Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Mineral and Power Resources Extra Questions
Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Mineral and Power Resources Extra Questions and Answers are provided here. These Extra Questions with solution are prepared by our team of expert teachers who are teaching in CBSE schools for years. Extra questions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 will help you to properly understand a particular concept of the chapter.
Mineral and Power Resources Class 8 Geography Extra Questions and Answers
Very Short Answer Type Question
1. Name any three common minerals used by you every day.
Answer: Salt, copper, iron
2. Name two naturally occurring radioactive elements.
Answer: Uranium and Thorium
3. Name one ore of Aluminum.
4. Which country is the largest producer of bauxite in the world?
Answer: Australia is the largest producer of bauxite in the world.
5. Which is the most abundantly found fossil fuel?
Answer: Coal is the most abundantly found fossil fuel.
6. Which country has the world’s largest geothermal power plants?
Answer: USA has the world’s largest geothermal power plants.
7. Name the place in India which has huge tidal mill farms.
Answer: Gulf of Kachchh in India has huge tidal mill farms.
8. Name two regions rich in natural gas resources.
Answer: Two regions rich in natural gas resources are Russia and Norway.
9. Which continent produces more than half of the world’s tin?
Which continent is largest producer of tin?
Answer: Asia produces more than half of the world’s tin.
10. Which continent is the leading producer of iron ore in the world
Which continent is largest producer of iron ore?
Answer: Europe is the leading producer of iron-ore in the world.
11. Name two minerals in whose production India contributes a significant part.
Answer: Mica and Salt
12. Name the first country to develop hydroelectricity in the world.
Which was the first country to develop hydroelectricity?
Answer: Norway was the first country in the world to develop hydroelectricity.
14. In which industry is silicon important? From which ore is it obtained?
Answer: Silicon, used in the computer industry is obtained from quartz.
15. Which is the world’s largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum?
Answer: Africa is the world’s largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum.
Short Type Answer Questions
1. What is mineral?
Answer: A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral.
2. Name the leading tin producers in Asia.
Answer: China, Malaysia and Indonesia are among the world’s leading tin producers.
3. Which two areas in Australia have large deposits of gold?
Answer: Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie areas of western Australia have the largest deposits of gold.
4. What is natural gas?
Answer: Natural gas is found with petroleum deposits and is released when crude oil is brought to the surface.
5. Where are Uranium and Thorium found in India?
Answer: In India Rajasthan and Jharkhand have large deposits of Uranium. Thorium is found in large quantities in the Monozite sands of Kerala.
6. Where is the site of the world’s first solar and wind powered bus shelter?
Answer: The site of the world’s first solar and wind powered bus shelter is in Scotland.
7. Name some important hydel power stations in India.
Answer: Some important hydel power stations in India are Bhakra Nangal, Gandhi Sagar, Nagarjunsagar and Damodar valley projects.
8. Which countries are the leading producers of hydel power in the world?
Answer: The leading producers of hydel power in the world are Paraguay, Norway, Brazil, and China.
9. Where are geothermal power plants located in India?
Answer: In India, geothermal plants are located in Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and Puga Valley in Ladakh.
10. Why is CNG considered as eco-friendly fuel?
Answer: Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a popular ecofriendly automobile fuel because it causes less pollution than petroleum and diesel.
11. Why petroleum is referred to as “black gold”?
Answer: Petroleum is thick black liquid. Petroleum and its derivatives are called Black Gold as they are very valuable.
12. Write a brief note on mineral salt.
Answer: It is obtained from seas, lakes and rocks. India is one of the world’s leading producers and exporters of salt.
13. What are the two main types of power resources?
What are the two main classifications of power resources?
Answer: Power resources may be broadly categorised as conventional and non-conventional resources.
14. How are minerals identified?
Answer: Minerals can be identified on the basis of their physical properties such as colour, density, hardness and chemical property such as solubility.
15. Which Indian states are the major producers of bauxite?
Answer: Major bauxite producing areas are Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy?
- Clean ecofriendly and always available.
- Located far away from cities
- costly to transport the electricity.
17. What are the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy?
- Emits large amount of energy.
- Generates radioactive waste.
18. Why is coal referred to as buried sunshine?
Why is coal called ”buried sunshine”?
Why is coal known as the buried sunshine?
Answer: The coal which we are using today was formed millions of years ago when giant ferns and swamps got buried under the layers of earth. Coal is therefore referred to as Buried Sunshine.
19. Who are the major producers of natural gas in the world?
Answer: Russia, Norway, UK and the Netherlands are the major producers of natural gas. In India Jaisalmer, Krishna Godavari delta, Tripura and some areas off shore in Mumbai have natural gas resources.
20. “All minerals are rocks but all rocks are not minerals.” Explain.
Answer: All minerals are rocks but all rocks are not minerals because more than 2,800 types of minerals have been identified but only about 100 are considered ore minerals.
21. Why are minerals considered non-renewable?
Answer: Minerals are a non-renewable resource. It takes thousands of years for the formation and concentration of minerals. The rate of formation is much smaller than the rate at which the humans consume these minerals.
22. Where are mineral deposits located in North America?
Answer: The mineral deposits in North America are located in three zones: the Canadian region north of the Great Lakes, the Appalachian region and the mountain ranges of the west.
23. How are minerals classified on the basis of their composition?
Answer: On the basis of composition, minerals are classified mainly as metallic and non-metallic minerals. Metallic minerals are further classified as ferrous or non-ferrous.
24. How is nuclear energy obtained?
Answer: Nuclear power is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radioactive elements like uranium and thorium. These fuels undergo nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and emit power.
25. What is an ore? Where are the ores of metallic minerals generally located?
Answer: Rocks from which minerals are mined are known as ores. Generally, metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rock formations that form large plateaus.
26. Why environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams?
Answer: Construction of a huge dam affects the natural vegetation and wildlife of the area adversely. Hence, environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams.
27. Name nuclear power stations in India.
Answer: The nuclear power stations in India are located in Kalpakkam in Tamilnadu, Tarapur in Maharastra, Ranapratap Sagar near Kota in Rajasthan, Narora in Uttar Pradesh and Kaiga in Karnataka.
28. Why most industries are concentrated around coal mines?
Answer: Coal is the most abundantly found fossil fuel. It is used as a domestic fuel and also as a raw material in many industries. Hence, most industries are concentrated around coal mines to reduce the cost of transportation.
29. Which sources of energy would you suggest for
(a) rural areas (b) coastal areas (c) Arid regions
Answer: Rural areas – Solar energy, Wind energy and Biogas energy
Coastal areas – Wind energy and Tidal energy
Arid regions – Wind energy and Solar energy
30. Write a short note on distribution of minerals in Europe.
Answer: Europe is the leading producer of iron-ore in the world. The countries with large deposits of iron ore are Russia, Ukraine, Sweden and France. Minerals deposits of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel are found in eastern Europe and European Russia.
31. What are the ways to conserve minerals?
Answer: Ways to conserve minerals:
- Reduce wastage in the process of mining.
- Recycle metals.
- Use minerals in a planned and sustainable manner.
32. Name the petroleum producing countries in the world.
Answer: The chief petroleum producing countries are Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The other major producers are USA, Russia, Venezuela, and Algeria. The leading producers in India are Digboi in Assam, Bombay High in Mumbai and the deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers.
33. What are the advantages and disadvantages of tidal energy?
- Destroys wildlife habitat.
- Difficult to harness.
34. Differentiate between a rock and an ore.
Answer: Difference between a rock and an ore
|A rock||An ore|
|A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals but without definite composition of constituent of mineral.||Rocks from which minerals are mined are known as ores.|
35. What are the advantages and disadvantages of biogas?
- Low cost.
- Easy to operate.
- Makes use of bio waste.
- Causes greenhouse effect.
36. What are the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy?
- Diffused source, so get wasted.
37. Distinguish between metallic and nonmetallic minerals.
Answer: Difference between metallic and nonmetallic minerals
|Metallic minerals||Nonmetallic minerals|
|1. The metallic minerals contain metal in raw form.||1. The non-metallic minerals do not contain metals.|
|2. Example: Iron ore, bauxite, manganese ore||2. Example: Limestone, mica and gypsum|
38. Distinguish between ferrous and nonferrous minerals.
Answer: Difference between ferrous and nonferrous minerals
|Ferrous minerals||Nonferrous minerals|
|1. Ferrous mineral does not contain iron.||1. Non-ferrous mineral does not contain iron but may contain some other metal.|
|2. Example: iron ore, manganese and chromites||2. Example: gold, silver, copper or lead|
Long Type Answer Questions
1. Explain why fossil fuels might become exhausted.
Why fossil fuels are likely to be exhausted soon?
Answer: Fossil fuel such as coal, petroleum and natural gas are the main sources of conventional energy. The reserves of these minerals are limited. The rate at which the growing world population is consuming them is far greater than the rate of their formation. So, these are likely to be exhausted soon.
2. Describe the mineral distribution in North America.
Answer: The mineral deposits in North America are located in three zones: the Canadian region north of the Great Lakes, the Appalachian region and the mountain ranges of the west. Iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper are mined in the Canadian Shield Region, coal in the Appalachians region. Western Cordilleras have vast deposits of copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver.
3. Explain how hydroelectricity is produced.
What is hydroelectricity?
What is hydel power?
Answer: Rain water or river water stored in dams is made to fall from heights. The falling water flows through pipes inside the dam over turbine blades placed at the bottom of the dam. The moving blades then turn the generator to produce electricity. This is called hydroelectricity. The water discharged after the generation of electricity is used for irrigation.
4. Write a short note on distribution of minerals in Africa.
Answer: Africa is rich in mineral resources. It is the world’s largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum. South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire produce a large portion of the world’s gold. The other minerals found in Africa are copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt and bauxite. Oil is found in Nigeria, Libya and Angola.
5. Write a short note on distribution of minerals in Antarctica.
Answer: The geology of Antarctica is sufficiently well known to predict the existence of a variety of mineral deposits, some probably large. Significant size of deposits of coal in the Transantarctic Mountains and iron near the Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica is forecasted. Iron ore, gold, silver and oil are also present in commercial quantities.
6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of crude oil?
- Easier to transport (tankers).
- Basis of petro-chemical industry.
- Depletion of oxygen due to oil spillage.
- Pollutants released caused acid rain.
- Exploration of new fuel is not easy.
7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of coal?
- Extensively available.
- Efficient conversion to electricity.
- Polluting source.
- Bulky to transport.
8. What are the advantages of biogas over natural gas?
Answer: Advantages of biogas over natural gas
- Biogas is non-conventional source of energy whereas natural gas is a conventional source of energy
- Biogas is renewable source of energy whereas natural gas is non- renewable.
- Biogas is cheaper compared to natural gas.
9. How can quarrying become a major environmental concern?
Answer: Quarrying can become a major environmental concern because of the following reasons:
- Dust from quarry sites causes air pollution.
- It involves several activities that generate significant amounts of noise.
- It causes damage to the biodiversity of the place.
- It produces significant amounts of waste material that cause damage to the environment.
10. What are the advantages and disadvantages of natural gas?
- Easier to transport (pipelines).
- Cleaner than oil and coal.
- Cheaper than oil.
- Depletion of oxygen due to gas leakage.
- Pollutants released caused acid rain.
- Exploration of new fuel is not easy.
11. What are the common uses of minerals?
List uses of any three minerals.
Answer: Minerals are used in many industries. Minerals which are used for gems are usually hard. These are then set in various styles for jewellery. Copper is another metal used in everything from coins to pipes. Silicon, used in the computer industry is obtained from quartz. Aluminum obtained from its ore bauxite is used in automobiles and airplanes, bottling industry, buildings and even in kitchen cookware.
12. Write a short note on distribution of minerals in South America.
Answer: Brazil is the largest producer of high grade iron-ore in the world. Chile and Peru are leading producers of copper. Brazil and Bolivia are among the world’s largest producers of tin. South America also has large deposits of gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese, bauxite, mica, platinum, asbestos and diamond. Mineral oil is found in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Columbia.
13. What are the advantages and disadvantages of hydel power?
- Promotes irrigation and fishing.
- Displacement of local community.
- Inundates low.
- Expensive to set up.
14. What has led to the tapping of various non-conventional source of energy?
Why is there a need for harnessing non-conventional sources of energy?
Answer: The sharp increase in our consumption of fossil fuels has led to their depletion at an alarming rate. The toxic pollutants released from burning these fuels are also a cause for concern. Unchecked burning of fossil fuel is like an unchecked dripping tap which will eventually run dry. This has led to the tapping of various nonconventional sources of energy that are cleaner alternatives to fossil fuels.
15. What are the advantages and disadvantages of firewood?
- Easy access.
- Provides energy to large number of people.
- Collection is time consuming.
- Promoting greenhouse effect.
16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of wind energy?
- Low cost production of electricity once setup.
- Safe and clean.
- Noise pollution.
- Wind mills costly to setup.
- Disturbs T.V and radio reception.
- Harmful to birds.
17. Give five ways in which you can save energy at home.
Answer: Five ways in which one can save energy at home:
- Using solar energy as much as possible.
- Drying clothes in sunlight instead of electric dryers to prevent unnecessary use of electricity.
- Switching off lights, fans and other electrical appliances when not in use.
- Using energy efficient devices such as florescent bulbs and tubes.
- Using pressure cookers for cooking.
18. Distinguish between Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.
Answer: Difference between Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy
|Conventional energy||Non-conventional energy|
|1. Conventional sources of energy are those which have been in common use for a long time.||1. Non-conventional sources of energy are those which have been identified few decades ago.|
|2. They are generally exhaustible.||2. They are generally in exhaustible.|
|3. They pollute environment, on a large scale and adds to global warming.||3. They are environment friendly sources, which does not cause pollution.|
|4. Example: Firewood and fossil fuels||4. Example: solar energy, wind energy and tidal energy|
19. Distinguish between Biogas and natural gas.
Answer: Difference between biogas and natural gas.
|1. It is produced using organic waste such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste.||1. Natural gas is found with petroleum deposits and is released when crude oil is brought to the surface.|
|2. It can be used for cooking and lighting.||2. It can be used as a domestic and industrial fuel.|
|3. It is non-conventional source of energy.||3. It is a conventional source of energy.|
|4. It is renewable source of energy.||4. It is non-renewable source of energy.|
20. Name and describe briefly methods of extraction.
What are the different methods of mineral extraction?
How are minerals extracted from the Earth?
Give a brief note on mining.
Answer: Mining – The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth’s surface is called mining.
Open-cast mining – Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer; this is known as open-cast mining.
Shaft mining – Deep bores, called shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great depths. This is called shaft mining.
Drilling – Petroleum and natural gas occur far below the earth’s surface. Deep wells are bored to take them out, this is called drilling.
Quarrying – Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug out, by the process known as quarrying.
21. Where are minerals found? Explain with example.
“Minerals occur in different types of rocks.” Explain with examples.
Answer: Distribution of Minerals
- Minerals occur in different types of rocks. Some are found in igneous rocks, some in metamorphic rocks while others occur in sedimentary rocks.
- Generally, metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rock formations that form large plateaus.
- Iron-ore in north Sweden, copper and nickel deposits in Ontario, Canada, iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South Africa are examples of minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
- Sedimentary rock formations of plains and young fold mountains contain non-metallic minerals like limestone.
- Limestone deposits of Caucasus region of France, manganese deposits of Georgia and Ukraine and phosphate beds of Algeria are some examples.
- Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are also found in the sedimentary strata.
22. Write a short note on distribution of minerals in India.
Answer: Iron: India has deposits of high grade iron ore. The mineral is found mainly in Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
Bauxite: Major bauxite producing areas are Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
Mica: Mica deposits mainly occur in Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. India is the largest producer and exporter of mica in the world.
Copper: It is mainly produced in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Manganese: India’s manganese deposits lie in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Limestone: Major limestone producing states in India are Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.
Gold: Kolar in Karnataka has deposits of gold in India. These mines are among the deepest in the world which makes mining of this ore a very expensive process.
Salt: It is obtained from seas, lakes and rocks. India is one of the world’s leading producers and exporters of salt.
23. Describe some non- conventional sources of energy.
Answer: Solar energy – Solar energy trapped from the sun can be used in solar cells to produce electricity. Many of these cells are joined into solar panels to generate power for heating and lighting purpose. Solar energy is also used in solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers besides being used for community lighting and traffic signals. The technology of utilising solar energy benefits a lot of tropical countries that are blessed with abundant sun shine.
Wind Energy – Wind is an inexhaustible source of energy. The high speed winds rotate the wind mill which is connected to a generator to produce electricity. Windfarms are found in Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain are noted for their wind energy production.
Nuclear Power – Nuclear power is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radioactive elements like uranium and thorium. These fuels undergo nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and emit power. The greatest producers of nuclear power are USA and Europe.
Geothermal Energy – Heat energy obtained from the earth is called geothermal energy. The temperature in the interior of the earth rises steadily as we go deeper. Some times this heat energy may surface itself in the form of hot springs. This heat energy can be used to generate power. USA has the world’s largest geothermal power plants followed by New Zealand, Iceland, Philippines and Central America.
Tidal Energy – Energy generated from tides is called tidal energy. Tidal energy can be harnessed by building dams at narrow openings of the sea. During high tide the energy of the tides is used to turn the turbine installed in the dam to produce electricity. Russia, France and the Gulf of Kachchh in India have huge tidal mill farms.
Biogas – Organic waste such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste can be converted into a gaseous fuel called biogas. Biogas is an excellent fuel for cooking and lighting and produces huge amount of organic manure each year.