Class 7 History Chapter 3 The Delhi Sultans Important Questions and Answers
CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 3 The Delhi Sultans Important Questions and answers cover all the major concepts of the chapter. Solving answers of these important questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising class 7 important questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.
The Delhi Sultans Class 7 History Important Questions
Very Short Answer Type Question
1: Who was the founder of the Sayyed dynasty?
Answer: Khizr Khan
2: How many taxes were levied by the Delhi Sultans?
Answer: Three types of taxes were levied by the Delhi Sultans. They were:
(i) On cultivation (Kharaj) 50% of the produce.
(ii) On cattle
(iii) On houses.
3: Name the Three types of taxes imposed by the Sultans of Delhi.
Answer: Three types of taxes imposed by the Sultans of Delhi were kharaj, ghari and chari.
4. Why did the authors of tawarikh write their histories for Sultans?
Answer: They did so in the hope of rich rewards.
5. W/u/ was Raziyya removed from the throne? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Being a woman ruler she was not favoured by anyone. She ruled just for four years and was finally dethroned in 1240.
6. What is the literal meaning of mosque?
Answer: It refers to a place where a Muslim prostrates in reverence to Allah.
7. What is called the qibla?
Answer: The direction towards which Muslims turn while offering prayer or namaz.
8. Why did the early Delhi Sultans favour their slaves?
Answer: The slaves were totally dependent on their master. Therefore the Sultan could trust and rely upon them.
9. What was the duty of the muqtis?
Answer: The duly of the muqtis was to lead military campaigns and maintain law and order in their iqtas.
10. Why were accountants appointed by the state?
Answer: They were appointed to check the amount of revenue collected by the muqtis.
11. Why did the authors of Persian tawarikh criticise the Delhi Sultans? [Imp.]
Answer: They did not like the Sultanate’s policy of appointing the ‘low and base-born’ to high offices.
12. For how many years the Suri dynasty rule?
Answer: The Suri dynasty ruled for only 15 years.
13: What was the term ‘iqta’stood for, during the Sultanate period?
Answer: land assigned to military commanders.
14. Who defeated the Tomara Rajputs and when?
Answer: The Chauhans of Ajmer defeated the Tomara Rajputs in the middle of the 12th century.
15. When did the Delhi Sultanate lag its foundation?
Answer: The Delhi Sultanate laid its foundation in the beginning of the thirteenth century.
16: What do you mean by Iqta System?
Answer: The Khalji and Tughluq Monarchs appointed military commanders as governors of territories of varying sizes. These lands were called Iqta
17: When did Delhi become the capital city under the Delhi Sultanate?
Answer: Delhi became as capital city under the Delhi Sultanate in 13 Century.
Short Answer Type Questions
1: Who were the bandagans and what was their role in the Delhi Sultanate?
Answer: The Bandagans were special slaves purchased for military service by the early sultans especially Illtutmish.They were carefully trained to man important political offices in the kingdom.They were totally dependent on the masters and the Sultan could trust them implicitly.
2: Who were the iqtadars or the muqti and what was their role?
Answer: The Khalji and the Tughlaq monarchs appointed military commanders as governers of territories. These land were called the Iqta and the landholders were called Iqtadars or the muqti. The role of the muqti was to lead military campaigns and to maintain peace and order in their Iqtas.
3: What forced the two rulers Allauddin Khilji and Muhammed Tughluq to mobilise a large standing army in Delhi?
Answer: The Mongols under Genghis Khan attacked the Delhi Sultanate repeatedly after 1219.This forced the two rulers to mobilise a large standing army in Delhi because the attacks increased during the reign of Allaudin Khilji and in the early years of Muhammed Tughluq’s rule.
4: Why do you think Barani critisised Sultan Muhammed Tughluq?
Answer: Sultan muhammed Tughluq appointed Aziz Khummar, a wine distiller, Firuj Hajjam, a barber, Manka tabbakh, a cook and two garderners Ladhs and Pira to high administrative posts.Ziyauddin barani , a fourteenth century chronicler reported the appointments as a sign of the sultan’s loss of judgement and his incapacity to rule.
5: What did the Iqtadar or Muqtis do with the revenue they collected from the region?
Answer: The duty of Iqtadar or Muqti was to maintain law and order in their iqtas. In exchange of their services, they collected revenues of their assignments as salary.They also paid the soldiers from the revenue they collected.These muqti’s were assigned iqtas for a short period of time to maintain control.
6: What are the important historical sources to study the history of the Delhi Sultanate?
Answer: Important historical sources to study the history of the Delhi Sultanate are coins, inscriptions and architecture and the most important sources are Histories (Tarikh (singular) or Tawarikh (plural). They were written in Persian language
7: Why was Razziya, the Sultana of Delhi Sultanate dethroned?
Answer: Razziya was the daughter of Iltutmish. She was appointed as the Sultana of Delhi in 1236. Minhaj-I-Siraj was a Chronicler of the age. He favored the subordination of women. Religious leaders of that period did not like a woman ruling the state. That was why, Razziya was removed from the throne in 1240
8: What do you understand by the terms Iqta and muqtis?
Answer: Iqtas were the land granted to the military commanders in lieu of their salaries and holders of these territories were known as Iqtadars or muqtis
9: Write briefly about the invasion of the Mongols and its results?
Answer: Invasion of the Mongols took place under Genghis Khan in the north-east Iran in 1219. During this time Delhi also was invaded. And the rule of Alauddin Khalji and Tughluq witnessed many invasions of the Mongols. Due to this reason the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate had to mobilize their army and strengthened it.
10: Who were Ulema? Who was Ibn Batuta?
Answer: Ulema’ were the scholars of Islamic learning, who were generally orthodox in their outlook. Ibn Batuta, was a fourteenth-Century traveller from Morocco, Africa.
11: Discuss briefly the types of taxes in Delhi Sultanate.
Answer: There were three types of taxes-
- The tax levied on crops was called ‘kharaj’ which was about 50 percent of the peasant’s produce.
- The second tax was on the cattle.
- The third tax was on the Houses.
12: State the conditions under which Delhi became an important commercial centre.
Answer: Delhi first became a capital kingdom under the Tomara Rajputs. They were defeated by the chauhans or the Chamanas in the twelfth century who were from Ajmer. It was then that Delhi became a commercial centre. Many Jaina merchants lived in the city and constructed important temples.Coins minted here had a wide circulation.
13: Why did the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate fail to control the hinterlands initially?
Answer: The rulers of the Delhi Sultanate fail to control the hinterlands initially because of following reasons:
- Long distance
- Rebellion and war
- Challenge of Mongol Invasions from Afghanistan
- Rebellions of Governors.
14: Why was Raziya, daughter of Sultan Iltutmish removed from the throne of Delhi?
Answer: In 1236, Sultan iltutmish’s daughter Raziya became the Sultan. Minhaj-i-Siraj the chronicler of that time recognised that she was better qualified than her brothers to rule the kingdom but as per the rules and norms of Gender distinctions and Birthright he was not comfortable with a female becoming the ruler,even the nobles were not happy. She was removed from the throne in 1240
15: Explain the types of taxes which were levied on the people during the rule of the Delhi Sultan
Answer: The revenue that was collected in the form of taxes was of three types:
- On cultivation called Kharaj and amounting to about 50 percent of the peasant’s produce.
- On cattle
- On Houses
16. Name the five dynasties that together made the Delhi Sultanate.
- Early Turkish rulers (1206—1290)
- Khalji dynasty (1290—1320)
- Tughluq dynasty (1320—1414)
- Sayyid dynasty (1414—1451)
- Lodi dynasty (1451—1526).
17. Mention the sources that provide a lot of information about the Delhi Sultans. [V. Imp.]
Answer: Inscriptions, coins, architecture and history written in Persian by learned authors are some of the most important sources that provide a lot of information about the Delhi Sultans.
18. Who was Raziyya? Why was she not accepted as a Sultan inspite of being talented? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Raziyya was Sultan Iltutmish’s daughter. She became Sultan in 1236. She was very talented. According to the chronicler of the age, Minhaj-i-Siraj, she was more able and qualified than all her brothers. But she was not accepted when she became a ruler. Those were the days when women were not allowed to enjoy independent identity. They were supposed to be subordinate to men. This led to her removal from the throne in 1240.
19. What were the four stages in the making of a manuscript?
Answer: The four stages in the making of a manuscript are:
- Preparing the paper
- Writing the text
- Melting gold to highlight important words and passages
- Preparing the binding.
20. How did the Khaljis and Tughluqs help the people of humble birth? How did it lead to political instability?
Answer: The Khaljis and Tughluqs raised people of humble birth who were often their clients, to high political positions. They were appointed as generals and governors. However, this also introduced an element of political instability. Slaves and clients, the people of humble birth, were loyal to their masters and patrons but not to their heirs. Now Sultans had their own servants. As a result the accession of a new monarch often saw conflict between the old and the new nobility.
21. Why did Alauddin control the prices of goods in Delhi? What did he do for this?
Answer: Alauddin gave great importance to his soldiers because it was they who could defend the Sultanate from outsiders. He decided to pay their salaries in cash rather than iqtas. The soldiers would buy their supplies from merchants in Delhi and it was thus feared that merchants would raise their prices. To stop this, Alauddin controlled the prices of goods in Delhi. For this Alauddin instructed officers to carefully survey prices. The merchants who did not sell their goods at the prescribed rates were punished.
22. Describe in brief Tughluq’s policy of ‘token’ currency.
Answer: Tughluq did not control prices of the goods. Instead, he used a token currency, made out of cheap metals, and not of gold and silver. People in the 14th century did not believe in these coins. They saved their gold and silver coins and paid all their taxes to the state with this token currency. This cheap currency could be counterfeited easily.
Long Answer Type Questions
1. Who was Sher Shah Sur? What do you know about his administration? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Sher Shah Sur (1540—1545) established a powerful state. He started his career as the manager of a small territory for his uncle in Bihar and eventually challenged and defeated the Mughal Emperor Humayun. Sher Shah captured Delhi and established his own dynasty known as the Suri dynasty. Although the Suri dynasty ruled for only a short period i.e. 15 years, it introduced an administration that borrowed elements from Alauddin khalji and made them more efficient. The great emperor Akbar followed the techniques of Sher Shah’s administration while consolidating the Mughal Empire.
2. Who were the authors of tawarikh? Write in brief about them. [Imp.]
Answer: The authors of tawarikh were learned men. They were secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers who recounted events as well as advised rulers on governance, emphasising the importance of just rule. The authors of tawarikh lived in cities mainly in Delhi and therefore they were cut off from the village. They used to write histories in praise of the Sultans and in return got rich rewards. These authors advised rulers that they should follow an ideal social order based on birthright and gender distinctions. Common mass had nothing to do with their ideas.
3. Why did large parts of the subcontinent remain outside the control of the Delhi Sultans? What were the repercussions? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Large parts of the subcontinent remained outside the control of the Delhi Sultans because they were very far from Delhi. For example, it was difficult to control Bengal from Delhi. This helplessness of the Delhi Sultans paved the way for distant provinces to get independence. Even in the Gangetic plain there were forested areas that Sultanate forces could not penetrate. It was a golden opportunity for the local chieftains to establish their rule in these regions.
4. How did the chieftains arrange for their defence?
Answer: The chieftains fortified themselves in mountains, in rocky, uneven and rugged places as well as in bamboo groves. The bamboo had unique features. It was strong and even fire could not affect it because its several party were intertwined making them very strong. The chieftains lived in these forests which served them as rampart. They had everything necessary for life such as cattle, crops, water, etc. inside the forests. Thus, they were safe. Only powerful armies could subdue them.
5: Write a brief note on the administration of Delhi Sultanate provinces under the Tughlaqs and the Khaljis.
Answer: The Khaljis and the Tughlaq monarchs appointed military commanders as governors of the territories of various sizes. These territories or land were called iqtas and their landholder was called iqtadars ormuqtis. They provided military services to the sultan of Delhi. In return, they could collect revenue from these lands and keep a part of it as their salary. They also paid their soldiers from these revenues. Accountants were appointed by the state to check the amount of revenue collected by the muqtis. Care was taken that muqtis collected only the taxes prescribed by the state and also maintained a required number of soldiers. The kings forced the samanta aristocrats to accept their authority.
6: Discuss briefly why the admistrative character and methods of Muhammad Tughluq were a failure?
Answer: Muhammad Tughluq’s administrative character and methods were a failure. The main reasons for the failures were-
- His campaign into Kashmir was a disaster, after which he gave up his plans to invade Transoxiana.
- The shifting of Capital, from Delhi to Daulatabad, was a spoiled decision.
- The raising of taxes and famine in the Ganga-Yamuna belt led to widespread rebellion.
- Finally, the ‘Token’ currency had to be recalled.
7: Mention all the ways in which the chieftains arranged themselves for their defense?
Answer: A fourteenth century traveler ‘Ibn Battuta’ explained that the Chieftains fortified themselves in mountains, in Rocky, uneven and rugged places, as well as in bamboo groves. They lived in these forests, which serve them as ramparts, inside which was their cattle and the crop, and water was available for them, this is usually rain water. These chieftains cannot be subdued except by powerful armies who enter the forests by cutting the bamboos with special instruments.
8: Discuss the circumstances under which the authors of the Tawarikh wrote their chronicles.
Answer: The authors of the Tawarikh had a systematic method of working-
- The authors lived in cities(mainly Delhi) and hardly ever in villages
- They often wrote their histories for Sultans in the hope of rich rewards
- These authors advised the rulers on the need to preserve an ideal’ social order based on birthright and gender distinctions
- These ideas were not shared by everybody.
9. Give an account of Alauddin’s administrative measures. [V. Imp.]
Answer: During the reign of Alauddin Khalji Mongol attacks increased. It was a huge administrative challenge for the Sultan. He introduced several administrative measures:
- Alauddin Khalji raised a large standing army as a defensive measure.
- He constructed a new garrison town known as Siri for his soldiers.
- The soldiers had to be fed. This was done through the produce collected as tax from lands between the Ganga and Yamuna. Tax was fixed at 50% of the pleasant’s produce.
- He paid his soldiers cash salaries rather than iqta. This was done in order to make soldiers able to buy their supplies from merchants in Delhi. It was feared that merchants would raise their prices. In order to stop this Alauddin controlled the prices of goods in Delhi. Prices were carefully surveyed by officers and merchants who did not sell at the prescribed rates were punished.
- Alauddin’s administrative measures were successful because he efficiently withstood the threat of Mongol attacks.
10. Give an account of Muhammad Tughluq’s administration.
Answer: The early years of Muhammad Tughluq’s reign faced Mongol attacks, which were curbed by Tughluq’s sincere efforts.
(i) He took several administrative measures like Alauddin Khalji he also raised a huge standing army in Delhi.
(ii) He got emptied the oldest of the four cities of Delhi (Delhi-i Kunba) in order to garrison his soldiers there. The residents of the old city were sent to the new capital of Daulatabad in the south.
(iii) He made arrangements for the collection of produce as tax to feed the soldiers. As it was very difficult to maintain a large number of soldiers the Sultan levied additional taxes which coincided with famine in the area.
(iv) Muhammad Tughluq paid soldiers cash salaries. For this he introduced ‘token’ currency made of cheap metals. People in the 14th century did not trust these coins. They saved their gold and silver coins and paid all their taxes to the state with this token currency.
11. ‘Muhammad Tughluq’s administrative measures were a failure’. Explain with examples.
Answer: Muhammad Tughluq’s administrative measures were a failure, we can prove this statement with following points:
(i) He campaigned into Kashmir which was finally a disaster. He then gave up his plans to invade Transoxiana and disbanded his large army.
(ii) His administrative measures created problems. He shifted the residents of the old city to the new capital of Daulatabad in the south. People did not like this step taken by Muhammad Tughluq. They resented collectively.
(iii) Tughluq, in order to meet the expense of maintaining a large number of soldiers, levied additional taxes which increased the burden of common people.
(iv) The famine in the Ganga-Yamuna belt led to widespread rebellion.
(v) Muhammad Tughluq’s policy of ‘token’ currency also proved a failure. People of the 14th century did not trust this currency. They were very smart. They saved their gold and silver coins and paid all their taxes to the state with the token currency. This cheap currency could also be counterfeited easily.