Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Industries Extra Questions

Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Industries Extra Questions and Answers are provided here. These Extra Questions with solution are prepared by our team of expert teachers who are teaching in CBSE schools for years. Extra questions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 will help you to properly understand a particular concept of the chapter.

Industries Class 8 Geography Extra Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Question

1. What is the output of iron and steel industry?

Answer: Steel

2. Where is Silicon Valley located?

Answer:  Silicon Valley is located in California.

3. Which is the largest lake of the world?

Answer: Lake Superior is the largest of these five lakes.

4. What does AMUL stand for?

Answer: AMUL stands for Anand Milk Union Limited.

5. Name some natural fibres.

Answer: Natural fibres are wool, silk, cotton, linen and jute.

6. Where is Ahmedabad located in India?

Answer: It is located in Gujarat on the banks of the Sabarmati river.

7. Which Indian city is known as “The Manchester of India”?

Answer: Ahmedabad is often referred to as the ‘Manchester of India’.

8. Name some man-made fibres.

Answer: Man-made fibres include nylon, polyester, acrylic and rayon.

9. What is full form TISCO?

Answer: TISCO stands for Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited.

10. What are the effects of alloying elements on steel?

Answer: Alloys give steel unusual hardness, toughness, or ability to resist rust.

11. What are the processes of cotton textile industries?

Answer: The processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing.

12. When and where was the first successful textile mill established in India?

Answer: The first successful modern textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.

13. Name the great lakes of the world.

Answer: The names of great lakes are Superior, Huron, Ontario, Michigan and Erie.

14. Where did the word textile come from?

Answer: The term ‘textile’ is derived from Latin word texere which means to weave.

15. What are the different ways in which the industries are classified?

Or

Name three common methods of classifying industries.

Answer:  Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership.

Short Type Answer Questions

1. What is Smelting?

Answer: It is the process in which metals are extracted from their ores by heating beyond the melting point.

2. Why Bangalore is called “Silicon Plateau”?
Or
Why Bangalore is known as Silicon Plateau?

Answer: Bangalore is located on the Deccan Plateau from where it gets the name ‘Silicon Plateau’.

3. Why do industrial disasters occur?
Or
What are the main causes of industrial accidents?

Answer: In industries, accidents/disaster mainly occurs due to technical failure or irresponsible handling of hazardous material.

4. Which place is known as ‘Manchester of Japan’?
Or
Which place is known as ‘Manchester of Japan’?

Answer: Osaka is an important textile centre of Japan, also known as the ‘Manchester of Japan’.

5. Where was the first textile mill in India established and when?

Answer: The first textile mill in the country was established at Fort Gloster near Kolkata in 1818 but it closed down after some time.

6. Name the major hubs of Information technology industry in the world.

Answer: The major hubs of Information technology industry are the Silicon Valley of Central California and the Bangalore region of India.

7. Where are iron and steel industries in the world?

Answer: The countries in which iron and steel industry is located are Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia.

8. Where is textile industry concentrated in the world?

Answer: Textile industry is concentrated in India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan.

9. What is the link between the mines and the industry in Pittsburgh?

Answer: Between mines and Pittsburgh is one of the world’s best routes for shipping ore cheaply – the famous Great Lakes waterway.

10. When and where was TISCO started?

Answer: TISCO was started in 1907 at Sakchi, near the confluence of the rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai in Jharkhand.

11. What are common alloying elements for steel?

Answer: Special alloys of steel can be made by adding small amounts of other metals such as aluminium, nickel, and copper.

12. From where does the iron ore come to Pittsburgh?

Answer: The iron ore come to Pittsburgh from the iron mines at Minnesota, about 1500 km from Pittsburgh.

13. How are industries classified on the basis of raw materials?
Or
Classify industries on the basis of source of raw materials.

Answer: Industries may be agro based, mineral based, marine based and forest based depending on the type of raw materials they use.

14. Where the major industrial regions of the world are tend to be located?

Answer:  Major industrial regions tend to be located in the temperate areas, near sea ports and especially near coal fields.

15. What are sunrise industries? Give examples.

Answer: Emerging industries are also known as ‘Sunrise Industries’. These include Information technology, Wellness, Hospitality and Knowledge.

16. Where do we find the major industrial regions of the world?

Answer:  Major industrial regions of the world are eastern North America, western and central Europe, eastern Europe and eastern Asia.

17. What is meant by the term ‘industry’?

Answer: Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.

18. What are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?

Answer: The factors affecting the location of industries are the availability of raw material, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market.

19. Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?

Answer:  Steel is often called the backbone of modern industry because almost everything we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with tools and machinery of these metals.

20. ‘Several textile mills have closed down in Ahmedabad recently.’ Give reason.
Or
Why in recent years several textile mills have closed down in Ahmedabad?
Or
What was the major reason for several textile mills to close down in Ahmedabad?

Answer: Several textile mills have closed down. This is primarily due to emergence of new textile centres in the country as well as non upgradation of machines and technology in the mills of Ahmedabad.

21. Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?

Answer: The warm, moist climate, port for importing machinery, availability of raw material and skilled labour resulted in rapid expansion of the textile industry in Mumbai.

22. What products do industrial plants in Jamshedpur produce?

Answer: In Jamshedpur, several other industrial plants were set up after TISCO. They produce chemicals, locomotive parts, agricultural equipment, machinery, tinplate, cable and wire.

23. What industries have started replacing the textile industry in Osaka?
Or
What industries have replaced the cotton textile industry of Osaka?

Answer: The cotton textile industry of Osaka has been replaced by other industries, such as iron and steel, machinery, shipbuilding, automobiles, electrical equipment and cement.

24. What are the major industrial regions of India?

Answer: India has several industrial regions like Mumbai- Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chottanagpur industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region and the Kollam-Thiruvanathapuram industrial cluster.

25. Write a short note on Chinese gas well blowout.

Answer: On 23 December 2005, due to gas well blowout in Gao Qiao, Chongging, China, 243 people died, 9,000 were injured and 64,000 were evacuated. Many people died because they were unable to run after the explosion. Those who could not escape in time suffered burns to their eyes, skin and lungs from the gas.

26. Give a reason why did the cotton textile industry in India could not compete with the industries in the west initially?

Answer: The production of hand woven cotton textile was expensive and time consuming. Hence, traditional cotton textile industry could not face the competition from the new textile mills of the West, which produced cheap and good quality fabrics.

27. Name some important steel producing centres in India.

Answer:  Important steel producing centres such as Bhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro are situated in a region that spreads over four states — West Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh. Bhadravati and Vijay Nagar in Karnataka, Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, Salem in Tamil Nadu are other important steel centres utilising local resources.

Long Type Answer Questions

1. Give two examples of the following in the space provided.

Answer: (i) Raw Materials: cotton and iron
(ii) End product: shirt and car
(iii) Tertiary Activities: banking and transport
(iv) Agro-based Industries: Food processing and leather industries
(v) Cottage Industries: Basket weaving and pottery
(vi) Co-operatives: Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy

2. What are the inputs processes and outputs of the iron and steel industry?

Answer: The inputs for the industry include raw materials such as iron ore, coal and limestone, along with labour, capital, site and other infrastructure. The process of converting iron ore into steel involves many stages. The raw material is put in the blast furnace where it undergoes smelting. It is then refined. The output obtained is steel which may be used by other industries as raw material.

3. Discuss the Bhopal disaster.
Or
What was the cause of the Bhopal gas tragedy?
Or
What were the effects of the Bhopal gas tragedy?

Answer: One of the worst industrial disasters of all time occurred in Bhopal on 3 December 1984 around 00:30 a.m. It was a technological accident in which highly poisonous Methyl Isocynate (MIC) gas along with Hydrogen Cyanide and other reaction products leaked out of the pesticide factory of Union Carbide. The official death toll was 3,598 in 1989. Thousands, who survived still suffer from one or many ailments like blindness, impaired immune system, gastrointestinal disorders etc.

4. Explain the factors favourable for the development of the IT industry in California.
Or
Discuss the locational advantages of Silicon Valley – California.

Answer: Locational advantages of Silicon Valley – California

  • Close to some of the most advanced scientific and technological centres in the world.
  • Pleasant climate with an attractive and a clean environment. Plenty of space for development and future expansion.
  • Located close to major roads and airports.
  • Good access to markets and skilled work force.

5. Explain the factors favourable for the development of the IT industry in Bangalore.
Or
Discuss the locational advantages of ‘Silicon plateau – Bangalore’.

Answer: Locational advantages of ‘Silicon plateau – Bangalore’

  • Bangalore has the largest number of educational institutions and IT colleges in India.
  • The city was considered dust free with low rents and cost of living.
  • The state government of Karnataka was the first to announce an IT Policy in 1992.
  • The city has the largest and widest availability of skilled managers with work experience.

6. What are the similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California?

Answer: Similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California

  • Presence of high quality educational institutions and advanced scientific and technological centres.
  • Availability of skilled work force.
  • Good access to markets.
  • Pleasant climate with an attractive and a clean environment.
  • Well developed and well connected.

7. Distinguish between agro-based and mineral based industry.

Answer: Difference between agro-based and mineral based industry

Agro-based industryMineral based industry
Agro based industries use plant and animal based products as their raw materials.Mineral based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials.
Example: Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industriesExample: iron and steel industries.

8. Distinguish between public sector and joint sector industry.

Answer:  Difference between public sector and joint sector industry

Public sector industryJoint sector industry
The public sector industries are owned and operated by the government.Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.
Example: Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, and Steel Authority of India LimitedExample: Maruti Udyog Limited

9. Explain different aspects of the industrial system with an example.
Or
What consists an Industrial System? Explain with an example.
Or
What are the inputs processes and outputs of the textile industry?

Answer: An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs. The inputs are the raw materials, labour and costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure. The processes include a wide range of activities that convert the raw material into finished products. The outputs are the end product and the income earned from it. In case of the textile industry the inputs may be cotton, human labour, factory and transport cost. The processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing. The output is the shirt we wear.

10. Why was sakchi chosen to set up the steel plant by TISCO?

Answer: Sakchi was chosen to set up the steel plant for several reasons.

  • This place was only 32 km away from Kalimati station on the Bengal-Nagpur railway line.
  • It was close to the iron ore, coal and manganese deposits as well as to Kolkata, which provided a large market.
  • TISCO, gets coal from Jharia coalfields, and iron ore, limestone, dolomite and manganese from Orissa and Chhattisgarh.
  • The Kharkai and Subarnarekha rivers ensured sufficient water supply.
  • Government initiatives provided adequate capital for its later development.

11. What are the factors responsible for the growth of iron and steel industry in Pittsburgh?

Answer: The steel industry at Pittsburgh enjoys locational advantages.

  • Some of the raw material such as coal is available locally, while the iron ore comes from the iron mines at Minnesota, about 1500 km from Pittsburgh.
  • Between these mines and Pittsburgh is one of the world’s best routes for shipping ore cheaply – the famous Great Lakes waterway.
  • Trains carry the ore from the Great Lakes to the Pittsburgh area.
  • The Ohio, the Monogahela and Allegheny rivers provide adequate water supply.

12. Distinguish between small scale and large scale industries.

Answer: Difference between small scale and large scale industries.

Small scale industriesLarge scale industries
1. Most of the work is done by manpower, small machines and tools.1. The work is done mostly by larger machines and laborers.  
2. These industries employ less capital.2. These industries employ more capital.
3. Silk weaving and food processing industries are small scale industries3. Production of automobiles and heavy machinery are large scale industries.

13. What factors led to the establishment of cotton textile industry in Osaka?
or
Why cotton & textile industry developed in Osaka?
Or
Explain the locational advantages that Osaka has for the development of the cotton textile industry.

Answer: The textile industry developed in Osaka due to several geographical factors.

  • The extensive plain around Osaka ensured that land was easily available for the growth of cotton mills.
  • Warm humid climate is well suited to spinning and weaving.
  • The river Yodo provides sufficient water for the mills. Labour is easily available.
  • Location of port facilitates import of raw cotton and for exporting textiles.

14. Write the properties and significance of steel.

Answer: Steel is tough and it can easily be shaped, cut, or made into wire. Alloys give steel unusual hardness, toughness, or ability to resist rust.

Significance

  • Steel is often called the backbone of modern industry. Ships, trains, trucks, and autos are made largely of steel.
  • Even the safety pins and the needles we use are made from steel.
  • Oil wells are drilled with steel machinery.
  • Steel pipelines transport oil.
  • Minerals are mined with steel equipment.
  • Farm machines are mostly steel.
  • Large buildings have steel framework.

15. Describe briefly the classification of industries on basis of raw material used.
Or
How are industries classified on the basis of raw material used?
Or
Explain classification of industry on the basis of raw material.

Answer: Industries may be agro based, mineral based, marine based and forest based depending on the type of raw materials they use.

Agro based industries use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. Example: Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries.

Mineral based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries. Example: Iron and Steel industry.

Marine based industries use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials. Example: Industries processing sea food or manufacturing fish oil. 

Forest based industries utilise forest produce as raw materials. Example:  pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals and furniture industries.

16. Describe briefly the classification of industries on basis of ownership.
Or
How are industries classified on the basis of ownership?
Or
Explain classification of industry on the basis of ownership.

Answer: Industries can be classified into private sector, state owned or public sector, joint sector and cooperative sector.

Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.

The public sector industries are owned and operated by the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited.

Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti Udyog Limited is an example of joint sector industry.

Co-operative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy are a success stories of a co-operative venture.

17. Discuss the locational advantages for the development of the cotton textile industry in Ahmedabad.

Answer: Favourable locational factors were responsible for the development of the textile industry in Ahmedabad.

  • Ahmedabad is situated in the heart of a cotton growing area. This ensures easy availability of raw material.
  • The humid climate is ideal for spinning and weaving. The flat terrain and easy availability of land is suitable for the establishment of the mills.
  • The densely populated states of Gujarat and Maharashtra provide both skilled and semi-skilled labour.
  • Well developed road and railway network permits easy transportation of textiles to different parts of the country, thus providing easy access to the market.
  • Mumbai port nearby facilitates import of machinery and export of cotton textiles.

18. Describe briefly the classification of industries on basis of size.
Or
How are industries classified on the basis of size?
Or
Explain classification of industry on the basis of size.

Answer: Classification of industry on the basis of size

  • Based on size, industries can be classified into small scale and large scale industries.
  • Cottage or household industries are a type of small scale industry where the products are manufactured by hand, by the artisans. Basket weaving, pottery and other handicrafts are examples of cottage industry.
  • Small scale industries use lesser amount of capital and technology as compared to large scale industries that produce large volumes of products.      Investment of capital is higher and the technology used is superior in large scale industries.
  • Silk weaving and food processing industries are small scale industries. Production of automobiles and heavy machinery are large scale industries.


19. Write short notes on cotton textile industry in Osaka.

Answer: Cotton textile industry in Osaka

  • It is an important textile centre of Japan, also known as the ‘Manchester of Japan’.
  • The textile industry developed in Osaka due to several geographical factors. The extensive plain around Osaka ensured that land was easily available for the growth of cotton mills. Warm humid climate is well suited to spinning and weaving. The river Yodo provides sufficient water for the mills. Labour is easily available. Location of port facilitates import of raw cotton and for exporting textiles.
  • The textile industry at Osaka depends completely upon imported raw materials. Cotton is imported from Egypt, India, China and USA.
  • The finished product is mostly exported and has a good market due to good quality and low price.
  • Though it is one of the important textile cities in the country, of late, the cotton textile industry of Osaka has been replaced by other industries, such as iron and steel, machinery, shipbuilding, automobiles, electrical equipment and cement.
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