Challenges of Democracy Class 10 Important Questions with Answers

Class 10 Civics Chapter 8 Challenges of Democracy Important Questions and answers cover these topics and help students to understand the concepts better. Students can solve these for practice. They may come across some of these questions in the board exam.

Students can clear their doubts from the chapter by solving these CBSE Class 10 Civics Important Questions and prepare well for the board exams. The links to download the PDF version of these questions are given in a link in this article.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 8 Challenges of Democracy Important Questions

1. If all the decisions of a political party are made by a single family and all other members are neglected, then what challenge is being faced by that party? (2015 D)

Answer: Challenge of deepening of democracy.

2. Explain the meaning of ‘challenge’. (2017 D)

Answer: A challenge is a difficulty that carries within it an opportunity for progress.

3. Describe in brief the three challenges faced by democracy.
Answer:

  1. Foundational challenge. It relates to making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government. It involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling government and establishing a sovereign and functional State.
  2. Challenge of expansion. It involves applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions. It pertains to ensuring greater power to local governments, extension of federal principle to all the units of the federation, inclusion of women and minority groups, etc. Most established democracies, e.g., India and US, face the challenge of expansion.
  3. Challenge of deepening of democracy. This challenge involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy. It means strengthening those institutions that help people’s participation and control in the government. It aims at bringing down the control and influence of rich and powerful people in making governmental decisions.

4. Explain with examples why some laws that seek to ban something are not very successful in politics. (2011 D)

Answer: Law has an important role to play in political reform. Carefully devised changes in law can help to discourage wrong political practices and encourage good ones. But legal constitutional changes by themselves are not effective, until carried out by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens. Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics. Sometimes it can be counter-productive.

For example, many states have banned people who have more than two children from contesting panchayat elections. This has resulted in denial of democratic opportunity to many poor men and women.

The best laws are those which empower the people to carry out democratic reforms. The Right to Information Act is a good example that supplements the existing laws. “Any law for political reforms is a good solution but who will implement it and how”—is the question. It is not necessary that the legislators will pass legislations that go against the interests of the political parties and MPs.

5. “Legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy.” Explain with example. (2015 D, 2013 D, 2011 D)
Or
How are the challenges to democracy linked to the possibility of political reforms? Explain.
Or
Suggest any five political reforms to strengthen democracy. (2014 D)

Answer: As legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy, democratic reforms need to be carried out mainly by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens.

(i) Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics. Generally, laws that seek a ban on something are rather counter-productive;
For example, many states have debarred people who have more than two children from contesting Panchayat elections. This has resulted in denial of democratic opportunity to many poor women, which was not intended. The best laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reforms; for example, the Right to Information Act which acts as a watchdog of democracy by controlling corruption.

(ii) Democratic reforms are to be brought about principally through political parties. The most important concern should be to increase and improve the quality of political participation by ordinary citizens.

(iii) Any proposal for political reforms should think not only about what is a good solution, but also about who will implement it and how. Measures that rely on democratic movements, citizens’ organizations and media are likely to succeed.

6. Explain the ‘foundational challenge’ of democracy by stating three points. (2011 D)
Answer:

  1. Foundational challenge relates to making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government. It involves establishing a sovereign and functional state.
  2. It involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling government and establishing a civilian control over all governmental institutions by holding elections.
  3. It involves the recognition of people’s choice and opportunity to change rulers, recognise people’s will. In countries like Myanmar political leader Suu Kyi has been kept under house arrest for more than 20 years. Thus, in this case, foundational challenge recognizes the need to release political leaders and recall them from exile and holding of multiparty elections.

7. Explain ‘the challenge of deepening of democracy’ by stating three points. (2012 D, 2014 OD)

Answer: The challenge of deepening of democracy:

  1. This challenge involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy. It means strengthening those institutions that help people’s participation and control in the government.
    The challenge lies in realising the expectations of the people in a democracy. It is possible that some significant decisions may take place through consensus but challenging moments in democracy usually involve conflict between those groups who have power and those who aspire for a share in power. In Bolivia, the water struggle was a challenge of deepening of democracy.
  2. The challenge of deepening of democracy is faced by every nation in one form or another. It aims at bringing down the control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decisions. The need is for individual freedom and dignity to have legal and moral force.

8. How are some countries of the world facing the ‘challenge of expansion of democracy’? Explain with examples. (2012 D, 2012 OD)
“Most of the established democracies are facing the challenge of expansion.” Support the statement with examples. (2016 D)

Answer: Most of the established democracies face the challenge of expansion. This involves applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions. Ensuring greater power to local government, extension of federal principle to all the units of federation, inclusion of women and minority groups, etc. falls under this challenge. This means less and less decisions should remain outside the arena of democratic control. Most of the countries including India and the US face this challenge.

9. Explain with examples how do some countries face foundational challenge of democracy. (2013 OD)

Answer:

  1. Foundational challenge relates to making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government. It involves establishing a sovereign and functional state.
  2. It involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling government and establishing a civilian control over all governmental institutions by holding elections. Eg: Nepal, Egypt, Pakistan.
  3. In countries like Pakistan, democracy comes for and/ or remains for a short time and gets replaced by dictatorial rule.
  4. It involves the recognition of people’s choice and opportunity to change rulers, recognize people’s will. In countries like Myanmar political leader Suu Kyi was kept under house arrest for more than 20 years. Thus, in this case, foundational challenge recognizes the need to release political leaders and recall them from exile and holding of multiparty elections.

10. Analyse three major challenges before countries which do not have democratic form of governments. (2013 OD)

Answer: Challenges faced by countries which do not have a democratic form of government:

  1. These countries face the foundational challenge of making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government.
  2. They also face the challenge of bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, and keeping the military away from controlling the government.
  3. Such countries have to make great efforts to establish a sovereign and functional State.

11. Describe in brief the three challenges faced by democracy. (2014 D)
Answer:

  1. Foundational challenge. It relates to making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government. It involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling government and establishing a sovereign and functional State.
  2. Challenge of expansion. It involves applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions. It pertains to ensuring greater power to local governments, extension of federal principle to all the units of the federation, inclusion of women and minority groups, etc. Most established democracies, e.g., India and US, face the challenge of expansion.
  3. Challenge of deepening of democracy. This challenge involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy. It means strengthening those institutions that help people’s participation and control in the government. It aims at bringing down the control and influence of rich and powerful people in making governmental decisions.

12. What do you mean by foundational challenge in democracy? What values can help to overcome this challenge? (2014 OD)

Answer: Transition to democratic institutions from non-democratic regimes, separation of military from governing authority, establishing a sovereign and a functional state can be some of the foundational challenges in democracies.
The values that may help overcome them are:

  • honesty
  • equality
  • freedom

13. “A challenge is an opportunity for progress.” Support the statement with your arguments. (2015 OD)

Answer: A challenge is not just any problem. Only those difficulties are a ‘challenge’ which are significant and can be overcome and therefore carry within them an opportunity for progress. Democracy is the dominant form of government in the contemporary world. It does not face a particular challenger, but the promise of democracy is far from realised anywhere in the world. Democracy as a whole faces certain challenges. Legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot help to overcome challenges to democracy—like economic inequality, unemployment, illiteracy, caste, gender discrimination. Democratic reforms can be carried out by political activities, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens, in order to realise the opportunity in a challenge, in order to overcome it an go up to a higher level.

14. How far has India succeeded in overcoming the challenge of expansion before its democracy? Evaluate. (2013 D)

Answer: Like most of the established democracies of the world, India, too, faces the challenges of expansion.

  1. India applies basic principles of democracy across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions.
  2. Federal principles have been extended to all the units of the federation giving the right to make laws on the subjects in the state list.
  3. Local governments-both rural and urban have been ensured more powers.
  4. Reservation of seats has ensured the participation of women, the minority groups, SCs, STs and OBCs in the governance of the country.
  5. All the above points mean that less and less decisions are taken outside the arena of democratic control.

15. Explain any/me major challenges being faced by the Indian democracy. (2014 OD)

Answer: (i) Politics through religion. Religious communities on their own can find ways of peaceful existence, but increasing political interference has led to a greater religious intolerance. This intolerance becomes dangerous when politicians interfere with people’s passions. For example, Sectarian tensions mixed with the rivalries of the 2007 elections in Punjab, when activists of various Sikh bodies clashed with the followers of the Sirsa based Dera Sacha Sauda, which had close ties with the Congress Party, over an advertisement the Dera placed in various dailies depicting its chief dressed as Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh Guru.

(ii) Caste War. Caste wars are not going to disappear from the democratic map of India because politics is moving consistently on narrow sectarian lines. At present, it is difficult to decide if caste is altering politics or politics is shifting caste equations. For example, caste alienation has been deepened by the reservation for Jats and the government needs to rethink about its reservation policy.

(iii) Remove economic inequality. To remove economic inequality the need is delivery of basic social and physical infrastructure. We still have poor infrastructure, Inspector Raj and labour policy that discourages employment. It is the failure of the State which is a major cause of concern. The present growth is in stride with the rapidly changing global environment but for the poor to really benefit, the country needs more functioning schools and health centres. Our concern in India should be to lift poor people into the middle class.

(iv) Gender division. Gender discrimination and women’s political representation are not given adequate attention. In India proportion of women in legislatures has been very low.

(v) Corruption. The Indian democracy has faced with routine cases of corruption. For example, 2G scam, CWG scam, fodder scam, to mention a few. In substantive terms it may be reasonable to expect from democracy a government that is attentive to the needs and demands of the people and is largely free of corruption. But unfortunately the record of Indian democracy is not impressive and clean.

16. What are the features a democracy must have to be called a good democracy? (2012 D)
Answer:

  1. The rulers elected by the people must take all the major decisions.
  2. Elections must offer a choice and a fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers.
  3. Choice and opportunity should be available to all the people on an equal basis.
  4. Exercise of choice should lead to a government limited by basic rules of the Constitution and citizen’s rights.
  5. Besides political rights, some social and economic rights are offered to the citizens by democracy.
  6. Power-sharing is the spirit of democracy and is necessary between government and social groups in a democracy.
  7. Democracy is not the brute rule of the majority and respect for minority voice is necessary for a democracy.
  8. Elimination of discrimination based on caste, religion and gender is important in a democracy.

17. “It is very difficult to reform politics through legal ways”. Evaluate the statement. (2017 OD)

Answer: Law plays an important role in bringing change in democratic policies. Properly legislated law can put down the wrong political practices and encourage constructive ones. But on the other hand, only devised law cannot improve or reform democracy. In practice, it all depends on the political leaders, awareness of the citizens, participation of pressure groups and movements.

As legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy, democratic reforms need to be carried out mainly by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens —

  1. Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics. Generally, laws that seek a ban on something are rather counter-productive;
    For example, many states have debarred people who have more than two children from contesting Panchayat elections. This has resulted in denial of democratic opportunity to many poor women, which was not intended. The best laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reforms; for example, the Right to Information Act which acts as a watchdog of democracy by controlling corruption.
  2. Democratic reforms are to be brought about principally through political parties. The most important concern should be to increase and improve the quality of political participation by ordinary citizens. (HI) Any proposal for political reforms should think not only about what is a good solution, but also about who will implement it and how. Measures that rely on democratic movements, citizens’ organizations and media are likely to succeed.
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