Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources Extra Questions

Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources Extra Questions and Answers are provided here. These Extra Questions with solution are prepared by our team of expert teachers who are teaching in CBSE schools for years. Extra questions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 will help you to properly understand a particular concept of the chapter.

Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources Class 8 Geography Extra Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Question

1. Which country has the highest percentage of land under forest?

Answer: Japan

2. Which country has the highest percentage of land under cropland?

Answer: India

3. Which country has the highest percentage of land under pasture?

Answer: Australia

4. What are the major threats to soil as a resource?

Answer: Soil erosion and depletion are the major threats to soil as a resource.

5. What method of soil conservation is used in coastal and dry regions?

Answer: Shelter belts are used to protect the soil in coastal and dry regions.

6. What percent of fresh water is fit for human use?

Answer: Only 1 per cent of freshwater is available and fit for human use.

7. What make the soil fertile?

Answer: The right mix of minerals and organic matter make the soil fertile.

8. What affect the rate of humus formation?

Answer: Flora, fauna and micro-organism affect the rate of humus formation.

9. Why is ocean water not fit for human consumption?

Answer: The ocean water is saline. Hence it is not fit for human consumption.

10. What is soil?

Answer: The thin layer of grainy substance covering the surface of the earth is called soil.

Short Type Answer Questions

1. Which are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation?

Answer: Temperature and rainfall are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation.

2. Which method is most appropriate to check soil erosion on steep slopes?

Answer: Terrace farming is the most appropriate method to check soil erosion on steep slopes.

3. What do you mean by shelter belt?

Answer: Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas to check the wind movement is called shelter belt.

4. How are forest classified on the basis of latitude?

Answer: Forests are classified as tropical or temperate based on their location in different latitudes.

5. What are the major types of vegetation in the world?

Answer: The major vegetation types of the world are grouped as forests, grasslands, scrubs and tundra.

6. How are vultures important to the environment?

Answer: Vulture due to its ability to feed on dead livestock is a scavenger and considered a vital cleanser of the environment.

7. What percentage of Earth is covered by land?

Answer: Land covers only about thirty per cent of the total area of the earth’s surface and all parts of this small percentage are not habitable.

8. What is national park?

Answer: National park is a natural area designated to protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations.

9. How is soil formed?

Answer: Soil is made up of organic matter, minerals and weathered rocks found on the earth. This happens through the process of weathering.

10. What is weathering?

Answer: Weathering is the breaking up and decay of exposed rocks, by temperature changes, frost action, plants, animals and man.

11. Why are plains and river valleys densely populated?

Answer: Plains and river valleys offer suitable land for agriculture. Hence, these are the densely populated areas of the world.

12. Why Ganga Brahmaputra plain of India is an over populated region?

Answer: Ganga Brahmaputra plain of India is an over populated region because it has even topography and highly fertile soil.

13. What are the different types of soil found in India?

Answer: Different types of soil found in India are alluvial, black, red, laterite, desertic and mountain soil.

14. Why is fresh water the most precious substance on earth?

Answer: Fresh water is the most precious substance on earth because only 1 per cent of freshwater is available and fit for human use.

15. What is rain water harvesting?

Answer: Rain water harvesting is the process of collecting rain water from roof tops and directing it to an appropriate location and storing if for future use.

16. Write any two reasons for land degradation today?

Answer: Reasons for land degradation are:

  • Deforestation
  • Overuse of chemical feritilisers or pesticides

17. What has led to a large scale destruction of forest cover and arable land?

Answer: Growing population and their ever growing demand has led to a large scale destruction of forest cover and arable land.

18. How to prevent surface runoff?

Answer: Forest and other vegetation cover slow the surface runoff and replenish underground water. Water harvesting is another method to save surface runoff.

19. Suggest one way to control water pollution.

Answer: Water pollution can be controlled by treating sewage, agricultural chemicals and industrial effluents suitably before releasing them in water bodies.

20. What is intercropping?

Answer: Intercropping is a multiple cropping practice in which different crops are grown in alternate rows and are sown at different times to protect the soil from rain wash.

21. Why Earth is called water planet?

Answer: Water is a vital renewable natural resource. Three-fourth’s of the earth’s surface is covered with water. It is therefore appropriately called the ‘water planet’.

22. What is biosphere?

Answer: Natural vegetation and wildlife exist only in the narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere that we call biosphere.

23. What do you mean by ecosystem?

Answer: In the biosphere living beings are inter-related and interdependent on each other for survival. This life supporting system is known as the ecosystem.

24. What is termed as Land use?

Answer: Land is used for different purposes such as agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses, roads and setting up of industries. This is commonly termed as Land use.

25. Why land is considered an important resource?

Answer: Land is considered an important resource because it is used for different purposes such as agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses, roads and setting up of industries.

26. Which areas are sparsely populated or uninhabited?

Answer: The rugged topography, steep slopes of the mountains, low-lying areas susceptible to water logging, desert areas, and thick forested areas are normally sparsely populated or uninhabited.

27. How much land on Earth is inhabited?

Answer: Ninety per cent of the world population occupies only thirty per cent of land area. The remaining seventy per cent of the land is either sparsely populated or uninhabited.

28. What are the major threats to the environment due to over exploitation of land resources?

Answer: Land degradation, landslides, soil erosion, desertification are the major threats to the environment because of the expansion of agriculture and constructional activities.

29. What are the reasons for water shortage?

Answer: Water shortage may be a consequence of variation in seasonal or annual precipitation or the scarcity is caused by overexploitation and contamination of water sources.

30. What is the major cause of water pollution?

Answer: Discharge of untreated or partially treated sewage, agricultural chemicals and industrial effluents in water bodies are major contaminants. They pollute water with nitrates, metals and pesticides.

Long Type Answer Questions

1. What is ‘water cycle’?

Answer: Water is in constant motion, cycling through the oceans, the air, the land and back again, through the processes of evaporation, precipitation and run-off. This is referred to as the ‘water cycle’.

2. What are the major factors affecting soil formation?

Answer: The major factors of soil formation are the nature of the parent rock and climatic factors. Other factors are the topography, role of organic material and time taken for the composition of soil formation.

3. What are the uses of water resources?

Answer: Humans use huge amounts of water not only for drinking and washing but also in the process of production. Water for agriculture, industries, generating electricity through reservoirs of dams are the other usages.

4. What do you mean by private land and community land?

Answer: Private land is owned by individuals whereas, community land is owned by the community for common uses like collection of fodder, fruits, nuts or medicinal herbs. These community lands are also called common property resources.

5. Which countries in the world are facing water shortage?

Answer: There is scarcity of water in many regions of the world. Most of Africa, West Asia, South Asia, parts of western USA, north-west Mexico, parts of South America and entire Australia are facing shortages in fresh water supply.

6. What human factors determine land use pattern?
Or
What factors determine land use pattern?

Answer: The use of land is determined by physical factors such as topography, soil, climate, minerals and availability of water. Human factors such as population and technology are also important determinants of land use pattern.

7. What are landslides and how do they occur?

Answer: Landslides are simply defined as the mass movement of rock, debris or earth down a slope. They often take place in conjunction with earthquakes, floods and volcanoes. A prolonged spell of rainfall can cause heavy landslide that can block the flow of river for quite some time.

8. Why water availability per person in India is declining?

Answer: Increasing population, rising demands for food and cash crops, increasing urbanisation and rising standards of living are the major factors leading to shortages in supply of fresh water either due to drying up of water sources or water pollution.

9. What are the reasons for the degradation of the soil?

Answer: Soil erosion and depletion are the major threats to soil as a resource. Both human and natural factors can lead to degradation of soils. Factors which lead to soil degradation are deforestation, overgrazing, overuse of chemical feritilisers or pesticides, rain wash, landslides and floods.

10. Differentiate between tropical evergreen forests and deciduous forests.

Answer:

Tropical Evergreen ForestsDeciduous forests
Evergreen forests do not shed their leaves simultaneously in any season of the year.Deciduous forests shed their leaves in a particular season to conserve loss of moisture through transpiration.

11. Name any two steps that government has taken to conserve plants and animals.

Answer: Two steps that government has taken to conserve plants and animals are:

  • It has set up national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves to protect our natural vegetation and wildlife.
  • It has banned the killing of lions, tigers, deers, great Indian bustards and peacocks.

12. Suggest three ways to conserve water.

Answer: Ways to conserve water:

  • Rain water harvesting.
  • The canals should be properly lined to minimise losses by water seepage.
  • In dry regions with high rates of evaporation, drip or trickle irrigation is very useful.

13. In what forms is freshwater found on the earth?

Answer: Fresh water accounts for only about 2.7 per cent. Nearly 70 per cent of this occurs as ice sheets and glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland and mountain regions. Due to their location they are inaccessible. Only 1 per cent of freshwater is available and fit for human use. It is found as ground water, as surface water in rivers and lakes and as water vapour in the atmosphere.

14. What do you know about CITES?

Answer: CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. It aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 28,000 species of plants are protected. Bears, dolphins, cacti, corals, orchids and aloes are some examples.

15. Why there is uneven distribution of population in different parts of the world?

Answer: The uneven distribution of population in different parts of the world is mainly due to varied characteristics of land and climate. The rugged topography, steep slopes of the mountains, low-lying areas susceptible to water logging, desert areas, and thick forested areas are normally sparsely populated or uninhabited. Plains and river valleys offer suitable land for agriculture. Hence, these are the densely populated areas of the world.

16. How does rainfall affect vegetation?

Answer: In areas of heavy rainfall, huge trees may thrive. The forests are thus associated with areas having abundant water supply. As the amount of moisture decreases the size of trees and their density reduces. In the regions of moderate rainfall short stunted trees and grasses grow forming the grasslands of the world. In dry areas of low rainfall, thorny shrubs and scrubs grow. In such areas plants have deep roots and leaves have thorny and waxy surface to reduce loss of moisture by transpiration.

17. Why is wildlife important to us?

Answer: Wildlife is important to us because

  • They provide us milk, meat, hides and wool.
  • Insects like bees provide us honey, help in pollination of flowers and have an important role to play as decomposers in the ecosystem.
  • The birds feed on insects and act as decomposers as well.
  • Vulture due to its ability to feed on dead livestock is a scavenger and considered a vital cleanser of the environment.

18. What are the factors affecting soil formation?

Answer: Factors affecting soil formation are:
Parent Rock – Determines colour, texture, chemical properties mineral, content, permeability of soil.
Climate – Temperature and rainfall influence rate of weathering and humus.
Relief – Altitude and slope, determine accumulation of soil.
Flora, Fauna and Micro-organism – Affect the rate of humus formation.
Time – Determines thickness of soil profile.

19. “Vegetation and wildlife are valuable resources.” Comment

Answer: Vegetation and wildlife are valuable resources.

  • Plants provide us with timber, give shelter to animals, produce oxygen we breathe, protects soils so essential for growing crops, act as shelter belts, help in storage of underground water, give us fruits, nuts, latex, turpentine oil, gum, medicinal plants and paper.
  • Wildlife includes animals, birds, insects as well as the aquatic life forms. They provide us milk, meat, hides and wool. Insects like bees provide us honey, help in pollination of flowers and have an important role to play as decomposers in the ecosystem. The birds feed on insects and act as decomposers as well. Vulture due to its ability to feed on dead livestock is a scavenger and considered a vital cleanser of the environment.

20. What are the threats to natural vegetation and wildlife?

Answer: Threats to natural vegetation and wildlife are:

  • Changes of climate and human interferences can cause the loss of natural habitats for the plants and animals. Many species have become vulnerable or endangered and some are on the verge of extinction.
  • Deforestation, soil erosion, constructional activities, forest fires, tsunami and landslides are some of the human made and natural factors which together accelerate the process of extinction of these great natural resources.
  • One of the major concerns is the increasing incidents of poaching that result in a sharp decline in the number of particular species.

21. Suggest some methods of soil conservation.

Answer: Some methods of soil conservation are

Mulching: The bare ground between plants is covered with a layer of organic matter like straw. It helps to retain soil moisture.

Contour barriers: Stones, grass, soil are used to build barriers along contours. Trenches are made in front of the barriers to collect water.

Rock dam: Rocks are piled up to slow down the flow of water. This prevents gullies and further soil loss.

Terrace farming: These are made on the steep slopes so that flat surfaces are available to grow crops. They can reduce surface run-off and soil erosion.

Intercropping: Different crops are grown in alternate rows and are sown at different times to protect the soil from rain wash.

Contour ploughing: Ploughing parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a natural barrier for water to flow down the slope.

Shelter belts: In the coastal and dry regions, rows of trees are planted to check the wind movement to protect soil cover.

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