NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk To Freedom
NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk To Freedom are provided here. This story is written by Nelson Rolihilahla mandel and includes many questions that are important for exams. We have solved all the NCERT questions of the lesson with a detailed explanation that help students to complete their assignments & homework. We have provided NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk To Freedom in PDF format so that you can download them for offline use.
Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 NCERT Questions and Answers
Oral Comprehension Check (Page No. 18 -19)
Question 1. Where did the ceremonies take place? Can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstones?
Answer: The ceremonies took place in the campus of the Union Building of Pretoria, which were attended by dignitaries and leaders of many nations. In India; Rashtrapati
Bhavan and Red Fort are buildings made of sandstone.
Question 2. Can you say how 10th May is an ‘autumn day’ in South Africa?
Answer: 10 May is an ‘autumn day’ in South Africa because on this day there was the largest gathering of international leaders on South African soil for the installation of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government.
Question 3. At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions “an extraordinary human disaster”. What does he mean by this? What is the “glorious human achievement” he speaks of at the end?
Answer: In Mandela’s speech ‘an extraordinary human disaster’, he wanted to express the practice of Apartheid in South Africa. During this practice, there was a racial segregation of people based on colour and the Black people suffered the most as they were discriminated by the rest. They could not enjoy the right to freedom. Mandela was jailed as a prisoner for 18 years on the infamous ‘Robben Island’ where he was mistreated by the authorities. He considered it as “great glorious human achievement” that he became the first Black President of South Africa where the Blacks were deprived of basic needs and suffered different kinds of discrimination and were treated badly.
Question 4. What does Mandela thank the international leaders for?
Answer: Mandela felt privileged to be the host to the nations of the world because not too long ago, the South Africans were considered outlaws. He thus thanked all the international leaders for having come to witness his investiture as President since this event could be considered as a common victory for justice, peace and human dignity.
Question 5. What ideals does Nelson Mandela set for the future of South Africa?
Answer: Nelson Mandela set the ideals of liberating people from bondage of poverty, deprivation and suffering. He also set the ideal for a society where there would be no discrimination based on gender or racial origins.
Oral Comprehension Check (Page No. 21)
Question 1. What did the military generals do? How did their attitude change and why?
Answer: The highest military generals of South African defence force saluted Mandela and pledged their loyalty which was of great significance as during apartheid era they would have arrested him. The change in their attitude was because of struggle and sacrifices put in by many heroes of South Africa. This struggle not only ensured the freedom of a nation struggling with apartheid, but brought a change in mindsets of many. He believed that love can also be taught and human being is naturally inclined towards love rather than hate.
Question 2. Why were two national anthems sung?
Answer: On the day of the inauguration, two national anthems were sung, one by the whites, and the other by the blacks. This symbolized the equality of blacks and whites.
Question 3. How does Mandela describe the systems of government in his country
(i) in the first decade, and
(ii) in the final decade, of the twentieth century?
Answer: (i) In the first decade of the century, the whites erected a system of racial domination against the blacks, thus creating the basis of one of the harshest and most inhumane societies the world had ever known.
(ii) In the final decade of the twentieth century, the previous system of government had been overturned forever and replaced by one that recognised the rights and freedoms of all peoples, regardless of the colour of their skin.
Question 4. What does courage mean to Mandela?
Answer: For Mandela courage does not mean the absence of fear but a victory over fear. According to him brave men need not be fearless but should be able to conquer fear.
Question 5. Which does Mandela think is natural, to love or to hate?
Answer: Mandela thought that loves comes more naturally to the human heart rather than hate.
Oral Comprehension Check (Page No. 24)
Question 1. What “twin obligations” does Mandela mention?
Answer: Mandela mentions that every man has twin obligations. The first is to his family, parents, wife and children; the second obligation is to his people, his community and his country.
Question 2. What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy, and as a student? How does he contrast these “transitory freedoms” with “the basic and honourable freedoms”?
Answer: When Mandela says that he was ‘simply the sum of all African patriots,’ he means that he could identify with the unimaginable sacrifices of all those noble and courageous men who fought for the collective freedom of the African people. He was pained that he could not thank them and that they could not see what their sacrifices had wrought.
Question 3. Does Mandela think the oppressor is free? Why/why not?
Answer: Mandela does not feel that the oppressor is free because in his opinion, an oppressor is like a victim of hatred who is locked behind the bars of prejudice and narrow-mindedness. He perceives that both the oppressor and the oppressed are robbed of their humanity and peace of mind.
Thinking about the Text
Question 1. Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration? What did it signify the triumph of?
Answer: To be the part of the inauguration, international leaders showed a gesture of solidarity from international community to the idea of end of apartheid. It was the significance of the victory of good over evil and triumph of a tolerant society without any discrimination.
Question 2. What does Mandela mean when he says he is “simply the sum of all those African patriots”, who had gone before him?
Answer: Mandela wants to pay his tribute to all the people who had sacrificed their lives for the sake of freedom. he feels that he is the sum of all those African patriots who had gone before him because those heroes of yesterday years had paved the path of co-operation and unity for him. Therefore, he got the support of his people to be able to come to power to bring equality for his own people.
Question 3. Would you agree that the “depths of oppression” create “heights of character”? How does Mandela illustrate this? Can you add your own examples to this argument?
Answer: I agree with the statement that depths of oppression create heights of character. Nelson Mandela illustrates this by giving examples of great heroes of South Africa like Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu and others who were inspired to sacrifice their lives in the long freedom struggle.
India is full of such examples, during our freedom struggle there was a galaxy of leaders of great characters and the oppression of British rule created and encouraged people of noble characters like Mahatma Gandhi, Lala Lajpat Rai, JL Nehru, Chandra Shekhar Ajad, Sardar Bhagat Singh and many more. If we compare them with the quality of political leaders India is having today, then Nelson Mandela seems to be absolutely right;
Question 4. How did Mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience?
Answer: As a boy, Mandela did not have a hunger for freedom because he thought that he was born free. He believed that as long as he obeyed his father and abided by the customs of his tribe, he was free in every possible manner. He had certain needs as a teenager and certain needs as a young man. Gradually, he realized that he was selfish during his boyhood. He slowly understands that it is not just his freedom that is being curtailed, but the freedom of all blacks. It is after attaining this understanding that he develops a hunger for the freedom of his people.
Question 5. How did Mandela’s ‘hunger for freedom’ change his life?
Answer: Mandela realised in his youth that it was not just his freedom that was being curtailed, but the freedom of all blacks. This changed the fearful man to a fearless rebel.
He sacrificed the comforts of a settled family life to fight for a greater cause. He joined the African National Congress and this changed him from a frightened young man into a bold one who fought against racial prejudice.
Thinking about Language
Questions I. There are nouns in the text (formation, government) which are formed from the corresponding verbs (form, govern) by suffixing – (at)ion or ment. There may be change in the spelling of some verb – noun pairs ; such as rebel, rebellion; constitute, constitution.
1. Make a list of such pairs of nouns and verbs in the text.
Question 2: Read the paragraph below. Fill in the blanks with the noun forms of the verbs in brackets.
Martin Luther King’s _______________ (contribute) to our history as an outstanding leader began when he came to the ______________ (assist) of Rosa Parks, a seamstress who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger. In those days American Blacks were confined to positions of second class citizenship by restrictive laws and customs. To break these laws would mean _______________ (subjugate) and ________________ (humiliate) by the police and the legal system. Beatings, _________________ (imprison) and sometimes death awaited those who defied the System. Martin Luther King’s tactics of protest involved non-violent ___________________ (resist) to racial injustice.
Answer: Martin Luther King’s contribution to our history as an outstanding leader began when he came to the assistance of Rosa Parks, a seamstress who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger. In those days American Blacks were confined to positions of second class citizenship by restrictive laws and customs. To break these laws would mean subjugation and humiliation by the police and the legal system. Beatings, imprisonment and sometimes death awaited those who defied the System. Martin Luther King’s tactics of protest involved non-violent resistance to racial injustice.
II. Using the Definite Article with Names
Here are some more examples of ‘the’ used with proper names. Try to say what these sentences mean. (You may consult a dictionary if you wish. Look at the entry for ‘the’.)
1. Mr Singh regularly invites the Amitabh Bachchan and the Shah Rukh Khans to his parties.
2. Many people think that Madhuri Dixit is the Madhubala of our times.
3. History is not only the story of the Alexanders, the Napoleons and the Hitlers, but of ordinary people as well.
Answer: 1. This implies that Mr. Singh regularly invites prominent personalities of caliber such as Mr. Amitabh Bachchan and Mr. Shah Rukh Khan to his parties.
2. This implies that in the current generation, Madhuri Dixit is compared to the great actress, Madhubala.
3. This means history is not only the story of great fighers such as Alexander, Napoleon or Hitler, but also of other ordinary people.
III. Idiomatic Expressions
Match the italicised phrases in Column A with the phrase nearest in meaning in Column B. (Hint: First look for the sentence in the text in which the phrase in Column A occurs.)
|1. I was not unmindful of the fact||(i) had not forgotten; was aware of the fact |
(ii) was not careful about the fact
(iii) forgot or was not aware of the fact
|2. when my comrades and I were pushed to our limits||(i) pushed by the guards to the wall (ii) took more than our share of beatings (iii) felt that we could not endure the suffering any longer|
|3. to reassure me and keep me going||(i) make me go on walking (ii) help me continue to live in hope in this very difficult situation (iii) make me remain without complaining|
|4. the basic and honourable freedoms of…earning my keep,…||(i) earning enough money to live on (ii) keeping what I earned (iii) getting a good salary|
|1. I was not unmindful of the fact||(i) had not forgotten; was aware of the fact|
|2. when my comrades and I were pushed to our limits||(iii) felt that we could not endure the suffering any longer|
|3. to reassure me and keep me going||(ii) help me continue to live in hope in this very difficult situation|
|4. the basic and honourable freedoms of…earning my keep,…||(i) earning enough money to live on|
Speaking (Page 26)
In groups, discuss the issues suggested in the box below. Then prepare a speech of about two minutes on the following topic. (First make notes for your speech in writing.)
True liberty is freedom from poverty, deprivation and all forms of discrimination.
- causes of poverty and means of overcoming it
- discrimination based on gender, religion, class, etc.
- constitutionally guaranteed human rights
Answer: Activity to be done by yourself.
Writing (Page 26-28)
Question I: Looking at Contrasts
Nelson Mandela’s writing is marked by balance: many sentences have two parts in balance.
Use the following phrases to complete the sentences given below.
(i) they can be taught to love.
(ii) I was born free.
(iii) but the triumph over it.
(iv) but he who conquers that fear.
(v) to create such heights of character.
1. It requires such depths of oppression ____________________
2. Courage was not the absence of fear _____________________
3. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid ________________
4. If people can learn to hate ____________________
5. I was not born with a hunger to be free. ______________
Answer: 1. It requires such depths of oppression (v) to create such heights of character.
2. Courage was not the absence of fear (iii) but the triumph over it.
3. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid (iv) but he who conquers that fear.
4. If people can learn to hate (i) they can be taught to love.
5. I was not born with a hunger to be free. (ii) I was born free.
Question II: This text repeatedly contrasts the past with the present or the future. We can use coordinated clauses to contrast two views, for emphasis or effect. Given below are sentences carrying one part of the contrast. Find in the text the second part of the contrast, and complete each item. Identify the words which signal the contrast. This has been done for you in the first item.
1. For decades the Union Buildings had been the seat of white supremacy, and now …
2. Only moments before, the highest generals of the South African defence force and police … saluted me and pledged their loyalty. … not so many years before they would not have saluted _______________
3. Although that day neither group knew the lyrics of the anthem …, they would soon ______________
4. My country is rich in the minerals and gems that lie beneath its soil, _______________________
5. The Air Show was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force, but _______________
6. It was this desire for the freedom of my people … that transformed _______________ into a bold one, that drove _______________ to become a criminal, that turned ________________into a man without a home.
Answer: 1. For decades the Union Buildings had been the seat of white supremacy, and now it was the site of a rainbow gathering of different colours and nations for the installation of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government.
2. Only moments before, the highest generals of the South African defence force and police … saluted me and pledged their loyalty. … not so many years before they would not have saluted but arrested me.
3. Although that day neither group knew the lyrics of the anthem …, they would soon know the words by heart.
4. My country is rich in the minerals and gems that lie beneath its soil, but I have always known that its greatest wealth is its people, finer and truer than the purest diamonds.
5. The Air Show was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force, but a demonstration of the military’s loyalty to democracy, to a new government that had been freely and fairly elected.
6. It was this desire for the freedom of my people … that transformed a frightened young man into a bold one, that drove a law-abiding attorney to become a criminal, that turned a family-loving husband into a man without a home.
Question III: Expressing Your Opinion
Do you think there is colour prejudice in our own country? Discuss this with your friend and write a paragraph of about 100 to 150 words about this. You have the option of making your paragraph a humorous one. (Read the short verse given below.)
When you were born you were pink
When you grew up you became white
When you are in the sun you are red
When you are sick you are yellow
When you are angry you are purple
When you are shocked you are grey
And you have the cheek to call me ‘coloured’.
Answer: Activity to be done by yourself.