Class 7 History Chapter 9 The Making of Regional Cultures Important Questions and Answers
CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 9 The Making of Regional Cultures Important Questions and answers cover all the major concepts of the chapter. Solving answers of these important questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising class 7 important questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.
The Making of Regional Cultures Class 7 History Important Questions
Very Short Answer Type Question
1. Who was Anantavarman?
Answer: Anantavarman was one of the most important rulers of the Ganga dynasty in the 12th century.
2. Whom did King Anangabhima III dedicate his kingdom to? What did he proclaim himself?
Answer: King Anangabhima III dedicated his kingdom to Purushottama Jagannath and proclaimed himself as the deputy of the god.
3. What was called Rajputana by the British? [V. Imp.]
Answer: In the 19th century, the region that constitutes most of the present-day Rajasthan was called Rajputana by the British.
4. How were the Rajput rulers most distinctive?
Answer: The Rajput rulers were the apostles of bravery. They fought valiantly and often chose death on the battlefield rather than face defeat.
5. Define the term Kathak.
Answer: The term Kathaks is derived from katha, a word used in Sanskrit and other languages for the story.
6. Who were the Kathaks?
Answer: The kathaks were originally a caste of story-tellers in temples of north India who beautified their performances with gestures and songs.
7. Where did Kathak develop?
Answer: Kathak developed in the courts of Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Lucknow.
8. Under whose patronage did kathak grow into a major art form?
Answer: Kathak grew into a major art form under the patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh.
9. What are miniatures? [Imp.]
Answer: Miniatures are small-sized paintings, generally done in water colour on cloth or paper.
10. What distinguished Kangra painting from the paintings?
Answer: Soft colours including cool blues and greens, and a lyrical treatment of themes distinguished Kangra painting from other paintings.
11. On what objects do we fiend paintings of ordinary people?
Answer: We find paintings of ordinary people on pots, walls, floors and cloth.
12. Who were the Naths? .
Answer: The Naths were the ascetics who engaged in a variety of yogic practices.
13. Why was the second category of the early Bengali literature not written down?
Answer: The second category of the early Bengali literature was circulated orally and therefore it was not written down.
14. What are the chief food items of the Bengalis?
Answer: Rice and fish are the chief food items of the Bengalis.
15. What do terracotta plaques on the walls of temples and viharas depict? [V. Imp.]
Answer: They depict scenes of fish being dressed and taken to the market in baskets.
16. Why were the Bengal Brahmanas allowed to eat fish?
Answer: The Bengal Brahmanas were allowed to eat fish because fish was the main item in the local diet.
17. What is the Brihaddharma Parana?
Answer: It is a thirteenth-century Sanskrit text from Bengal.
18: When was the Chera Kingdom established?
Answer: The Chera kingdom Mahodayapuram was established in the ninth century in the south-western part of the peninsula, part of present day Kerala.
19: What was name of the text that was illustrated in the miniature paintings of Himachal Pradesh?
Answer: The most popular text Rasamanjari written by Bhanudatta was illustrated in the miniature paintings.
20: What were dochala and chauchala?
Answer: Dochala means two-roofed and chauchala means four-roofed. These were the terms used in the structure of the thatched huts in Bengal
21: When was the Chera Kingdom established?
Answer: The Chera kingdom of Mahodayapuam was established in the ninth century in the south-western part of the peninsula, part of present day Kerala. The language of this region was Malayalam
22: Where was the Lilatilakam composed?
Answer: Lilatilakam was composed in Manipravalam (literally meaning diamonds and corals). Lilatilakam deals with grammar and poetics.
Short Answer Type Questions
1: Where was the Lilatilakam composed?
Answer: Lilatilakam is a 14th century treatise on grammar and poetics. It was composed in Manipravalam, referring to the two languages, Sanskrit and the regional language.
2: Which region was called the Rajputana?
Answer: In the nineteenth century, the region that constituted most of the present-day Rajasthan was called Rajputana by the British. This was the area mainly inhabited by Rajputs.
3: Who were Kathaks?
Answer: Kathaks were originally a caste of story tellers in the temples of north India. They performed in village squares and temple courtyards. They were mostly specialized in recounting mythological and moral tales from the scriptures, and embellished their recitals with hand gestures and facial expressions.
4: Define classical dances? Name some of the classical dances and their states?
Answer: Animism refers to the belief that all natural things, such as plants, animals, rocks, thunder and earthquakes have spirits (beings that cannot be seen) and can influence human events.
5: What was the style of miniature that developed in Himachal Pradesh?
Answer: In the region of Himachal Pradesh by the late seventeenth century, a bold and intense style of miniature painting called Basohli developed. This style of painting is characterized by vigorous use of primary colours and a peculiar facial formula prevalent in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries in the foothills of the Western Himalayas in the Jammu and Punjab States
6: Who built Jagannath temple at Puri and which deities are worshipped over there?
Answer: In the 12th century, a ruler of Ganga dynasty Anantavarman erected a temple for Purushottama Jagannatha at Puri. The Jagannath temple at Puri gained great importance and became a centre of pilgrims for both Hindus & Buddhists.The three deities namely Jagannatha, Sudhadra and Balbhadra represents Buddha, Dharma and Sangha, are worshipped over there.
7: Write a short note on Rajput women.
Answer: Rajput women like men were very brave. The practice of ‘Sati’ or Self-immolation of widows for their husbands who died in battle was started by Rajput women to protect their honor. These women who sacrificed their lives are depicted as great heroines. Rajput cultures have been enriched by heroic deeds of men and women.
8: Write short notes on miniature paintings.
Answer: Miniature paintings are small in size and generally are drawn in water colour on cloth or paper executed delicately with brush. Colours for these paintings were derived from minerals, vegetables, stones, shells, gold and silver.The earliest miniatures were drawn on palm leaves, bark of trees or wood.Some of the most beautiful miniatures are found in western India and were used to illustrate Jaina texts.
9: What was the Kangara school of painting?
Answer: Nadir Shah invaded India and captured Delhi in 1739. This invasion resulted in the migration of Mughal artists to the hills.They found new school called the Kangara school of painitng. They got the inspiration from the Vaishnavite tradition. The famous colours of this were soft colours such as blue and green.
10: Write a short note on classical dances of India.
Answer: The Sangeet Natak Academy, accords “classical” status to eight dance forms of India.These forms include Bharatanatyam (Tamil Nadu), Odissi (Orissa), Manipuri (Manipur), Kathakali (Kerala), Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh), Mohiniaattam, Kathak (Lucknow) and Yakshagana. These dance forms have their own set of rules. Most of these dance forms draw their origin to the Natya Shastra of Bharata Muni of ancient times (400 B.C.E).
11. Mention the role of the Chercis in the development of Malayalam. [V. Imp.]
Answer: The Chera kingdom of Mahodayapuram was established in the ninth century in the south-western part of the peninsula, part of present-day Kerala. It is likely that Malayalam was spoken in this area. The rulers introduced the Malayalam language and script in their inscriptions.
12. How did the Cheras draw upon Sanskritic traditions?
Answer: The temple theatre of Kerala borrowed stories from the Sanskrit epics. The first literary works in Malayalam, dated to about the 12t.h century, are directly indebted to Sanskrit. The Lilatilakam, a fourteenth century text, dealt with grammar and poetics and was composed in Manipravalam – literally, ‘diamonds and corals’ referring to the two languages namely Sanskrit and the regional language.
13. How did regional cultures evolve? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Regional cultures today are often the product of complex processes of intermixing of local traditions with ideas from other parts of the sub-continent. Some traditions appear specific to some regions, others seem to be similar across regions and yet others derive from older practices in a particular area, but take a new form in other regions.
14. How are women depicted in the stories about Rajput heroes?
Answer: Sometimes these stories depict women as the cause for conflict, as men fought with one another to either win or protect them (women). Women are also depicted as following their heroic husbands in both life and death. We are familiar with the stories about the practice of sati or the immolation of widows on the funeral pyre of their husbands. So. those who followed the heroic ideal often had to pay for it with their lives.
15. Mention all the six dance forms that are recognised as classical.
Answer: Six classical dances are:
- Kathak (North India)
- Bharatnatyam (Tamil Nadu)
- Kathakali (Kerala)
- Odissi (Orissa)
- Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh)
- Manipuri (Manipur).
Long Answer Type Questions
1: Bengali literature can be divided into how many categories?
Answer: Bengali literature can be divided into two categories:
- One category of literature is indebted to Sanskrit. Under this category come the translated Sanskrit epics, the Mangalakavyas (auspicious poems) and bhakti literature such as the biographies of Chaitanya, the leader of the Vaishnavite movement
- The second category includes Nath literature such as the songs of Maynamati and Gopichandra stories concerning the worship of Dharma Thakur and tales, folk tales and ballads
2: Explain in brief the gharanas of Kathak dance form.
Answer: After Mughals, several schools or styles known as gharnas like Lucknow gharna, Jaipur gharana, Banaras gharana which helped the artists to take new challenges and obtain their individual mastery. Jaipur gharana include a command of complicated pure dance patterns. Lucknow style is famous for graceful expression of romantic feelings. It is characterized by precise, fine detailed movements and an emphasis on the exposition of thumri, a semi classical style of love song. Pandit Birju Maharaj also belong to Lucknow gharana.
3: Give a short note on temple construction activity in Bengal?
Answer: Temple building started in the 19th century with the influence of Bhakti saints led by Chaitanya.Temples were constructed by individuals or groups to represent their might of power. Through proclaiming deity they gained wide acceptance of people. Brick and terra cota temples were built in Bengal during this period. Some of the important temples built during this period are Vishupur(17th century) and Kantaji’s temple of Dinajpur(18th century) now in Bangladesh built by low social groups like bell metal workers(kansari) and oil pressers(kolu).Some of these temples are double or four roofed.
4. How did miniature painting develop under the Mughal patronage? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Miniatures are small-sized paintings, generally done in water colour on cloth or paper. The earliest miniatures were on palm leaves or wood. The Mughal emperors especially Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan patronised highly skilled painters. These painters primarily illustrated manuscripts containing historical accounts and poetry. These were generally painted in brilliant colours and portrayed court scenes, scenes of battle or hunting and other aspects of social life. They were often exchanged as gifts and were viewed only by the emperor and his close associates.
5. Write a brief note on early Bengali literature.
Answer: There are two categories of early Bengali literature:
- The first includes translations of the Sanskrit epics, the Mangalakavyas, auspicious poems, dealing with local deities, and Bhakti literature such as the biographies of Chaitanyadeva, the leader of the Vaishnava Bhakti movement.
- The second includes Nath literature such as the songs of Maynamati and Gopichandra, stories concerning the worship of Dharma Thakur, and fairy tales, Folk tales and ballads. The texts belonging to the first category are written while those belonging to the second category circulated orally.
7. Who were the pirs? What was their position in the society? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Pirs were spiritual leaders having supernatural powers. They also functioned as teachers and adjudicators. When early settlers in Bengal sought some order and assurance in the unstable conditions of the new settlements pirs favoured them and gave them full moral support. People viewed them as respectful figures. The cult of pirs became very popular and their shrines can be found everywhere in Bengal.
8. What is the significance of fish in Bengal? [Imp.]
Answer: Bengal is a riverine plain which produces abundant rice and fish. These two items are important foods of the Bengalis. Fishing has always been an important occupation and Bengali literature contains several references to fish. What is more, terracotta plaques on the walls of temples and viharas depict scenes of fish being dressed and taken to the market in baskets.
Due to the popularity of fish in the local diet the Bengal Brahmanas also started eating fish. The Brihaddharma Purana, a thirteenth-century Sanskrit text from Bengal, permitted them to eat certain varieties of fish.
9: How did Kathak reach its present form?
Answer: With the advent of the Mughals, this dance form underwent a radical transformation. Kathak, as we know it today, is the result of the fusion between the Hindu and Muslim cultures. The Persian and Muslim influences altered the dance from a temple ritual to a means of royal entertainment. The emphasis shifted from the religious to the aesthetic. Kathak developed into two traditions called as gharanas for example Rajasthan gharanas, Lucknow gharanas and Benaras gharanas.
10: Explain the meaning of the term Animism?
Answer: The term “classical” was introduced by Sangeet Natak Academy to denote the Natya Shastra-based performing art styles. The Indian classical dancers use the mudra or hand gestures to narrate a story and to demonstrate certain concepts such as objects, weather and emotion. Facial expressions are as an integral part of many classical dance forms. Some of the classical dances and their states are:
Bharatanatyam – Tamil Nadu
Kathakali – Kerala
Odissi – Orissa
Kuchipudi – Andhra Pradesh
Manipuri – Manipur
11: Write short notes on miniature paintings.
Answer: Miniature paintings are small in size and generally are drawn in water colour on cloth or paper. The earliest miniatures were drawn on palm leaves or wood. Some of the most beautiful miniatures are found in western India and were used to illustrate Buddhist and Jaina texts. Themes used in the miniature paintings were from Indian epics like Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavata Purana, Rasamanjari as well as ragas of Indian classical music, etc.
12: Name the regions that attracted the miniatures.
Answer: After the decline of the Mughal Empire, miniature artists who were patronised by the Mughal emperors moved to the regional courts of Deccan and the Rajput courts of Rajasthan. They depicted the rulers and court scenes and themes from mythology and poetry. The core of miniature painting lies in Rajasthan and can be traced back to its school of Jodhpur, Jaipur, Mughal, Kangra and Mewar. While the Mughal School features muted colours, giving it a shadow and depth, the Rajasthan School uses bold primary colours which give the painting an abstract look.
13. What do you know about Rajput tradition of heroism? Write in brief [V. Imp.]
Answer: Rajputs are closely associated with the culture of Rajasthan. It is they who made this culture distinctive. The cultural traditions of Rajasthan were linked with the ideals and aspirations of rulers. From about the eighth century, most of the present-day Rajasthan was ruled by various Rajput families. The name of Prithviraj is worth-mentioning because he was one of the ablest Rajput rulers. These Rajput rulers ares known for their bravery and sense of sacrifice. They cherished the ideal of the hero who fought valiantly, often choosing death on the battlefield rather than face defeat. Stories about Rajput heroes were recorded in poems and songs, which were recited by specially trained minstrels. These preserved the memories of heroes and were expected to inspire others to follow their examples. Ordinary people also liked these stories which often depicted dramatic situations and a range of strong emotions in the forms of loyalty, friendship, love, valour, anger etc.
14. Give a detailed description of Kathak, a popular classical dance form of north India. [V. Imp.]
Answer: The term Kathak is derived from Katha, a word used in Sanskrit and other languages for story. The Kathaks were originally a caste of story-tellers in temples :of north India, who beautified their performances with gestures and songs. Kathak began evolving into a distinct mode of dance in the 15th and 16th centuries with the spread of the Bhakti movement. The legends of Radha-Krishna were enacted in folk plays known as rasa lila, which combined folk dance with the basic gestures of the Kathak story-tellers. Kathak was performed in the Mughal court. Here, it acquired its present features and developed into a form of dance with a distinctive style.
Afterwards, it developed in two traditions known as gharanas—one in the courts of Rajasthan, Jaipur and the other in Lucknow. Kathak grew into a major art form only under the patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh. By the third quarter of the 19th century it was firmly established as a dance form not only in these two regions but also in the adjoining areas of present-day Punjab, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. Emphasis was laid on intricate and rapid footwork, elaborate costumes as well as on the enactment of stories. Although most British administrators never favoured Kathak, it survived and continued to be performed by courtesans. It was recognised as a classical dance form after the country got independence.
15. How did Bengali develop as a regional language? [Imp.]
Answer: Bengali is said to have been derived from Sanskrit but early Sanskrit texts derived it. Now the question arises how did this language develop. From the fourth-third centuries BCE, commercial ties developed between Bengal and Magadha which may have led to the growing influence of Sanskrit. During the fourth century the Gupta rulers established political control over north Bengal and began to settle Brahmanas in this area. Thus, the linguistic and cultural influence from the mid-Ganga valley became stronger.
In the seventh century the Chinese traveller Xuan Zang observed that languages related to Sanskrit were in use all over Bengal. From the eighth century, Bengal became the centre of a regional kingdom under the Palas. Between the 14th and 15th centuries Bengal was ruled by Sultans. In 1586, when Akbar conquered Bengal, it formed the nucleus of the Bengal Suba, While Persian was the language of administration, Bengali developed as a regional language.
By the 15th century the Bengali group of dialects came to be united by a common literary language based on the spoken language of the western part of the region, now known as West Bengal. Thus, although Bengali is derived from Sanskrit, it passed through several stages of evolution. A wide range of non-Sanskrit words, derived from tribal languages, Persian and European language, have become part of modem Bengali.