Class 7 History Chapter 4 The Mughal Empire Extra Questions and Answers
Class 7 History Chapter 4 The Mughal Empire extra questions and answers available here. Solving class 7 extra questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practicing these extra questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.
The Mughal Empire Class 7 History Extra Questions and Answers
Very Short Extra Questions and Answers
1: Guerilla warfare was started by the Marathas in the deccan during the reign of ____________.
2: Prince Akbar rebelled against whom?
3: Name the Mughal ruler who followed the coparcenary inheritance.
4: Mughals permanently lost Qandhar during the reign of ___________.
Answer: Shah Jahan
5: In which year the battle of Chanderi was fought?
6: Chittor was the capital of __________.
Answer: Sisodiya Rajputs
7: When was the First Battle of Panipat fought?
8: Who wrote Ain-i-Akbari?
Answer: Abul Fazl
9: The real name of Nur Jahan, the queen of Jahangir was Mehrunnisa. True/False
10: Who constructed Fatehpur-Sikri?
11: What is the name of the policy of peaceful co-existence adopted by Akbar?
12: The dynasty, which reigned India for maximum number of years was Mughal. True/False
13: Name the Rajput clan that refused to accept the suzerainty of Mughals for a long time.
14: The immediate threat in the year 1500 to the Mughal authority was the _________.
15: Red Fort in Delhi was constructed by__________.
Answer: Shah Jahan
16: Who was Bairam Khan?
Answer: guardian of Akbar
17: What was the real name of Mughal Emperor Shahjahan?
18: Afghan noble Khan Jahan Lodi was defeated by Akbar?
19: Name the Mughal emperor who seized power from the hands of his regent Bairam Khan.
20: Who was the first Mughal emperor?
21: Akbar became emperor at the age of ______ years.
Answer: 13 years
22: What do you understand by Zabt?
Answer: revenue system
23: Qandhar was the bone of contention between Mughals and ________.
24: Jahangir struck silver coins bearing the name of his queen Nurjahan. True/False
25: The Sisodiya Rajputs were ruling over Ajmer. True/False
26: Who was Genghis Khan?
Answer: The founder of the Mongol Empire.
27: When did the great Timurid Sultan, Timur Lane died?
28: When did Timur Lane invaded India?
29: Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi at__________.
30: Name the Mansabdars who were allotted jagirs in their own region.
31: Name the autonomous state founded by Saadat Khan.
32: During the reign of Babur and Humayun, majority of the nobles were of ___________ origin.
33: Who founded the kingdom of Hyderabad?
Answer: Nizam – ul- Mulk
34: Where the religious discussions conducted by Akbar were held?
Answer: Ibadat Khana
35: Name the Mughal ruler who has followed the coparcenary inheritance.
36: Mansab stands for ____________.
Answer: one rank
37: What determined the position of a Mansabdars?
Answer: zat rank
38: Higher, the zat rank, higher was the position of the mansabdars in the court. True/False
39: The system in which elder son succeeds father after death was _____________.
Answer: primogeniture inheritance
40: Coparcenary inheritance means division of the empire among brothers. True/False
41: Name The Maratha Chieftain who escaped from Agra and declared himself as an independent king.
42: In what form does the Mansabdars received salaries?
43: Akbar Nama was written by___________.
Answer: Abu’l-Fazl ibn Mubarak
44: Between whom the battle of Khanua was faught?
45: Name the place captured by Akbar after the capture of the Sisodiya capital Chittor.
Short Extra Questions and Answers
1. When did Humayun recapture Delhi?
Answer: He recaptured Delhi in 1555.
2. Who was the first Mughal emperor of India?
Answer: Babur was the first Mughal emperor (1526- 1530).
3. Who started guerrilla warfare in the Deccan?
Answer: Marathas started guerrilla warfare.
4. Who was Jahangir?
Answer: Jahangir was the great Mughal Emperor, and he was the son of Akbar.
5. Who gave shelter to Humayun when he fled to Iran?
Answer: In Iran Humayun received help from the Safavid Shah.
6. Who was the author of Akbar Nama and Ain-Akbari?
Answer: Abul Fazl was the author of Akbar Nama and Ain-i-Akbari.
7. How did Humayun die?
Answer: Humayun died as a result of an accidental fall in his building.
8. At what age did Akbar became the emperor of the Mughal Empire?
Answer: At the age of 13, Akbar became the emperor of the Mughal Empire.
9. Who was the regent of Akbar?
Answer: Bairam Khan was the regent of Akbar.
10. Who defeated the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi and where?
Answer: Babur defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526.
11. Who were defeated in the battle of Chanderi by Babur?
Answer: Rajputs was defeated in the battle of Chanderi by Babur.
12. What was jagir?
Answer: Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs.
13. What forced Humayun to flee to Iran?
Answer: Sher Khan defeated Humayun at Chausa (1539) and Kanauj (1540), forcing him to flee to Iran.
14. Who was Genghis Khan?
Answer: Genghis Khan was the ruler of the Mongol tribes, China and Central Asia. He died in 1227.
15. Who was Jahangir’s mother?
Answer: The mother of Jahangir was a Kachhwaha princess, daughter of the Rajput ruler of Amber (modernday Jaipur).
16. Who was Shah Jahan’s mother?
Answer: The mother of Shah Jahan was a Rathor princess, daughter of the Rajput ruler of Marwar (Jodhpur).
17. What is the rule of primogeniture?
Answer: In law, primogeniture is the rule of inheritance whereby father’s estate descends to the eldest son.
18. When did Mehrunnisa receive the title Nur Jahan?
Answer: Mehrunnisa married the Emperor Jahangir in 1611 and received the title Nur Jahan.
19. What was the Mughal tradition of succession?
Answer: They followed the Mughal and Timurid custom of coparcenary inheritance, or a division of the inheritance amongst all the sons.
20. Who was Babur?
Answer: Babur, the first Mughal emperor (1526- 1530), succeeded to the throne of Ferghana in 1494 when he was only 12 years old.
21. What was known as zabt?
Answer: Each province was divided into revenue circles with its own schedule of revenue rates for individual crops. This revenue system was known as zabt.
22. What was the name that Prince Khurram assumed after he ascended the throne?
Answer: After the death of Jahangir, Prince Khurram ascended to the throne in 1627 and was named Shah Jahan.
23. Who was victorious in the conflict over succession amongst the Shah Jahan’s sons?
Answer: Aurangzeb was victorious and his three brothers, including Dara Shukoh, were killed.
24. What were the central provinces under the control of the Mughals?
Answer: The central provinces under the control of the Mughals were-Lahore, Panipat, Delhi, Mathura, Agra, Amber, Ajmer, Fatehpur Sikri, Chittor, Ranthambhor and Allahabad.
25. What was zat?
Answer: Rank and salary were determined by a numerical value called zat. The higher the zat, the more prestigious was the noble’s position in court and the larger his salary.
26. What was the role of the zamindar in Mughal administration?
Answer: Zamindar in Mughal administration collected tax from peasants. They acted as intermediaries between peasants and the ruler. In some areas the zamindars exercised a great deal of power.
27. Explain the term Dogma and Bigot.
Answer: Dogma – A statement or an interpretation declared as authoritative with the expectation that it would be followed without question.
Bigot – An individual who is intolerant of another person’s religious beliefs or culture.
28. Aurangzeb insulted Shivaji when he came to accept Mughal authority. What was the consequence of this insult?
Answer: As a result of this, Shivaji escaped from Agra, declared himself an independent king and resumed his campaigns against the Mughals.
29. Why was it a difficult task for rulers of Middle Ages to rule the Indian subcontinent?
Answer: Ruling as large a territory as the Indian subcontinent with such a diversity of people and cultures was an extremely difficult task for any ruler to accomplish in the Middle Ages.
30. What helped the Mughals to extend their influence over many kings and chieftains?
Answer: The careful balance between defeating but not humiliating their opponents enabled the Mughals to extend their influence over many kings and chieftains.
31. What do you mean by the term mansabdar?
What do you know about Mansabdari System?
Answer: The term mansabdar refers to an individual who holds a mansab, meaning a position or rank. It was a grading system used by the Mughals to fix (1) rank, (2) salary and (3) military responsibilities.
32. What were the military responsibilities of mansabdars?
Answer: The mansabdar’s military responsibilities required him to maintain a specified number of sawar or cavalrymen. The mansabdar brought his cavalrymen for review, got them registered, their horses branded and then received money to pay them as salary.
33. What power did the nobles exercise during Akbar reign?
Answer: Akbar’s nobles commanded large armies and had access to large amounts of revenue. While they were loyal the empire functioned efficiently but by the end of the seventeenth century many nobles had built independent networks of their own. Their loyalties to the empire were weakened by their own self-interest.
34. What was the relationship between the mansabdar and the jagir?
Answer: Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs. Most mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their jagirs. They only had rights to the revenue of their assignments which was collected for them by their servants while the mansabdars themselves served in some other part of the country.
35. Write about the major campaigns and events of Shah Jahan reign.
Answer: Mughal campaigns continued in the Deccan under Shah Jahan. The Afghan noble Khan Jahan Lodi rebelled and was defeated. Campaigns were launched against Ahmadnagar; the Bundelas were defeated and Orchha seized. In the north-west, the campaign to seize Balkh from the Uzbegs was unsuccessful and Qandahar was lost to the Safavids. In 1632 Ahmadnagar was finally annexed and the Bijapur forces sued for peace.
Long Extra Questions and Answers
1. What were the main features of sulh-i kul?
Write short notes on Akbar’s religious policy.
Answer: Akbar introduced the idea of sulh-i kul or “universal peace”. Its main features were:
- This idea of tolerance did not discriminate between people of different religions in his realm.
- Instead it focused on a system of ethics – honesty, justice and peace – that was universally applicable.
2. Why was it important for the Mughals to recruit mansabdars from diverse backgrounds and not just Turanis and Iranis?
Answer: As the empire expanded to encompass different regions the Mughals recruited diverse bodies of people. From a small nucleus of Turkish nobles (Turanis) they expanded to include Iranians, Indian Muslims, Afghans, Rajputs, Marathas and other groups. Those who joined Mughal service were enrolled as mansabdars.
3. Write a short note on ‘Babur’?
Answer: (i) Babur, the first Mughal emperor (1526-1530), succeeded to the throne of Ferghana in 1494 when he was only 12 years old.
(ii) He was forced to leave his ancestral throne due to the invasion of another Mongol group, the Uzbegs.
(iii) After years of wandering he seized Kabul in 1504. In 1526 he defeated the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at Panipat and captured Delhi and Agra.
4. Write short note on Humayun.
Answer: (i) Humayun divided his inheritance according to the will of his father. His brothers were each given a province. The ambitions of his brother Mirza Kamran weakened Humayun’s cause against Afghan competitors. Sher Khan defeated Humayun at Chausa (1539) and Kanauj (1540), forcing him to flee to Iran.
(ii) In Iran Humayun received help from the Safavid Shah. He recaptured Delhi in 1555 but died the next year after an accident in this building.
5. How were the debates with religious scholars important in the formation of Akbar’s ideas on governance?
Answer: Akbar’s interaction with people of different faiths made him realise that religious scholars who emphasised ritual and dogma were often bigots. Their teachings created divisions and disharmony amongst his subjects. This eventually led Akbar to the idea of sulh-i kul or “universal peace”. This idea of tolerance did not discriminate between people of different religions in his realm. Instead it focused on a system of ethics – honesty, justice and peace – that was universally applicable.
6. Why did the Mughals emphasise their Timurid and not their Mongol descent?
Answer: The Mughals were descendants of two great lineages of rulers. From their mother’s side they were descendants of Genghis Khan (died 1227), ruler of the Mongol tribes, China and Central Asia. From their father’s side they were the successors of Timur (died 1404), the ruler of Iran, Iraq and modern-day Turkey. However, the Mughals did not like to be called Mughal or Mongol. This was because Genghis Khan’s memory was associated with the massacre of innumerable people. It was also linked with the Uzbegs, their Mongol competitors. On the other hand, the Mughals were proud of their Timurid ancestry, not least of all because their great ancestor had captured Delhi in 1398.
7. How important was the income from land revenue to the stability of the Mughal Empire?
Answer: The main source of income available to Mughal rulers was from land revenue. The Mughal Empire was very large and therefore for administration and maintaining law and order, a huge amount of revenue was needed which comes from the land revenue. The land revenue was also needed for salaries of the soldiers and officials and welfare works for the common people. The enormous wealth and resources commanded by the Mughal elite made them an extremely powerful group of people in the late seventeenth century. Thus, we can say that land revenue played a crucial role in the stability of the Mughal Empire.
8. How were the Mughal different from their predecessors?
Answer: In contrast to their predecessors, the Mughals created an empire and accomplished what had hitherto seemed possible for only short periods of time. From the latter half of the sixteenth century they expanded their kingdom from Agra and Delhi, until in the seventeenth century they controlled nearly all of the subcontinent. They imposed structures of administration and ideas of governance that outlasted their rule, leaving a political legacy that succeeding rulers of the subcontinent could not ignore.
9. How did Babur become the ruler of Delhi?
Answer: Babur, the first Mughal emperor (1526-1530), succeeded to the throne of Ferghana in 1494 when he was only 12 years old. He was forced to leave his ancestral throne due to the invasion of another Mongol group, the Uzbegs. After years of wandering he seized Kabul in 1504. In 1526 he defeated the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at Panipat and captured Delhi and Agra. He captured Delhi and led the foundation of Mughal Empire.
10. Write a brief note on the Land Revenue System of Akbar.
Answer: Akbar’s revenue minister, Todar Mal, carried out a careful survey of crop yields, prices and areas cultivated for a 10-year period, 1570- 1580. On the basis of this data, tax was fixed on each crop in cash. Each province was divided into revenue circles with its own schedule of revenue rates for individual crops. This revenue system was known as zabt. It was prevalent in those areas where Mughal administrators could survey the land and keep very careful accounts.
11. Give a brief account of Akbar Nama and Ain-i Akbari.
Answer: Abul Fazl wrote a three-volume history of Akbar’s reign, titled Akbar Nama. The first volume dealt with Akbar’s ancestors and the second volume recorded the events of Akbar’s reign. The third volume is the Ain-I Akbari. It deals with Akbar’s administration, household, army, the revenues and the geography of his empire. It also provides rich details about the traditions and culture of the people living in India. The most interesting aspect about the Ain-i Akbari is its rich statistical details about things as diverse as crops, yields, prices, wages and revenues.
12. Write about the Mughal relations with other rulers.
Answer: Mughal rulers campaigned constantly against rulers who refused to accept their authority. But as the Mughals became powerful many other rulers also joined them voluntarily. The Rajputs are a good example of this. Many of them married their daughters into Mughal families and received high positions. But many resisted as well. The Sisodiya Rajputs refused to accept Mughal authority for a long time. Once defeated, however, they were honourably treated by the Mughals, given their lands (watan) back as assignments (watan jagir). The careful balance between defeating but not humiliating their opponents enabled the Mughals to extend their influence over many kings and chieftains.
13. Why did the peasantry suffer tremendously in the last years of Aurangzeb’s reign?
Answer: In Akbar’s reign these jagirs were carefully assessed so that their revenues were roughly equal to the salary of the mansabdar. By Aurangzeb’s reign this was no longer the case and the actual revenue collected was often less than the granted sum. There was also a huge increase in the number of mansabdars, which meant a long wait before they received a jagir. These and other factors created a shortage in the number of jagirs. As a result, many jagirdars tried to extract as much revenue as possible while they had a jagir. Aurangzeb was unable to control these developments in the last years of his reign and the peasantry therefore suffered tremendously.
14. What were the major campaigns and events of Akbar reign?
Answer: Akbar was 13 years old when he became emperor. His reign can be divided into three periods.
(i) 1556-1570 – Akbar became independent of the regent Bairam Khan and other members of his domestic staff. Military campaigns were launched against the Suris and other Afghans, against the neighbouring kingdoms of Malwa and Gondwana, and to suppress the revolt of his half-brother Mirza Hakim and the Uzbegs. In 1568 the Sisodiya capital of Chittor was seized and in 1569 Ranthambhor.
(ii) 1570-1585 – military campaigns in Gujarat were followed by campaigns in the east in Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. These campaigns were complicated by the 1579-1580 revolt in support of Mirza Hakim.
(iii) 1585-1605 – expansion of Akbar’s empire. Campaigns were launched in the north-west. Qandahar was seized from the Safavids, Kashmir was annexed, as also Kabul, after the death of Mirza Hakim. Campaigns in the Deccan started and Berar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar were annexed.
15. Write a short note on Akbar’s administrative policies?
Answer: The broad features of administration were laid down by Akbar and were elaborately discussed by Abul Fazl in his book, the Akbar Nama, in particular in its last volume, the Ain-i Akbari. Abul Fazl explained that the empire was divided into provinces called subas, governed by a subadar who carried out both political and military functions. Each province also had a financial officer or diwan. For the maintenance of peace and order in his province, the subadar was supported by other officers such as the military paymaster (bakhshi), the minister in charge of religious and charitable patronage (sadr), military commanders (faujdars) and the town police commander (kotwal). He was interested in the religion and social customs of different people. So, he followed the principle of governance called sulh-i kul or “universal peace”. This idea of tolerance did not discriminate between people of different religions in his realm. Instead it focused on a system of ethics – honesty, justice and peace – that was universally applicable.
16. Write a note on the Mughal Empire in the seventeenth century and after?
Answer: (i) The administrative and military efficiency of the Mughal Empire led to great economic and commercial prosperity. International travellers described it as the fabled land of wealth. But these same visitors were also appalled at the state of poverty that existed side by side with the greatest opulence.
(ii) The Mughal emperors and their mansabdars spent a great deal of their income on salaries and goods. This expenditure benefited the artisans and peasantry who supplied them with goods and produce. But the scale of revenue collection left very little for investment in the hands of the primary producers – the peasant and the artisan.
(iii) The enormous wealth and resources commanded by the Mughal elite made them an extremely powerful group of people in the late seventeenth century. As the authority of the Mughal emperor slowly declined, his servants emerged as powerful centres of power in the regions. They constituted new dynasties and held command of provinces like Hyderabad and Awadh. Although they continued to recognise the Mughal emperor in Delhi as their master, by the eighteenth century the provinces of the empire had consolidated their independent political identities.