Class 7 History Chapter 4 The Mughal Empire Important Questions and Answers
CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 4 The Mughal Empire Important Questions and answers cover all the major concepts of the chapter. Solving answers of these important questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising class 7 important questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.
The Mughal Empire Class 7 History Important Questions
Very Short Answer Type Question
1: What was Mansab system?
Answer: Mansab system was a grading system used by the Mughal rulers to fix the rank or salary of a Mansabdar, who were basically their military commanders
2. Why was it a difficult task for rulers of the Middle Ages to rule the Indian subcontinent?
Answer: It was because people of diverse backgrounds and cultures lived here.
3. Who was Genghis Khan?
Answer: He was the ruler of the Mongol tribes, China and Central Asia.
4. Who was Babur?
Answer: He was the first Mughal emperor and reigned from 1526 to 1530
5. Name the battlefield where Ibrahim Lodi was defeated by Babur?
6. To whom did Babur defeat at Chanderi? [V- Imp.]
Answer: Babur defeated the Rajputs at Chanderi
7. What forced Hwnayun to flee to Iran?
Answer: After being defeated by Sher Khan at Chausa in 1539 and Kanauj in 1540 Humayun fled to Iran.
8. At what age did Akbar become the emperor of the Mughal Empire?
Answer: Akbar became the emperor of the Mughal Empire at the age of 13.
9. Who was the regent of Akbar?
Answer: Bairam Khan.
10. How is Prince Khurram better known as in the Indian History?
Answer: Price Khurram is better known as Emperor Shah Jahan in the Indian History.
11. Who was victorious in the conflict over succession amongst Shah Jahan’s sons?
Answer: Aurangzeb was victorious.
12. Who fought guerrilla warfare?
Answer: The Marathas fought guerrilla warfare.
13. What do you mean by the rule of primogeniture? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Under the rule of primogeniture the eldest son inherited his father’s estate.
14. What was Timurid custom of coparcenary inheritance? [Imp.]
Answer: It was a division of the inheritance amongst all the sons.
15. What qualities of the Mughals enabled them to extend their influence over many kings and chieftains? [V. Imp.]
Answer: The careful balance between defeating but not humiliating their opponents enabled the Mughals to extend their influence over many kings and chieftains. is.
16. What does the term mansabdar refer to?
Answer: The term mansabdar refers to an individual who holds a mansab, te. a position or rank.
17. What was zat?
Answer: Mansabdar’s rank and salary were determined by a numerical value called zat The higher the zat, the mpre prestigious was the noble’s position in the court.
18. What was jagir?
Answer: Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments known as jagirs.
19. What was zabt?
Answer: It was the revenue collected on the basis of .schedule of revenue rates for individuals crops.
20. With whom did Akbar hold discussion on religion?
Answer: Akbar held discussions on religion with the Ulama, Brahmanas, Jesuit priests who were Roman Catholics and Zoroastrians.
21. When did Mehrunnisa receive the title of Nur Jahan?
Answer: After Mehrunnisa got married with Emperor Jahangir, in 1611 she received the title of Nur Jahan.
22. What power did the nobles exercise during Akbar’s reign?
Answer: During Akbar’s reign the nobles commanded large armies and had access to large amounts of revenue.
Short Answer Type Questions
1: What were the military responsibilities of Mansabdars?
Answer: Military responsibilities of Mansabdars were:
- The Mansabdar was required to maintain a specified number of cavalrymen
- The mansabdar had to bring his cavalrymen for review, get them registered and get their horses branded
2: What were the reasons for Babur’s success in the First battle of Panipat?
Answer: Following are the reasons for success of Babur in the first battle of Panipat were:
- Strong artillery which was a new introduction in the Indian army and a well-trained cavalry
- Good generalship. Babur arranged his soldiers in such a way that they could move easily from one part of the battle to other.
3: Write short notes on the religious policies of the Akbar.
Answer: Akbar’s religious policy:
He followed a liberal religious policy. Full religious freedom was allowed not only to the Hindus but also to the people of other religious faith. Also, He built a building called ‘Ibadat Khana’ where he held discussions with the religious leaders.
4: Name the mothers of Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
Answer: The mother of Jahangir was a Kachhwaha princess, daughter of the Rajput ruler of Amber. The mother of Shahjahan was a Rathor princess, daughter of the Rajput ruler of Marwar.
5: Explain the Mughal relations with other rulers.
Answer: Mughal rulers campaigned constantly against rulers who refused to accept their authority. But as the Mughals became powerful, many other rulers joined them voluntarily. The Rajputs were a good example. Many of them married their daughters into Mughal families and received high positions. But many resisted as well.
6: Which principle of inheritance did Mughal’s follow? How was it different from the principle that other communities follow?
Answer: The other communities followed the tradition of Primogeniture under which eldest son inherited all his parent’s property and the right to rule, but Mughal’s followed the principle of Timurid custom of coparcenary whereby there was a joint heir to an undivided property.
7. Contrast the Mughals to their predecessors. [V. Imp.]
How were the Mughals greater than their predecessors?
Answer: Unlike their predecessors, the Mughals created a huge empire and accomplished what had hitherto seemed possible for only short periods of time. From the latter half of the 16th century they expanded their kingdom from Agra and Delhi until in the 17th century they controlled nearly all the subcontinent. They imposed structures of administrations and ideas of governance that outlasted their rule, leaving a political legacy that succeeding rulers of the subcontinent could not overlook.
8. How did Babur become the ruler of Delhi?
Answer: Babur succeeded to the throne of Ferghana in 1494 when he was only 12 years old. However, he had to leave his ancestral throne due to the invasion of the uzbegs, a Mongol group. Babur wandered for several years. Then in the year 1504 he seized Kabul. In 1526 he defeated the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at the battle of Panipat. Thus, he captured Delhi where he laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire. He became the first Mughal emperor and ruled from 1526 to 1530.
9: Define the following terms in one line:
Akbarnama, Shahinshah, Sulh-i-kul, Mansabdar, Sarkar and Imperial.
Answer: Akbarnama – Biography of Akbar by Abul Fazal
Shahinshah – The Emperor
Sulh-i-kul – Peace & Harmony
Mansabdar – Military Governer
Sarkar- The province under Mughals
Imperial – Pertaining to the emperor.
10: Who were Mansabdars?
Answer: The term ‘mansabdar’ refers to an individual who holds a mansab, meaning a ‘position or rank’. It was a grading system used by the Mughals to fix the rank, salary and military responsibilities. Rank and salary were determined by a numerical value called ‘zat’. The higher the ‘zat’, the more prestigious was the noble’s position in court and was larger his salary. ‘Mansabdars’ received their salaries as revenue assignments called ‘jagirs’ which were somewhat like iqtas.
11: Write short notes on Humayun.
Answer: Humayun was the second Mughal Emperor of India. He ascended the throne in 1530 AD. Humayun divided his inheritance according to the will of his father and equally distributed the province among his brothers. The ambitions of his brother Mirza Kamran weakened Humayun’s cause against Afghan competitors. He was defeated by ‘Shah Suri’ at Chausa in 1529 A.D. and at Kanauj in 1540 A.D.which forced him to flee to Iran. He received the help from Safavid Shah to capture Delhi again in 1555 A.D. He died in the same year.
12: Who was Jahangir?
Answer: Jahangir became the ruler in 1605 AD. After the death of Akbar, military campaigns started by Akbar were continued by him. Jahangir married Nur Jahan. He maintained a good relationship with the Rajputs. He followed the principle of sulh-i-kul established by Akbar. He is remembered for his justice.He struck silver coins bearing his own titles on one side and on the other the inscription “struck in the name of the Queen Begum, Nur Jahan”. Noor-Jahan ruled his empire when he was addicted to wine and opium. Jahangir died in 1627 AD.
13. What were the main features of Sulh-i Kul? [Imp.]
Answer: The idea of Sulh-i Kul was introduced by Akbar, the Great. Sulh-i Kul meant universal peace. Its main features are given below :
- The idea of Sul-i Kul was based on the idea of tolerance which did not discriminate between the people of different religions in Akbar’s realm.
- It focused on a system of ethics—honesty, justice, peace. These values were universally applicable.
14: Write a note on Shah-Jahan military campaigns.
Answer: Shah Jahan became the ruler in 1627 A.D. Mughal campaigns continued in the Deccan under Shah Jahan. He faced rebellions of Afghan noble Khan Jahan Lodi who was defeated by him. He failed in his central Asian campaigns .The campaign to seize Balkh from the Uzbegs was unsuccessful and Qandahar was lost to the Safavids. He led various campaigns against the three Deccan states. Ahmadnagar was taken in 1633 A.D. Bijapur was submitted in 1636 A.D. and Golconda in 1665 A.D.
15: What was Zabt and who were Zamindars?
Answer: Land revenue was the main source of income to the Mughal rulers. Revenue on each crop was fixed in cash. Each province was divided into revenue circles, with its own schedule of revenue rates for individual crops. This revenue system was known as ‘zabt’.In most places, the headman or the local chieftain collected revenue from these peasants and deposited it in the royal treasury. The Mughals called these intermediaries, whether they were local headmen of villages or powerful chieftains, as zamindars.
Long Answer Type Questions
1: Write short notes on Akbar’s religious policy.
Answer: Akbar’s liberal religious views and his marriage with the Rajput princess influenced his religious outlook. He used to hold talks with the leaders of various religions. He also built a building called Ibadat Khana at Agra to hold discussions with the religious leaders. Views were exchanged freely. He also introduced the policy of sulh-i kul. This idea of tolerance focused on honesty, justice, and peace that were universally applicable.Akbar found that all religions taught similar ideology. Thus he incorporated the principles of all the religions to found a new faith which he named Din-i-Illahi.’Din-i-Illahi’ did not attract many converts and it perished with the death of Akbar.
2: What important measures were taken by Akbar to consolidate his empire?
Answer: Akbar ascended the throne in 1556 A.D. He was a great ruler who took various steps to consolidate his empire. He founded an empire that was truly secular in character. Being a great warrior and conqueror Akbar extended his boundaries by conquering Gujarat, Bengal, Kashmir, Sind, Central India, Deccan states, and many other states. He followed the policy of religious tolerance and established friendly relations with the Rajputs in particular and the Hindus in general. He organized his administration on sound footing and took various steps for the welfare of his subjects.
3: Give a brief account of the conquests of Akbar?
Answer: When Akbar was crowned in 1556 A.D. the Mughal Empire was scattered. He established a vast kingdom by conquering other kingdoms.
- He captured Gwalior, Ajmer, Jaunpur and Malwa. He also succeeded in capturing the famous forts of Ranthambhor and Chittor.
- Military campaigns in Gujarat were followed by campaigns in the east in Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. Akbar’s armies also conquered Kabul, Sind and Baluchistan.
- From 1595 to 1601 the Mughal forces remained busy in the annexation of Berar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar.
4: Describe the Rajput policy of Akbar?
Answer: Rajputs were the most powerful rivals of Mughals in north India. Knowing this Akbar adopted a special policy to handle the Rajputs. He was a far sighted ruler who knew that there could be no permanent Mughal rule in India without the support of the Rajputs. Akbar wanted to be friendly with these Rajputs states instead of subjugating. For this he adopted all possible measures like matrimonial alliances and assigning higher posts to Rajput chiefs. This made his position stronger and they became his loyal Comrades.
5: Who was Babur?
Answer: Babar’s real name was Zahir-ur-din. He was the ruler of a small state ‘Farghana’ in Central Asia. He invaded India 5 times. The vast wealth of India and poor political condition and invitation from the nobles of Delhi prompted Babar to march to Delhi. He defeated Ibrahim Lodhi the last Sultan of Lodhi dynasty at Panipat in A.D. 1526.He effectively used cannons in the first battle of Panipat. In A.D. 1527 he defeated Rana Sanga. In A.D. 1528 he defeated Rajputs in the battle of Chanderi. Before his death He had established effective control over Agra and Delhi. He died in 1530 A.D.
6: Describe the Mansabdari or the Jagirdari system of Mughal India.
Answer: Turkish Nobles, Indian Muslims, Afghans and Rajputs joined the Mughal services as mansabdars. Amansabdar refers to an individual who holds a mansab, meaning a rank or a position used by the Mughals to fix rank, salary and military responsibility of the individual. His military responsibility required him to maintain a specified number of sawar or cavalrymen. His salary was determined by the numerical value ofzat. The higher the numerical value of zat, the higher was his salary and position in court.Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called Jagirs. They did not actually reside in their Jagirs but appointed servants to collect revenues from the people. They even got paid on the quality of horses that they maintained.
7. What do you know about the Mughal relations with other rulers especially the Rajputs? [Imp.]
Answer: It was the policy of the Mughal rulers to campaign constantly against rulers who were not ready to accept their authority. However, when the Mughal became powerful, many other rulers joined them willingly. There were several Rajputs who married their daughters into Mughal families in order to gain high position. But at the same time many resisted the Mughals. The Sisodiya Rajputs refused to accept Mughal authority for a long time. However, when they got defeat, the Mughals did not treat them badly. They honoured them by giving them their lands Le. watan back as assignments, Le. watan jagir. Thus the Mughals never humiliated their opponents even though they defeated them. This unique quality of theirs enabled them to extend their influence over many kings and chieftains.
8. Awangzeb, did not follow the Mughals’ policy and insulted Shivaji when he came to accept Mughal authority. What was the consequence of this insult? [Imp.]
Answer: After being insulted by Aurangzeb Shivaji escaped from Agra and declared himself an independent king. Then, he resumed his campaigns against the Mughals. Prince Akbar rebelled against Aurangzeb and received support from the Marathas and the Deccan Sultanate. He finally fled to Safavid Iran. Aurangzeb could not remain silent. He personally managed campaigns in the Deccan against the Marathas who started guerrilla warfare, which was difficult to suppress.
9. Give an account of Todar Mai’s revenue system?
Answer: Todar Mai was Akbar’s revenue minister. He carried out a careful survey of crop yields, prices and areas cultivated for a 10-year period, 1570-1580. On the basis of this data, tax was fixed on each crop in cash.
Each province was divided into revenue circles with its own schedule of revenue rates for individual crops. This revenue system came to be known as zabt. This system was prevalent in those areas where Mughal administrators could survey the land and keep careful accounts
10. Give an account of Akbar Nama and Ain-i Akbari.
Answer: Abul Fazl, one of Akbar’s close friends and courtiers, wrote a three-volume history of the reign of Akbar. It was titled as Akbar Nama. The first volume dealt with Akbar’s ancestors and the second volume recorded the events of Akbar’s reign. Ain-i Akbari is the third volume. It deals with Akbar’s administration, household, army, the revenues and the geography of his empire. The book also provides details about the traditions and cultures of the people living in India. The most interesting aspect about Ain-i Akbari is its rich statistical details about things as diverse as crops, yields, prices, wages and revenues.
11. Divide Akbar’s reign into three periods and give details about them.
Mention the major campaigns and events of Akbar’s reign.
Answer: Akbar’s reign can be divided into following three periods.
- 1556-1570. Akbar became independent of the regent Bairam Khan and other members of his domestic staff. He launched military campaigns against the Suris and other Afghans, against the neighbouring kingdoms of Malwa and Gondwana to suppress the revolt of his half brother Mirza Hakim and the Uzbegs. In the year 1568, he seized the Sisodiya Capital of Chittor and in 1569 Ranthambhor.
- 1570-1585. Military campaigns in Gujarat were followed by campaigns in the east in Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. These campaigns were complicated by the 1579-1580 revolt in support of Mirza Hakim.
- 1585-1605. During this period Akbar expanded his empire. He launched , campaigns in the north-west. Qandahar was seized from the Safavids and Kashmir was annexed. Kabul was seized after the death of Mirza Hakim. Afterwards, Akbar started his campaigns in the Deccan and soon he annexed Berar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar.
12. Write a short note on Akbar’s administrative policies. [V. Imp.]
Answer: Akbar’s administrative policies were mentioned in Abul Fazl’s book the Akbar Nama, particularly in its third and last volume, the Ain-i Akbari In the book Abul Fazl explained that the empire was divided into provinces known as Subas, governed by a Subadar. The Subadar carried out both political and military functions. Each province also had a financial officer or Diwan. For the maintenance of peace and order in his province, the Subadar was supported by several officers, for example
- The military paymaster also known as BakhshL
- The minister in charge of religious and charitable patronage or
- Military commanders called Faigdars, and
- The town police commander called Akbar’s nobles commanded huge armies and had access to large amounts of revenue.
Akbar wanted to govern his empire peacefully. Hence he gave utmost importance to the idea of tolerance because it did not discriminate between people of different religions in his realm. He held religions discussions with the Ulama, Brahmanas, Jesuit priests who were Roman Catholics and Zoroastrians and came to the conclusion that the idea of sulh-i kul or ‘universal peace’ would work effectively. This idea focused on a system of ethics, honesty, justice and peace. These values were universally accepted.
Thus, Akbar’s administrative policies were based on considerate ideas,
13. Who were mansabdars? What were their responsibilities?
Answer: The Mughals recruited diverse bodies of people in order to run the empire smoothly. Those who joined Mughal service were enrolled as mansabdars.
The term mansabdar referred to an individual holding a mansab, meaning a position or rank. It was a grading system used by the Mughals to fix rank, salary and military responsibilities.
The mansabdars were assigned to military responsibilities. For this they maintained a specified number of sowar or cavalrymen. The mansabdar brought his cavalrymen for review, got them registered, their horses branded and then received money to pay them as salary.
14. Why did the peasantry suffer a lot during the last years of Aurangzeb’s reign? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Mansabdars, recruited by the Mughals to discharge Mughal services, received their salaries as revenue assignments known as jagirs. But most mansabdars did pot actually reside in or administer their jagirs. They only had rights to the revenue of their assignments which was collected for them by their servants while they served in some other part of the country. Akbar managed to carefully assess these jagirs so that their revenues were roughly equal to the salary of the mansabdar. But Aurangzeb failed to do this.
During his reign the actual revenue collected was often less than the granted sum. There was also a huge increase in the number of mansabdars, which meant a long wait before they received a jagir. These created a shortage in the number of jagirs. As a result, many jagirdars tried to extract as much revenue as possible while they had a jagir. As Aurangzeb could not control these developments, the peasantry suffered a lot. They had to give the revenue under all circumstances which made their life miserable.
15. Write in brief about the Mughal Empire in the 17th century and afterwards.[Imp.]
Answer: (a) The influence and power of the Mughals were at the height during the 17th century. The sheen of their administrative and military efficiency brought great economic and commercial prosperity in the Empire. They had huge treasure of wealth. They led highly luxurious life. But the common mass had to face the curse of poverty.
(b) The Mughal emperors and their mansabdars spend a great deal of their income on salaries and goods. This expenditure benefited the artisans and peasantry who supported them with goods and produce. But the scale of revenue collection left very little for investment in the hands of the peasants and artisans. The poorest among them led a very miserable life. It was not possible for them to invest in additional resources like tools and supplies in order to increase productivity. However, the wealthier peasantry and artisanal groups, the merchants and bankers profited in this economic world.
(c) The Mughal elites exercised a great deal of power in the late 17th century. With the decline of the Mughal power and influence, many nobles became independent. They constituted new dynasties and held command of provinces, such as Hyderabad and Awadh.