formed the FEDECOR. They called another strike in April and the government imposed martial law.
  6. But the power of the people forced the officials of the MNC to free the city and made the government concede to the demands of the protesters.
  7. Lastly, the contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates. This came to be known as ‘Bolivia’s Water War’.
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