NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries are given here. With these solutions, you will learn the right way to write answers to the questions perfectly in exams. We have updated the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries for the current session so that you can easily score high marks in the exams. You can also download PDF of the solutions and use them whenever you are offline.

Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 NCERT Solutions

1: Multiple choice questions

(i) Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium
(b) Cement               
(c) Sugar                
(d) Jute

Answer: (b) Cement

(ii) Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?
(a) HAIL                    
(b) SAIL                  
(c) TATA Steel      
(d) MNCC

Answer: (b) SAIL

(iii) Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium    
(b) Cement                  
(c) Jute                    
(d) Steel

Answer: (a) Aluminium

(iv) Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computer, etc.?
(a) Steel                                                      
(b) Electronic
(c) Aluminium                                          
(d) Information Technology

Answer: (b) Electronic

2: Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 words.

(i) What is manufacturing?

Answer: Manufacturing is the production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products. For e.g. paper is manufactured from wood, sugar from sugarcane, iron and steel from iron ore and aluminium from bauxite.

(ii) Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.

Answer: Three physical factors important for the location of the industry are:

  • Availability of raw materials
  • Availability of power
  • Proximity to the market

(iii) Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.

Answer: Human factors essential in deciding the location of an industry are − availability of cheap labour, availability of services such as consultants and financial advice, and resources for maintaining labour.

(iv) What are basic industries? Give an example.

Answer: Basic industries are those which supply their raw materials to industries which manufacture other goods. An example is the iron and steel industry which supplies steel to the automobile industry.

(v) Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement?

Answer: The important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement are: limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum. Apart from these, coal, electric power and rail transportation are also needed.

3: Write the answers of the following questions in 120 words.

(i) How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?

Answer: Integrated steel plants are different from mini steel plants in many aspects. An integrated steel plant is large and handles everything in one complex—from integrating raw materials to steel making, rolling and shaping. On the other hand, a mini steel plant is smaller, has electric furnaces, uses steel scrap and sponge iron, and has re-rollers that use steel ingots as well. It produces mild and alloy steel of given specifications.

The problems faced by this industry are:
(a) high production costs and limited availability of coking coal;
(b) lower productivity of labour;
(c) irregular supply of energy; and
(d) poor infrastructure.

Recent developments that have led to a rise in the production capacity of this industry are liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investment, with help from private entrepreneurs.

(ii) How do industries pollute the environment?

Answer: Industrial pollution of the environment is of four types: air, water, land and noise. Air pollution is caused by smoke released by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels in factories ignoring pollution norms. Water pollution is caused by the discharging of organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents into rivers. This form of pollution is caused by paper, pulp, chemical, textile, dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries. The major solid wastes released into rivers in India are fly ash, phospo – gypsum, and iron and steel slags. Thermal pollution of water is another form of water pollution, caused by the emission of hot water from factories and thermal plants into rivers and ponds. Dumping of solid wastes renders the soil infertile and useless too. Lastly, noise pollution results from industrial and construction activities, machinery, generators, and saws, pneumatic and electric drills.

(iii) Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry?

Answer: The steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry are as follows:

  • To control water pollution, industrial effluents need to be treated on all three levels (primary, secondary and tertiary); the use of water for processing should be minimised via reuse and recycling; rainwater can be harvested to meet water requirements, and ground water usage should be regulated by law.
  • For the minimisation of air pollution, smoke stacks should be fitted to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators. Also, smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal.
  • Noise pollution can be controlled by fitting generators with silencers, redesigning machinery to reduce noise, and using earplugs and earphones besides other noise absorbing material.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries: Chapter Overview

Do you know the meaning of manufacturing? Manufacturing is the production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products. In this chapter, you will learn about industries the importance of manufacturing. This chapter explains to you how industries contribute to our national economy, industry-market linkage, classification of industries such as agro-based industries, textile industry, sugar industry, iron and steel industries, fertilizer industry, aluminium industry, automobile industry etc.

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