Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory Extra Questions
Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory Extra Questions and Answers are provided here. These Extra Questions with solution are prepared by our team of expert teachers who are teaching in CBSE schools for years. Extra questions for Class 8 History Chapter 2 will help you to properly understand a particular concept of the chapter.
From Trade to Territory Class 8 History Extra Questions and Answers
Very Short Answer Type Question
1. What was the earliest name of the present day Kolkata?
2. What was farman?
Answer: Farman was a royal order.
3. Who was called tiger of Mysore?
Answer: Tipu Sultan was called tiger of Mysore.
4. When did the company take over Awadh?
Answer: The Company took over Awadh in 1856.
5. What was the prime objective of East India Company?
Answer: Its prime objective was the expansion of trade.
6. Who was the ruler of England in 1600?
Answer: Queen Elizabeth I was the ruler of England in 1600.
7. Who was the last of the powerful Mughal rulers?
Answer: Aurangzeb was the last of the powerful Mughal rulers.
8. Who became the Nawab of Bengal after Alivardi khan?
Answer: Sirajuddaulah became the Nawab of Bengal after Alivardi khan.
9. Who was made the Nawab of Bengal after the Battle of Plassey?
Answer: Mir Jafar was made the Nawab of Bengal after the Battle of Plassey.
10. Which governor general was impeached by British Parliament?
Answer: Warren Hastings was impeached by British Parliament.
11. Who led the Company’s army against Sirajuddaulah at Plassey?
Answer: Robert Clive led the Company’s army against Sirajuddaulah at Plassey.
12. Who arrested Bahadur Shah Zafar and his sons?
Answer: Bahadur Shah Zafar and his sons were arrested by Captain Hodson.
13. Who was assassinated after the Battle of Plassey?
Answer: After the defeat at Plassey, Sirajuddaulah was assassinated.
14. Who discovered the sea route to India?
Answer: Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese explorer had discovered the sea route to India in 1498.
15. Why did the Battle of Plassey become famous?
Answer: The Battle of Plassey became famous because it was the first major victory the Company won in India.
16. Name Sirajuddaulah’s commander who never fought the Battle of Plassey.
Answer: Mir Jafar, one of Sirajuddaulah’s commanders, never fought the Battle of Plassey.
17. Whom did the Company install in place of Mir Jafar and why?
Answer: When Mir Jafar protested, the Company deposed him and installed Mir Qasim in his place.
18. Who initiated the policy of paramountcy?
Answer: Lord Hastings (Governor- General from 1813 to 1823) initiated a new policy of “paramountcy”.
19. Why could Delhi no longer function as an effective centre?
Answer: As powerful regional kingdoms emerged in various parts of India, Delhi could no longer function as an effective centre.
20. What led to intense conflict between British and local rulers?
Answer: Fortification of settlements and effort to carry on profitable trade led to intense conflict between British and local rulers.
21. What constituted the Mughal army?
Answer: The Mughal army was mainly composed of cavalry (sawars: trained soldiers on horseback) and infantry, that is, paidal (foot) soldiers.
22. Name the two rulers under whose leadership Mysore became powerful.
Answer: Haidar Ali and his famous son Tipu Sultan were the two rulers under whose leadership Mysore became powerful.
23. Why did Tipu Sultan develop a close relationship with the French in India?
Answer: Tipu Sultan established a close relationship with the French in India in order to modernized his army with their help.
24. Who were two famous Maratha soldiers and statesmen of the late eighteenth century?
Answer: Mahadji Sindhia and Nana Phadnis were two famous Maratha soldiers and statesmen of the late eighteenth century.
25. “After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the Company appointed Residents in Indian states.” Who were the Residents?
Answer: They were political or commercial agents and their job was to serve and further the interests of the Company.
26. When did the Mughal emperor appoint the Company as the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal?
Answer: In 1765 the Mughal emperor appointed the Company as the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal.
27. Why did the Company want a puppet ruler?
Why was the Company keen on puppet ruler?
Why did British want to establish puppet ruler in Bengal?
Answer: The Company was keen on a puppet ruler because he would willingly give trade concessions and other privileges.
28. Explain the term ‘Mercantile’.
Answer: Mercantile means a business enterprise that makes profit primarily through trade, buying goods cheap and selling them at higher prices.
Short Answer Type Questions
1. What do you mean by puppet?
Answer: Puppet literally means a toy that you can move with strings. The term is used disapprovingly to refer to a person who is controlled by someone else.
2. Name the Mughal emperor seen as the natural leader during the revolt of 1857.
Answer: When a massive rebellion against British rule broke out in 1857, Bahadur Shah Zafar, the Mughal emperor at the time, was seen as the natural leader.
3. List the Kingdoms which were annexed on the basis of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’.
Answer: Kingdoms annexed on the basis of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ were: Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur (1852), Nagpur (1853) and Jhansi (1854).
4. What were the grievances of the Company regarding the Nawabs of Bengal?
Answer: The Company on its part declared that the unjust demands of the local officials were ruining the trade of the Company, and trade could flourish only if the duties were removed.
5. Who were called ‘nabobs’?
Answer: Company officials who managed to return Britain with wealth led flashy lives and flaunted their riches. They were called “nabobs” – an anglicised version of the Indian word nawab.
6. How Plassey got its name?
Answer: Plassey is an anglicised pronunciation of Palashi and the place derived its name from the palash tree known for its beautiful red flowers that yield gulal, the powder used in the festival of Holi.
7. What did it mean to be nawabs?
Answer: It meant of course that the Company acquired more power and authority. But it also meant something else. Each company servant began to have visions of living like nawabs.
8. What was the result of the second Anglo-Maratha war?
What has happened in second Anglo-Maratha war?
Answer: The Second Anglo- Maratha War (1803-05) was fought on different fronts, resulting in the British gaining Orissa and the territories north of the Yamuna river including Agra and Delhi.
9. Why the company had to buy most of the goods in India with gold and silver imported from Britain?
Answer: The company had to buy most of the goods in India with gold and silver imported from Britain because at that time Britain had no goods to sell in India.
10. Who was Rayanna and what was his role in anti-British resistance movement?
Who was Rayanna? How did meet his end?
Answer: Rayanna, a poor chowkidar of Sangoli in Kitoor, carried on the resistance. With popular support he destroyed many British camps and records. He was caught and hanged by the British in 1830.
11. How did the appointment of residents in Indian states help the company?
Answer: Through the Residents, the Company officials began interfering in the internal affairs of Indian states. They tried to decide who was to be the successor to the throne, and who was to be appointed in administrative posts.
12. What attracted European trading companies to India?
Answer: European trading companies were attracted to India because:
- The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in Europe.
- Pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon too were in great demand.
13. Why was Warren Hastings impeached?
Answer: When Warren Hastings went back to England in 1785, Edmund Burke accused him of being personally responsible for the misgovernment of Bengal. This led to an impeachment proceeding in the British Parliament that lasted seven years.
14. What caused huge loss of revenue in Bengal?
What had caused enormous loss of revenue for Bengal?
Answer: Aurangzeb’s farman had granted only the Company the right to trade duty free. But officials of the Company, who were carrying on private trade on the side, were expected to pay duty. This they refused to pay, causing an enormous loss of revenue for Bengal.
15. What was the main reason for the defeat of Sirajuddaulah at Plassey?
State the main reason of defeat of Sirajuddaulah at Plassey.
Answer: One of the main reasons for the defeat of the Nawab was that the forces led by Mir Jafar, one of Sirajuddaulah’s commanders, never fought the battle. Clive had managed to secure his support by promising to make him nawab after crushing Sirajuddaulah.
16. What was the result of Rani Channamma’s anti-British resistance movement?
Write a note on Rani Channamma.
Who led an anti-British movement in kittur?
Answer: The new policy of “paramountcy” however, did not go unchallenged. When the British tried to annex the small state of Kitoor (in Karnataka today), Rani Channamma took to arms and led an anti-British resistance movement. She was arrested in 1824 and died in prison in 1829.
17. Explain the following terms: Qazi, Mufti and Impeachment
Answer: Qazi – A judge
Mufti – A jurist of the Muslim community responsible for expounding the law that the qazi would administer.
Impeachment – A trial by the House of Lords in England for charges of misconduct brought against a person in the House of Commons.
Long Answer Type Questions
1. How was Tipu Sultan killed?
What happened in the Battle of Seringapatam?
Answer: Four wars were fought with Mysore (1767-69, 1780-84, 1790-92 and 1799). Only in the last – the Battle of Seringapatam – did the Company ultimately win a victory. Tipu Sultan was killed defending his capital Seringapatam, Mysore was placed under the former ruling dynasty of the Wodeyars and a subsidiary alliance was imposed on the state.
2. What is the policy of paramountcy?
Who initiated the policy of ‘paramountcy’? What did the company claim through this policy?
What was the objective behind the Company’s new policy of ‘paramountcy’?
Answer: Under Lord Hastings a new policy of “paramountcy” was initiated. Now the Company claimed that its authority was paramount or supreme, hence its power was greater than that of Indian states. In order to protect its interests it was justified in annexing or threatening to annex any Indian kingdom. This view continued to guide later British policies as well.
3. Write a short note on Warren Hastings.
Answer: Warren Hastings (Governor-General from 1773 to 1785) was one of the many important figures who played a significant role in the expansion of Company power.
By his time the Company had acquired power not only in Bengal, but also in Bombay and Madras. Warren Hastings was the first Governor-General, introduced several administrative reforms, notably in the sphere of justice.
4. Explain the system of “subsidiary alliance”.
Answer: According to the terms of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces. They were to be protected by the Company, but had to pay for the “subsidiary forces” that the Company was supposed to maintain for the purpose of this protection. If the Indian rulers failed to make the payment, then part of their territory was taken away as penalty. The states which had to lose their territories on this ground were Awadh and Hyderabad.
5. What was Lord Dalhousie’s Doctrine of Lapse?
Explain Doctrine of Lapse.
- Lord Dalhousie who was the Governor-General devised a policy that came to be known as the Doctrine of Lapse.
- The doctrine declared that if an Indian ruler died without a male heir his kingdom would “lapse”, that is, become part of Company territory.
- One kingdom after another was annexed simply by applying this doctrine: Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur (1852), Nagpur (1853) and Jhansi (1854).
6. Give an account of different European trading companies besides the British East India Company that entered the Eastern markets.
Answer: By the time the first English ships sailed down the west coast of Africa, round the Cape of Good Hope, and crossed the Indian Ocean, the Portuguese had already established their presence in the western coast of India, and had their base in Goa. In fact, it was Vascoda Gama, a Portuguese explorer, who had discovered this sea route to India in 1498. By the early seventeenth century, the Dutch too were exploring the possibilities of trade in the Indian Ocean. Soon the French traders arrived on the scene.
7. Give a brief description of all the three Anglo-Maratha wars.
Answer: The Marathas were subdued in a series of wars.
- In the first war that ended in 1782 with the Treaty of Salbai, there was no clear victor.
- The Second Anglo- Maratha War (1803-05) was fought on different fronts, resulting in the British gaining Orissa and the territories north of the Yamuna River including Agra and Delhi.
- Finally, the Third Anglo-Maratha War of 1817-19 crushed Maratha power. The Peshwa was removed and sent away to Bithur near Kanpur with a pension. The Company now had complete control over the territories south of the Vindhyas.
8. What administrative reformations were brought in the sphere of justice?
Answer: From 1772 a new system of justice was established. Each district was to have two courts – a criminal court (faujdari adalat ) and a civil court (diwani adalat ). Maulvis and Hindu pandits interpreted Indian laws for the European district collectors who presided over civil courts. The criminal courts were still under a qazi and a mufti but under the supervision of the collectors. In 1775 eleven pandits were asked to compile a digest of Hindu laws. N.B. Halhed translated this digest into English. By 1778 a code of Muslim laws was also compiled for the benefit of European judges. Under the Regulating Act of 1773, a new Supreme Court was established, while a court of appeal – the Sadar Nizamat Adalat – was also set up at Calcutta.
9. Write a note on Tipu Sultan—The ‘Tiger of Mysore’.
Answer: Tipu Sultan – The ‘Tiger of Mysore’
- Tipu Sultan, son of Haidar Ali (ruled from 1782 to 1799) was known as Tiger of Mysore’. Mysore controlled the profitable trade of the Malabar coast where the Company purchased pepper and cardamom.
- In 1785 Tipu Sultan stopped the export of sandalwood, pepper and cardamom through the ports of his kingdom, and disallowed local merchants from trading with the Company.
- He also established a close relationship with the French in India, and modernized his army with their help.
- In the last – the Battle of Seringapatam, the Company ultimately win a victory. Tipu Sultan was killed defending his capital Seringapatam.
10. What was the main cause of the Battle of Plassey?
What led to the Battle of Plassey and what was the result?
Answer: Sirajuddaulah asked the Company to stop meddling in the political affairs of his dominion, stop fortification, and pay the revenues. After negotiations failed, the Nawab marched with 30,000 soldiers to the English factory at Kassimbazar, captured the Company officials, locked the warehouse, disarmed all Englishmen, and blockaded English ships. Then he marched to Calcutta to establish control over the Company’s fort there. On hearing the news of the fall of Calcutta, Company officials in Madras sent forces under the command of Robert Clive, reinforced by naval fleets. Prolonged negotiations with the Nawab followed. Finally, in 1757, Robert Clive led the Company’s army against Sirajuddaulah at Plassey. The Battle of Plassey was the first major victory the Company won in India.
11. What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs and the East India Company?
Answer: The areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs and the East India Company were:
- The nawabs refused to grant the Company concessions, demanded large tributes for the Company’s right to trade, denied it any right to mint coins, and stopped it from extending its fortifications.
- They claimed that the Company was depriving the Bengal government of huge amounts of revenue and undermining the authority of the nawab by refusing to pay taxes, writing disrespectful letters, and trying to humiliate the nawab and his officials.
- The Company on its part declared that the unjust demands of the local officials were ruining the trade of the Company, and trade could flourish only if the duties were removed.
12. Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army.
Answer: Several changes occurred in the composition of the Company’s army:
- The East India Company started recruiting peasants into their armies and training them as professional soldiers, which came to be known as the sepoy army.
- As warfare technology changed from the 1820s, the cavalry requirements of the Company’s army declined.
- The soldiers of the Company’s army had to keep pace with changing military requirements and its infantry regiments now became more important.
- In the early nineteenth century the British began to develop a uniform military culture. Soldiers were increasingly subjected to European-style training, drill and discipline that regulated their life far more than before.
13. How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?
Answer: Finally, in 1765 the Mughal emperor appointed the Company as the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal. The assumption of Diwani benefited the East India Company in several ways.
- The Diwani allowed the Company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal.
- From the early eighteenth century its trade with India had expanded. But it had to buy most of the goods in India with gold and silver imported from Britain. This was because at this time Britain had no goods to sell in India. The outflow of gold from Britain slowed after the Battle of Plassey, and entirely stopped after the assumption of Diwani.
- Now revenues from India could finance Company expenses. These revenues could be used to purchase cotton and silk textiles in India, maintain Company troops, and meet the cost of building the Company fort and offices at Calcutta.
14. How did the East India Company begin trade in Bengal?
Answer: East India Company begin trade in Bengal
- The first English factory was set up on the banks of the river Hugli in 1651. This was the base from which the Company’s traders, known at that time as “factors”, operated. The factory had a warehouse where goods for export were stored, and it had offices where Company officials sat.
- As trade expanded, the Company persuaded merchants and traders to come and settle near the factory. By 1696 it began building a fort around the settlement.
- Two years later it bribed Mughal officials into giving the Company zamindari rights over three villages. One of these was Kalikata, which later grew into the city of Calcutta or Kolkata as it is known today. It also persuaded the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb to issue a farman granting the Company the right to trade duty free.