NCERT Solutions for Class 6 History Chapter 3 In the Earliest Cities

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 3 In the Earliest Cities contains the answers to the exercise questions. These solutions are easy and accurate that helps with the questions asked in the examinations. The Class 6 History Chapter 3 solution covers all the questions of the chapter in detail. These solutions are prepared by our subject experts in very easy language. All our Class 6 NCERT solutions are updated as per the latest CBSE Syllabus and Guidelines.

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 3

Question 1: How do archaeologists know that cloth was used in the Harappan civilization?

Answer: Actual pieces of cloth have been found in Mohenjodaro, attached to the lid of a silver vase and some copper objects. Spindle whorls have also been discovered, which were used to spin thread. This indicates cloth was used in the Harappan civilisation.

Question 2: Match the columns

CopperGujarat
GoldAfghanistan
TinRajasthan
Precious StonesKarnataka

Answer:

CopperRajasthan
GoldKarnataka
TinAfghanistan
Precious StonesGujarat

Question 3: Why were metals, writing, the wheel and the plough important for the Harappans?

Answer: Metals, writing, the wheel and the plough were important for the Harappans due to the following reasons:

Metals – used for making tools, ornaments, vessels, weapons

Writing – for communication purpose

Wheel – for pottery and for making carts used for travelling.

Plough – used for farming purpose.

Question 4: Make a list of all the terracotta toys shown in the lesson. Which do you think children would have enjoyed playing the most?

Answer: The terracotta toys shown in the lesson are:

  • Toy Plough
  • Toy Cart
  • Models of different animals

Children would have enjoyed playing with the cart just like the kids today love to play with cars.

Question 5: Make a list of what the Harappans ate and put a tick mark against the things you eat today.

Answer: We can find a list of 9 different items.

  • Peas
  • Barley
  • Rice
  • Wheat
  • Fruits
  • Mustard
  • Linseed
  • Sesame
  • Pulses

Question 6: Do you think that the life of farmers and herders who supplied food to the Harappan cities was different from that of the farmers and herders you read about in Chapter 2? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer: Yes, the life of the farmers and herders who supplied food to the Harappan cities was different in the following ways:

(i) Tools: Harappan farmers and herders used a wooden tool called plough which was used for turning the soil and planting seeds. The earlier farmers and herder used mortars and pestle for grinding grain. Their tools were also made of bone.

(ii) Irrigation: Harappan farmers and herders used irrigation for better produce while the earlier ones did not.

(iii) Storage: The Harappan farmers stored food in well-built granaries and not in clay pots, baskets, etc.

(iv) Residence: Harappan farmers lived on the outskirts of cities, whereas there were no settled cities in the time of the farmers and herders.

Extra Questions

Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. When and how was the site of Harappa first encountered?
Answer:  Around a hundred and fifty years ago, when railway lines were being laid in Punjab, engineers stumbled upon the site of Harappa.

2. How old are Harappa cities believed to be?
Answer: Harappa and other such cities are believed to have developed 4700 years ago.

3. What was the citadel?
Answer: The western part of most cities was smaller but higher, described as ‘citadel’ by archaeologists.

4. Give some important features of the Great Bath.
Answer: The Great Bath was lined with bricks, Coated with plaster, and made water tight with natural tar.

5. Name two cities which had fire altars.
Answer:  Lothal and Kalibangan were cities with fire altars.

6. What were the three mayor categories of people in a Harappan city?
Answer: In Harappan cities, rulers, Crafts-persons and scribes were the three categories of people.

7. What were objects in Harappan cities made of?
Answer: Most Harappan objects were made of stone, shell and metal.

8. How do we know that cotton was grown in Mohenjodaro? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Archaeologists have found pieces of cloth with vases and other objects in Mohenjodaro. So cotton must have been grown.

9.Who was a ‘specialist’ in Harappan context? –
Answer: A specialist was one who was trained to do one kind of work, e.g. cutting stone, polishing beads, or carving seals.

10. Define ‘raw material.
Answer: Raw materials are substances that are either found naturally or produced by farmers or herders.

11. Name some foreign countries from where raw materials were imported.
Answer: Raw materials were imported from Oman, Afghanistan, Iran, etc.

12. What was the use of the plough? [V. Imp.]
Answer: A plough was used to dig the earth for turning the soil and planting seeds.

13. Give one point of difference between Dholavira and other Harappan cities.
Answer: Unlike other Harappan cities which were divided into two parts, Dholavira was divided into three.

14. Where did people move to from Sind?
Answer: People moved into newer and smaller settlements to the east and the south.

 Short Answer Type Questions 

1. Describe the two parts of a typical Harappan city.

 Answer: A Harappan city was usually divided into two or more parts. The part to the west was smaller but higher. It is called ‘citadel’. The part to the east was larger but-lower. Archaeologists call it the lower town.

2. How were bricks laid in houses of Harappan cities?

Answer: Bricks were so well made that they have lasted for thousand of years. They were laid in an interlocking pattern and this made the walls strong. Many of these bricks were taken away by engineers about a hundred and fifty years ago.

3. Describe the drains of the cities.  

Answer: Most cities had covered drains. They were laid out carefully in straight lines. Each drain had a gentle slope. Thus, water could flow easily through it. Drains in houses were connected to those on the streets and smaller drains led to bigger ones.

4. Write a short note on the craft practised by Harappan.

Answer: Harappan objects were made of stone, shell and metal. Copper and bronze were used to make tools, weapons, ornaments and vessels. Gold and silver were used to make ornaments and vessels. Harappans also made stone seals. They made pots with beautiful black designs.

5. Where did the Harappan get the raw materials from?

Answer: The Harappans got the raw materials from various places. They got copper probably from present-day Rajasthan, and also from Oman. Tin was brought from Afghanistan and Iran. Gold was brought may be from Karnataka. Precious stones were brought from Gujarat, Iran and Afghanistan.

6. Write a short note on the city of Lothal.

Answer: Lothal was a city on the banks of a tributary of the Sabarmati. It was an important centre for making stone, shell and metal objects. There was a store house in the city. Fire altars have been found here.

Long Answer Type Questions

1. Describe the people of Harappan cities.

Answer: There were three basic occupations of people living in Harappan cities.

(i) They planned the construction of special buildings in the city.They probably sent people to distant lands to get raw material. They kept the most valuable objects for themselves.

(ii) Scribes were people who knew how to write. They prepared the seals.

(iii) Crafts-persons. People who made all kinds of things were called Crafts- persons.
Besides these three categories, there were farmers and herders who lived outside the city and provided food to the people.

2. Write a short note on farming methods and rearing done by Harappan farmers and herders.

Answer: (i) Harappans grew wheat, barley, pulses, peas, rice, sesame, linseed, and mustard. A new tool called plough was used to dig earth for turning the soil and planting seeds. Due to little rainfall, a method of irrigation was probably used.

(ii) The Harappan reared cattle, sheep, goat, and buffalo. Water and pastures were present around many sites. People collected fruits like ‘ber’, caught fish and hunted wild animals.

3. What could have been the possible reasons behind the end of the Harappan civilization?

Answer: The Harappan civilization suddenly seems to have started to end, around 3900 years ago. People stopped living in many cities. Writing, seals and weights became ‘extinct’. Raw materials were now rarely imported.

Some scholars suggest that this happened due to the drying of rivers. Some others have explained it with deforestation. In some areas there were floods. The floods could have been a reason for the end.

Rulers might also have lost control. Consequently, People abandoned sites in Sind and Punjab and moved to newer, smaller settlements to the east and the south.

Class 6 History Chapter 3 NCERT Questions and Answers

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