Extra Questions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 1 What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 What is Democracy Why Democracy extra questions and answers available here in PDF format. Solving class 9 extra questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions with PDF as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising these questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.

Class 9 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Questions

1: Which party of Zimbabwe helped its country to gain independence?
Answer: The ZANU-PF party of Zimbabwe helped its country to gain independence.

2: Which Pakistani general led a military coup in October 1999?
Answer: The Pakistani general who led a military coup in October 1999 was General Pervez Musharraf. 

3: Since 1930, which country holds elections after every six years and which has never been under a military or dictator’s rule?
Answer: The country is Mexico. 

4: Zimbabwe attained independence from white minority rule in which year?
Answer: Zimbabwe attained independence from white minority rule in 1980. 

5: During which period did China record its worst famines in world history?
Answer: China’s famine of 1958-1961 was the worst recorded famine in world history. Nearly three crore people died in this famine. 

6: Which one country out of France, USA, Myanmar and India is not a true democratic country?
Answer: Myanmar is not a true democratic country because it is ruled by military rulers. 

7: In Iraq, the real powers are held by which outside country?
Answer: The real powers in Iraq are held by the USA.

Question than that of migrants from other countries?
Answer: In Fiji, the electoral system is such that the vote of an indigenous Fijian has more value than that of an Indian-Fijian (Fijian who is a  descendent of migrants from India.

9: What are the major challenges to the working of democracy in India?
Answer: Casteism and communalism are the major challenges to the working of democracy in India. 

10: Is it true of democracy that it allows a way of correcting its mistakes and offers more dignity to all citizens?
Answer: It is true, because elections are held regularly in a democracy every few years, thus allowing a way of correcting our mistakes. It offers more dignity to all citizens by treating all of them equally. 

11: Name the famous political party of Mexico.
Answer: The famous political party of Mexico is Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). 

12: What is the most common form of democracy in today’s world?
Answer: The most common form of democracy in today’s world is representative democracy.

13: Where did democracy make its first formal appearance in the 5th and 6th century BC?
Answer: Democracy made its first formal appearance in the Greek city states during the 5th and 6th century BC. 

14: What are the three types of government practiced in Belgium?
Answer: The three types of government practiced in Belgium are Central Government, State Government and Community Government. 

15: Which one country out of Bangladesh, USA, Saudi Arabia and India has the lowest participation of women in public life?
Answer: Saudi Arabia has the lowest participation of women in public life. 

16: Name the capital of Republic of Fiji.
Answer: Suva is the capital of Republic of Fiji. 

17: Which form of Government is present in Fiji?
Answer: Fiji is Parliamentary republic run by military appointed government. 

18: When did Estonia restore its independence from the Soviet Union?
Answer: Estonia, a state in the Baltic region at Northern Europe got independence from the Soviet Union an 20th August, 1991. 

19: Name the capital and official language of Estonia.
Answer: The capital of Estonia is Tallinn and the official language is Estonian. Other recognised regional languages are Voro, Setu. 

20: Explain the type of government present in Mexico.
Answer: The United Mexican states are a federation whose government is representative, democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the 1917 Constitution. 

21: On which respect Saudi Arabia in the only country in the world?
Answer: Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world which ban womens from driving. 

22: What was the designation taken by pervez Musharraf for himself when he overthrew the democratic government of Pakistan in 1999?
Answer: Pervez Musharraf declared himself the Chief Executive of Pakistan when he overthrew the democratic government of Pakistan in 1999. 

23: ‘Banning Trade Unions’-is it a characteristic of democracy or not?
Answer: ‘Banning Trade Unions’ is not a characteristic of democracy. Ans. In democracy, people can choose their own leaders. 

24: Suggest one of the important features of democracy
Answer: According to this order, the President can dismiss the national or provincial assemblies and the final power rests with military officers and General Musharraf himself. 

25. Which members are allowed to contest for the elections in China?
Answer: Only those who are members of the Chinese Communist Party or eight smaller parties allied to it were allowed to contest elections held in 2002 – 03. The government is always formed by the Communist Party. 

26. What was PRI?
Answer: It was a political party of Mexico called as Institutional Revolutionary Party. 

27. How can you say that people did not have any choice in democratic Mexico?
Answer: People seemed to have no choice. There was no way the ruling party PRI could be defeated, even if people were against it. There were no fair elections. 

28. What does the true democracy say?
Answer: A democracy must be based on a free and fair elections where those currently in power have a fair chance of losing.

29. In which country women do not have the right to vote?
Answer: Saudi Arabia. 

30.What is the electoral system in Fiji?
Answer: In Fiji, the vote of an indigenous Fiji has more value than that of an Indian Fijian.

31. When did Zimbabwe attain independence?
Answer: Zimbabwe attained independence from white minority rule in 1980. 

32. Which party is ruling over Zimbabwe since independence?
Answer: ZANU-PF is the party that is ruling over Zimbabwe since independence. 

33. Who is the President of Zimbabwe?
Answer: President Robert Mugabe. 

33. What do you derive from democratic government like Zimbabwe’s?
Answer: Popular governments can be undemocratic and popular leaders can be autocratic. 

34. Give any one demerit of democracy.
Answer: Leaders keep changing in a democracy. This leads to instability. 

35. Give any one merit of democracy.
Answer: A democratic government is a better government because it is more accountable form of government and it enhances the dignity of citizens. 

36. How democracy allows us to correct its own mistakes?
Answer: In democracy there is space for public discussion on government’s or rulers’ mistakes and there is a room for correction. Either the rulers have to change their decisions, or the rulers can be changed. 

37. How does democracy enhance the dignity of citizens?
Answer: Democracy is based on the principle of political equality, on recognising that the poorest and the least educated has the same status as the rich and the educated. 

38. Why modem democracies are representatives democracies?
Answer: Modern democracies involve such a large number of people that it is physically impossible for them to sit together and take a collective decision. 

39. What is the basic sense behind a method of taking decision in democracy?
Answer: A democratic decision involves consultation with and consent of all those who are affected by that decision.   

40. Define the term ‘Democracy’.
Answer: Democracy is a form of government in which the rule over the country is of the people, for the people and elected by the people. E.g: India. 

41. What does a candidate need before contesting elections in China?
Answer: A candidate needs the approval of the Chinese Communist Party before contesting elections in China. 

42. Who said this : ‘Democracy is the rule of the people, for the people and by the people’?
Answer: Abraham Lincoln, the former President of USA said this. 

43. The King of which country has declared that in future he will be guided by the advice given to him by elected representatives?
Answer: King of Bhutan has declared that in future he will be guided by the advice given to him by elected representatives.

Short Answer Type Questions

1. Why were every elections won by PRI in Mexico?

Answer: PRI managed to win elections in Mexico every six years because they used many unfair means to win elections. Like they spent a large sum of money in the campaign for its candidates and forced people to vote for them. 

2: Government has not made any provision for drinking water in some villages in remote areas. The villagers of a particular remote area decided to pay some money to the government officials to get water to their villages. Was this a democratic method?

Answer: No, this was not a democratic method. They could have organised public meetings against government’s policies, filed a case in the courts claiming that water is part of the right to life, or even boycotted the next elections to give a message to all parties, which are all democratic methods. 

3: Do the women of Saudi Arabia have the right to vote?

Answer: On 25th September, 2011, Saudi Arabia’s king Abdullah has announced that women will have the right to stand and vote in future local elections and join the advisory Shora, a council as full members. 

4: What kind of government does Zimbabwe have?

Answer: Zimbabwe is a republic with a presidential system of government. But now the country is effectively authoritarian dictatorship under President Robert Mugabe who has re-elected in 2013 at the age of 89 for another five years.

5. How President Mugabe changed the constitution of Zimbabwe?

Answer: President Mugabe has changed the constitution several times to increase the powers of the President and make him less accountable. Public protests and demonstrations against the government are declared illegal. There is a law that limits the right to criticise the President. 

6: With what motive did General Pervez Musharraf issue a ‘Legal Framework order’ in August 2002?

Answer: In august 2002 he issued a legal framework order that amended the constitution of Pakistan. In this order the President can dismiss the national and provincial assemblies. After passing this law elections were held to the national and state assemblies. So the election were held regularly and power rest with elected representatives. But still the final power rests with military officers and muhraff himself.

7. From which word or words, has the word ‘Democracy’ been derived?

Answer: The word ‘Democracy’ is derived from the Greek words – ‘Demos’ and ‘cratia’. ‘Demos’ means ‘people’ and ‘cratia’ means ‘power’. Thus, Democracy means a form of government in which the power to rule lies in the hands of the people.

8. What is direct democracy?

Answer:  It is a form of government in which people directly participate in the affairs of the state. This system is possible only in those states where the population is small and all the citizens can directly participate in the affairs of the state. All the adult citizens have the right to participate in the meetings of the Assembly where all the laws are passed and decisions are taken. Today this system exists only in a few cantons of Switzerland. 

9. What do you understand by ‘indirect democracy’?

Answer: Indirect democracy has been established in almost all the modern states, because modern states are much larger in size and population than before. Here people do not directly taken part in the affairs of the state, but they elect their representatives for a fixed period. If the representatives do not work according to the wishes of the people and for their welfare, they are changed at the time of the next election. 

10. How does democracy enhance the dignity of the citizens?

Answer: Democracy is based on the principle of political equality. It means that the poorest and the least educated have the same status as the rich and the educated. People are not subjects of a ruler, they are the rulers themselves. Even when they make mistakes, they are responsible for their own mistakes.

11. This cartoon was published in Canada just before its Parliamentary elections of 2005. Everyone, including the cartoonist, expected the Liberal Party to win once again. When the result came, the Liberal Party lost the elections. In this cartoon an argument against democracy or for democracy?

Answer: This cartoon is an argument for democracy. Because in democracy, the voters decide in favour of or against the ruling party. Although the cartoonist expended the Liberal Party to win, he criticised the Liberal Party which he could do only in a democracy.

12. This cartoon was titled ‘Building Democracy’ and was first published in a Latin American Publication. 
(i) What do money bags signify here? 
(ii) Could this cartoon be applied to India?

Answer: (i) At the time of election, the political parties in the fray spend a lot of money to win the election. Not only political parties, the government also spends a lot of money to conduct free and fair election. The cartoon suggests that we establish democracy with the help of money power.
(ii) Yes, this cartoon could be applied to India. 

13. Chinese Government blocked free flow of information on the internet by placing restrictions on popular websites like ‘Google’ and ‘Yahoo’. The image of tanks and an unarmed student reminds the reader of another major event in recent Chinese history. Find out about that event. 

Answer: The cartoon reminds us of the Massacre in liananmen square in 1989. In April 1989, triggered by the death of Hu Yaobang, a liberal reformer, mass gathering and protests took place in and around Tiananmen Square in Beijing. It was largely a student run demonstration which called for economic reform, freedom of the press and political liberalisation. The Chinese Government brutally suppressed the movement for which it was internationally 

14. I want to be in Lyngdoh Madam’s class! That sounds like a democratic classroom, doesn’t it?

Answer: Yes, Lyngdoh Madam’s classroom sounds like a democratic classroom. Here everybody can speak his own mind. The students are giving their own arguments passionately. The feel very bad if someone that the environment in the classroom is democratic.

15. Why is democracy considered the best form of government?

Answer: Democracy cannot give us everything but is clearly better than any other alternative. It offers better chances of a good decision, it is likely to respect people’s wishes and allows different kinds of people to live together. Even when it fails to do some of these things. It allows a way of correcting its mistakes and offers more dignity to all citizens. That is why democracy is considered the best form of government.

16. How does democracy allow us to correct its own mistakes?

Answer: There is no guarantee that mistakes cannot be made in democracy. No form of government can guarantee that. The advantage in a democracy is that such mistakes cannot be hidden for long. There is a space for public discussion on these mistakes. And there is room for correction. Either the rulers have to change their decisions or the rulers can be changed. This cannot happen in a non-democratic government.

17. How does democracy improve the quality of decision making?  

Answer: A democratic decision involves consultation with and consent of all those who are affected by that decision. Those who are not powerful have the same say in taking the decisions as those who are powerful. This can apply to a government or a family or any other organisation. The chance of rash or irresponsible decision is also less in a democracy.

18. What would have happened if India was not a democracy? Could we have stayed together as a single nation?

Answer: No, we would have not stayed together as a single nation if India was not a democracy. India has multi-religious, multi-cultural and multi-linguistic population. If there was no democracy then all the people could not have followed their religion and customs with freedom and there would have been conflicts between different religious and linguistic groups where the minorities would have lived in fear and insecurity. But democracy provides the peaceful solutions to every problem. It provides the best method of dealing with differences and conflicts. 

19. What according to you is the broader meaning of democracy?

Answer: Democracy is a form of government in which representatives of an area in a country sit together to take decisions. Elections are held to choose the representatives and native people or citizens are allowed to participate in the elections. Democracy is also a principle that can be applied to any sphere of life. 

20. How does democracy enhance the dignity of the citizens

Answer: Democracy is based on the principle of political equality, on recognising that the poorest and the least educated has the same status as the rich and the educated. People are not subjects of a ruler, they are the rulers themselves. Even when they make mistakes, they are responsible for their conduct.

21. How democracy can enhance the dignity of the citizens?

Answer: (i) Democracy is based on the principle of political equality, on recognising that the poorest and the illiterate has the same status as rich and the educated.
(ii) People are not subjects of a ruler, they are the rulers themselves.
(iii) Even when they make mistakes, they are responsible for their conduct.   

22: Write three arguments in favour of democracy.

Answer: Arguments for democracy are
(i) A democratic government is a more accountable form of government. A democracy requires that the ruters have to attend to the needs of the people.
(ii) Democracy is based on negotiation and deliberation, which improves the quality of decision-making.
(iii) It allows us to correct our own mistakes. In democracy there is always a scope that the rulers can change their wrong decisions or the rulers themselves can be changed.

23: Is China a democratic country or not? Give two arguments in favour of your answer.

Answer: China is not a democratic country in the true spirit.
(i) For contesting the election to the Chinese Parliament, the candidates need the approval of the Chinese Communist Parry. Only the members of Communist Party and its eight allies are allowed to contest the election.
(ii) There is one party rule, i.e., Communist Party in China, which is not the indication of a true democracy. Therefore, China cannot be said to be a true democracy.

24: Examine any three demerits of democracy.

Answer: Some demerits of democracy are
(i) Leaders keep changing in a democracy. It leads to instability.
(ii) Democracy is all about political competition and power play. Here political parties try to win elections spreading caste feelings, communalism, practising immoral methods etc.
(iii) So many people have to be consulted in a democracy that it leads to delays. Involving people in the decision-making does lead to delay which is not desirable for the nation. 

25: Describe four features of democracy as a form of government.

Answer: The features of democracy are
(i) Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.
(ii) A democracy must be based on a free and fair election, where those currently in power have a fair chance of losing.
(iii) In a democracy, each adult citizen must have one vote and each vote must have one value.
(iv) In a democracy, government rules within limits set by constitutional law and citizens rights. 

26: Explain any three difficulties faced by the people in a non-democratic country.

Answer: Three difficulties faced by the people in a non-democratic country are
(i) In a non-democratic country, all the people are at the mercy of the dictator or the military rulers. They may or may not respond to the people’s need.
(ii) In non-democratic countries, the people are not allowed to criticise the government. By doing this people may face imprisonment, harassment, etc.
(iii) In a non-democratic country, no opposition is tolerated, so the question of opposition party or trade unions does not arise. 

27: How does democracy allow us to correct our own mistakes?

Answer: There is no guarantee that mistakes cannot be made in a democracy. Actually, no form of government can guarantee it. The advantage of democracy is that mistakes cannot be hidden for a long time. There is always a scope for a public discussion of mistakes in democracy. In democracy, all citizens can take part and there is room for correction. Either the rulers have to change their decisions or the rulers themselves can be changed in democracy. 

Long Answer Type Questions

1: Write any three instances of denial or equal right to vote in the world politics. Or Why are China, Estonia and Saudi Arabia not truely democratic countries? State one reason to each one of them. Or Why are China and Saudi Arabia non-democratic countries though they declared themselves as democracies? State one reason to each of the countries.

Answer: One major demand of democracy is ‘Universal adult franchise’ i.e., right to vote for every adult citizen. But in the world politics there are many instances of denial of equal right to vote.
In Saudi Arabia women did not have the right to vote until 2011. On 25th September, 2011, king Abdullah has declared that women will have the right to stand and vote in future.
Estonia made its citizenship rule in such a manner, that people belonging to Russian minority find it difficult to get the right to vote.

In China, before contesting the election, the needs the approval of the Chinese Communist Party.
Although the countries declare themselves as democracies, but the fundamental principle of ‘political equality’ is denied in all the Cases. Thus, these are not truly democratic countries. 

2: State the freedoms which are usually taken away when democracy is overthrown by a military regime.

Answer: The freedoms usually taken away by a military regime are
(i) There will be no freedom of expression and speech.
(ii) In a non- democratic government, the rulers do not have to act according to the wishes of the people. The needs of the people can be ignored by the military ruler.
(iii) In democracy, no one is a permanent loser or winner. But in military regime same ruler or ruling party can rule the country for a very long time.
(iv) In non-democratic country, there is no freedom to form political associations and organize protests and political action. In reality, political freedom of the citizen is completely denied in military regime. 

3: ‘Democracy is all about political competition and powerplay. There is no scope for morality’. Justify the statement by giving arguments against democracy.

Answer: Democracy as a form of government only ensures that people can take their own decision. It does not guarantee that their decisions will be good always. In democracy leaders keep changing which leads to instability. Democracy is based on consultation and discussion, but so many people have to be consulted in a democracy that if leads to delay.

Elected leaders do not know the best interest of the people. It leads to bad decisions.
As democracy is all about political competitions it leads to corruption. Political parties utilise many corrupt tricks to win the election. Ordinary people do not know what is good for them. People can make mistakes so they should not decide anything. 

4: ‘Democracy is better than any other form of government, because it allows to correct its own mistakes. Justify the statement with the help of three examples. Or Democracy is better than other forms of government because it allows us to correct own mistakes. Discuss.

Answer: Democracy always offers scope for correction which is impossible in any other form of government. No form of government is free from mistakes. Democracy also involves many mistakes. But the good thing is that it allows to correct its own mistakes.   The advantage of democracy is that, if there is any mistake, it cannot be hidden for long. Sooner or later the public comes to know about them.

There is always space for public discussion on these mistakes. And there is a room for correction.
Correction of mistakes results in either the rulers have to change their decision or the rulers themselves can be changed through election. This cannot happen in a non-democratic government.

5. How does democracy improve the quality of decision-making?

Answer: Democracy is based on consultation and discussion. A democratic decision always involves many persons, discussions and meetings. Those who are not powerful have the same say in taking the decisions as those who are powerful. When many people put their heads together, they are able to point out possible mistakes or drawbacks in any decision. It takes time. But important decisions should be taken after proper discussion. This process may be time-consuming, but it reduces the chances of rash or irresponsible decisions. Thus the lengthy process of taking decisions on any important issue in democracy improves the quality of the decision. 

6. Explain the difficulties faced by the people in a non-democratic country? 

Answer: The common difficulties faced by the people in a non-democratic country are
(i) People cannot choose or change their ruler.
(ii) People cannot question the authority of the ruler or dictator.
(iii) People do not enjoy any rights. Supporters of democracy are tortured or killed. For example, in Chile more than 3000 people were killed by military.
(iv) In a non-democratic country, public protests and demonstration against the government are declared illegal. Sometimes political activists are imprisoned for   indefinite time. For example, Aung San Suu Kyi in Myanmar spent a long time in under house arrest.
(v) In a non-democratic country, people do not have political equality. Universal adult Franchise is denied sometimes.
(vi) In a non-democratic country people may have elected their representatives, but in reality they are not really the rulers. The power of taking final decision rests with army officials. For example, in Pakistan, the real power is enjoyed by the army. 

7. “Democracy is the most popular form of government emerging in modern times. Still its shortcomings cannot be ruled out.” Justify the statement by assessing any five shortcomings of democracy.

Answer: Shortcomings of democracy are
(i) In the democratic form of government, leaders keep on  changing, which leads to instability.
(ii) There is political competition and power play everywhere. This situation hardly follows any rules of morality.
(iii) Elected leaders are unable to contact a large number of people and can hardly guess about the real problems of the people, which results in wrong decisions, delay of work, etc.
(iv) A large number of people are illiterate. They do not know what is good for them. So they cannot decide anything properly.
(v) Democracy leads to corruption for it is based on electoral competition. To win the election, the political parties adopt their own policies and try to win election by hook or by crook. 

8. How did. Musharraf establish his rule in Pakistan?

Answer: General Pervez Musharraf led a military coup in Pakistan in October 1999. He overthrew a democratically elected government and declared himself the Chief Executive of the country. Later the changed his designation to President. In 2002, he held a referendum in the country that granted him a five year extension. In August, 2002, he issued a ‘Legal Framework Order’ that amended the Constitution of Pakistan. According to this order, the President can dismiss the national or provincial assemblies. A National Security Council dominated by military officers supervised the work of the civilian cabinet. After passing the ‘Legal Framework Order’ Law, elections were held to the national and state assemblies.  

9. How did Robert Mugabe establish his dictatorial rule in Zimbabwe after independence?

Answer:  Zimbabwe attained independence from white minority rule in 1980. After independence, the country has been ruled by ZANU-PF, the party that led the freedom struggle. Its leader Mugabe has been ruling since independence. Mugabe is popular, but also uses unfair practices in elections. Over the years, his government has changed the constitution several times to increase the power of the President and make him less accountable. Opposition party workers are harassed, public protests against the government are declared illegal and both electronic and print media are controlled by the government. Even the government ignores the court judgements that go against it. He has re-elected in 2013 at the age of 89 for another five years. His supporters characterise him as a true Pan-Africanist who stands strong against forces of imperialism in Africa.  

10. Write a response to the following arguments against democracy. 
(a) Army is the most disciplined and corruption-free organisation in the country. Therefore Army should rule the country. 
(b) Rule of the majority means the rule of ignorant people. What we need is the rule of the wise, even if they are in small numbers. 
(c) If we want religious leaders to guide us in spiritual matters, why not invite them to guide us in politics as well. The country should be ruled by religious leaders.

Answer: (a) The Army is for the defence of the country. Even if it is the most disciplined and corruption-free organisation it should not be allowed to rule the country as its primary duty is defence and not governance.
(b) Rule of majority is democratic as it represents the views of all sections of people. Illiterate and poor people cannot be called ignorant. At least they can realize which representative is good for them. Democracy means equal opportunity to all without any discrimination
(c) This statement is wrong. We should not mix religion and politics, especially in a multi-racial, multi-religious and multi-lingual country like India, Besides, many religious leaders do not have any experience of administration.

11. Are the following statements in keeping with democracy as a value? Why? 
(a) Father to Daughter I don’t want to hear your opinion about your marriage. In our family, children marry what the parents tell them to. 
(b) Teacher to Student Don’t disturb my concentration by asking me Questions in the classroom. 
(c) Employee to the Officer Our working hours must be reduced according to the law.

Answer: (a) The first statement is undemocratic because a girl is not allowed to give her opinion relating to her own marriage. Just as the people have the right to choose their representatives, the girl should also be allowed to have a say in the selection or choice other husband.
(b) The second statement is undemocratic because the student is not being allowed to speak and ask questions. It is the duty of the teacher to teach and satisfy the queries of the students.
(c) The third statement is democratic because it calls for the reduction of working hours according to the law. Employees should enjoy the right to work for fixed hours as fixed by international law. 

12. Why is democracy considered the best form of government?

Answer: Democracy has been accepted as the best form of government in the modern world. Under this, government works for the welfare of the people. Democracy performs better regarding the removal of poverty and backwardness in a country. It offers better conditions of living. It implements policies to ensure equal opportunities for all the citizens in education and employment. Democracy is likely to respect people’s own wishes and allows different kinds of people to live together. Even if it fails to deliver on some of its promises, always there is a scope to correct its mistakes. Above all, it offers more dignity to all citizens. That is why democracy is considered the best form of government.

13. Is Mexico a democratic country or not? Give arguments in favour of your answer.

Answer: Mexico became independent in 1930. It holds elections after every six years. But until 2000, every election was won by a party called PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party). PRI used many dirty tricks to win the elections. It spent a large sum of money for its candidates. Opposition parties did contest elections, but never managed to win. Media largely ignored the activities of the opposition political parties. But from 2000 the scenario has changed. In the 2000 election, Vicente Fox of National Action Party (PAN) in alliance with Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (PVEM) became the first opposition candidate to win the election. Vicente Fox became the President of Mexico. After him Felipe Calderone of National Action Party (PAN) again became the President. It suggests that Mexico has marched towards democracy. 

15. Explain the representative democracy. Why is the representative democracy the most common form of government in modern times? Explain any four reasons. Or What is the representative democracy? Discuss its significance in the contemporary world.

Answer: The most common form of democracy in present time is that of a representative democracy. It is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected representatives representing a group of people as opposed to direct democracy.
(i) India and most of the countries follow the representative democracy. In a democracy, all the people do not rule. Direct rule by people is not possible.
(ii) In a democracy, a majority is allowed to take decisions on behalf of all the people. Even the majority does not rule directly. It rules through its elected representatives.
(iii) Representative democracy becomes necessary in the contemporary world. Because modern democracies involve such a large number of people that it is physically impossible for them to sit together and take a collective decision.
(iv) Even if they could, the citizens do not have the time, desire or skill to take part in all the decisions. 

16. Elections in China do not represent people’s verdict. Explain. Or Why are elections in China not free and fair? Explain any three reasons. Or Why can’t the democratic set up in China be called a true democracy? Explain.

Answer: 

(i) Democracy is a major concept introduced to China in the late 19th century.
(ii) In China, elections are regularly hold after every five years for electing the country’s Parliament, called National People’s Congress.
(iii) It has nearly 3000 members elected from all over China. Some members are elected by the army.
(iv) This National People’s Congress has the power to appoint the president of the country.
(v) Before contesting elections, a candidate needs the approval of the Chinese Communist party.
(vi) Only those who are members of the Chinese Communist Party or eight smaller parties allied to if are allowed to contest elections in China.
(vii) The government is always formed by the communist party.  
(viii) Thus, we cannot say that the elections in China are  free and fair. It is always restricted by the communist   party.

17. What steps were taken by PRI to win election in Mexico? Or The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) used many dirty tricks to win elections in Mexico”. Justify the statement with five example. Or Describe any five dirty tricks used by PRI to win elections in Mexico. Or “Till 2000 Mexican people seem to have a choice to elect their leader but practically they had no choice.” Support this statement with three suitable reasons.  

Answer: The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) of Mexico won all the elections from 1930 to 2000. The opposition parties did contest elections, but never managed win. The PRI used many dirty tricks to attend the elections.
(i) All the government employees had to attend the party meetings of PRI.\
(ii) Teachers of government schools advised and sometimes forced the parents for casting their votes in favour of PRI.
(iii) Media always criticised the opposition parties but ignored their good effort.
(iv) Sometimes the Polling booths are shifted from one place to another without prior notice. It tried to hamper the election procedure.
(v) Being in power, the PRI spent a large sum of money to manipulate the election and the campaign for the candidate. In Mexico people seemed to really have a choice, but in reality they had no choice, but to cast their vote in favour of the PRI. 

18. I have heard a different version. Democracy is off the people far (from) the people and (where they) buy the people. Why don’t we accept that?

Answer: In some cases, the democracy is off the people far (from) the people and (where they) buy the people i.e., where the democracy does not belong to the people it is not for them but far away from them, where the democracy is not by the people but the candidates the votes with money which means that true democracy does not exist. But we should not see these examples and be hopeless. These cases are exceptions and not the rule, which will be removed with the passage of time.

19. Let us take Lyngdoh Madam seriously and try to write down the exact definition of some of the simple words that we use all the time : pen, rain and love. e.g., is there a way of defining a pen that distinguishes it clearly from a pencil, a brush, a chalk or crayon. 
(i) What have you learnt from this attempt? 
(ii) What does it teach no about understanding the meaning of democracy?

Answer: (i) From this conversation, I have learnt that there is no shortest to our thinking about the matter ourselves. We have to think about its meaning and evolve a definition. Each and every thing has some specific features on the basis of which we can define that thing.
(ii) We need a definition only when we come across a difficulty in the use of a word. We need a clear definition of democracy because there are different kinds of governments which are known as Democracy. Abraham Lincoln said that Democracy is a rule of the people, for the people and by the people. We must not accept the definition, jug. because everyone accepts it. We do not know if this is the best way of defining democracy unless we think about it ourselves. After thinking about it we can say that democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people. This is a common basic feature of democracy.

20. Syria is a small West Asian country. The ruling Ba’ath Party and some of its small allies are the only parties allowed in that country.
(i) Do you think this cartoon could apply to China or Mexico? 
(ii) What does the crown of leaves on democracy signify?

Answer: (i) Yes, this cartoon could be applied to China, because there is one party rule in China. Before contesting elections, a candidate needs the approval of the Chinese communist party. So China cannot be said fo be a true democracy. Mexico has a multiparty system. Nationally there are three large political parties, viz, Institutional Revolutionary   Party (IRP), National Action Party (NAP), and Party of the Democratic Revolution (PDR). But until 2000 every election was won by the PRI. The PRI was known to use many dirty tricks to to win elections. So the cartoon can be applied to Mexico until 2000 election. But in 2006, election the PRI fell to third place behind both the PAN and the PRD. Now Mexico has a coalition government.
(ii) Crown of leaves means a circle of leaves that is worn on somebody’s head as a sign of victory. The cartoon signifies that democracy has won in some of the countries of the world, but it is not accepted by all. 

21. This cartoon was drawn in the context of Latin America.
(i) Do you think it applies to the Pakistani situation as well?
(ii)Think of other countries where this could apply? 
(iii) Does this happen sometimes in our country as well?

Answer: (i) The cartoon suggests the scene of booth capturing with the gun. This can be applicable to the Pakistan. In Pakistan, General Musharraf with the help of army officials   controlled the elected representatives.
(ii) This could be applied in Iraq, China, etc.
(iii) Booth capturing by the political hooligans happens sometimes in our country also. 

22. All this is so remote for me. 
(i) Is democracy all about rulers and governments?
(ii) Can we talk about a democratic classroom?
(iii) Or a democratic family?

Answer: (i) Democracy is not only about rulers and governments. Democracy is a principle that can be applied to any sphere of life. A democratic decision involves consultation with and consent of all those who are affected by that decision. In this sense, it can be applied to any organisation other than the government.

(ii) We can have democratic classrooms where the students can ask questions without hesitation. Where the teachers have a democratic temperament. Where the interaction is not a one-way traffic but a healthy two-way interaction.

(iii) Democracy can be seen in families also. We could have democratic families where the decisions are not taken by any one individual and imposed on rest of the family members. All the family members should sit down and arrive at a general consensus. My opinion should matter as much as my father’s. In this way, we can have, democracy in our family also.

23. This cartoon is about the Iraqi election held after Saddam Hussein’s regime was overthrown. He is shown behind the bars. 
(i) What is the cartoonist saying here? 
(ii) Compare the message of this cartoon with the first cartoon in this chapter.

Answer: (i) In one of the quotation of the cartoon, the cartoonist tells us about the equality of the right to vote and equal value of each man’s vote. In another quotation, he says that the dicta top, mostly prefers the situation when he is the only man to decide any matter by his only vote.
(ii) The first cartoon shown in two chapter suggests that the US army personnel are elevating the process to form a democracy in Iraq. But in this cartoon the message is that the democracy is already established.    

24. (i) Why talk about Zimbabwe? 
(ii) I read similar reports from many parts of our own country. Why don’t we discuss that?

Answer: (i) The President of Zimbabwe is the head of the state of Zimbabwe. In 1987, Robert Mugabe becomes the president and he revise the Constitution to make himself Executive President. President Mugabe is popular but also uses unfair practices in elections. Opposition party workers are harassed, public protest and demonstration against the government are declared illegal, both print and electronic media are controlled by the government. The government has pressurised judges to give verdict in favour of the government. The example of Zimbabwe shows that popular approval of the rulers is necessary in a democracy, but it is not sufficient. A democratic government cannot do whatever it likes, simply because it has won the election. This is the reason for which Zimbabwe is discussed here.

(ii) Our country is democratic and elections are by and large free and fair. However, sometimes we hear reports about use of unfair means, violence and money power in elections. These tactics (methods) are adopted by some candidates with criminal connections or criminal background. However, such cases are decreasing day by day. 

25. This cartoon is from Brazil, a country that has long experience of dictatorship. It is entitled The Hidden Side of Dictatorship’ 
(i) Which hidden sides does this cartoon depict? 
(ii) Is it necessary for every dictatorship to have a hidden side? 
(iii) Find this out the dictators discussed in the first chapter and, if possible, about Abacha in Nigeria and Macros in the Philippines. 

Answer: (i) The hidden side depicted by the cartoon is the brutal side to the dictator. Dictator like Hitler ordered mass killings to eliminate ‘undesirable’ persons like Hitler many dictator killed the innocent people who were against their regime. This evil side of the dictator is shown in this cartoon.

(ii) No, it is not necessary for every dictatorship to have a hidden side. Because, if the dictator really wants to work for the betterment of people, he does not need to have a hidden side.

(iii) (a) The revolt by the army took place in Chile on 11th, September, 1973 under General Augusto Pinochet in which President Salvador Allende was killed. Pinochet became the president of the country and ruled it for the next 17 years.
(b) Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski was the last communist leader of Poland who was the head of the state from 1985 to 1990. He resigned from the power after the Polish Round table Agreement in 1989 that led to democratic elections in poland.
(c) General Sani Abacha was a Nigerian military dictator and politician. He was the defacto president of Nigeria from 1993 to 1998. His regime was tied to human rights violations and allegations of corruption. He hanged the fomous social activist Ken Saro-Wiwa. He did not allow democratic process like elections in Nigaria He was listed as the world’s fourth most corrupt leader in recent history.
(d) Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos was the president of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He implemented wide-ranging programmes of infrastructure development and economic reform. However, his administration was marred by massive authoritarian, political repression and human rights violations. In the 2004, Global Transparency Report, Marcos appeared in the list of the world’s corrupt leader. He was said to have amassed between $ 5 billion to $ 10 billion in his 21 years as President of Philippines. 

26. Giving an example of Mexico, prove that although having a democratic system, they were not practising democracy.

Answer: (i) Since independence in 1930, Mexico holds elections every six years to elect their President.
(ii) But until 2000, every election was won by a party called PRI. Opposition parties did contest elections, but never managed to win.
(iii) The PRI was known to use many dirty tricks to win elections. The PRI spent large sums of money in the campaign for its candidates and booths were shifted from one place to another in the last minute, which made it difficult for the people to cast their votes. 

27. Compare the democratic system in China with Mexico.

Answer: 
(i) In China, the elections do not offer people any choice.
(ii) They have to choose the ruling party and the candidates approved by it.
Mexico:
(i) In Mexico, the people seemed to have a choice but practically they did not have any choice.
(ii) There was no way that the ruling party could be defeated, even if the people were against it. 

28. Give examples of the countries which do not provide equal rights to vote.

Answer: There are many examples of countries which do not provide equal rights to vote.  
Examples:
(i) In Saudi Arabia, women do not have the right to vote.
(ii) Estonia has made its citizenship rules in such a way that people belonging to Russian minority find it difficult to get their right to vote.
(iii) In Fiji, the electoral system is such that the vote of the Fijian has more value than that of an Indian Fiji. 

29. Give arguments against democracy.

Answer: The arguments against democracy are:
(i) Leaders keep changing in a democracy. This leads to instability.
(ii) Democracy is all about political competition and power play. There is no scope for morality.
(iii) So many people have to be consulted in a democracy that it leads to delays.
(iv) Elected leaders do not know the best interest of the people. It leads to bad decision-making.
(v) Democracy leads to corruption because it is based on electoral competition.
(vi) Ordinary people don’t know what is good for them, so they should not decide anything.

30. Give arguments in favour of democracy.

Answer: The arguments in favour of democracy are:
(i) A democratic government is a better government because it is a more accountable form of government.
(ii) Democracy improves the quality of decision-making.
(iii) Democracy provides methods to deal with differences and conflicts.
(iv) Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens.
(v) Democracy is better than other forms of government as it allows rulers to correct its own mistake. 

31. What is democracy? Give examples of non-democratic countries.

Answer: Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people. Examples of non-democratic countries:
(i) The army rulers of Myanmar are not elected by the people. Those who happen to be in control of the army become the rulers of the country. People have no say in the decision making.
(ii) Dictators like Pinochet are not elected by the people.
(iii) The king of Nepal and Saudi Arabia rule, not because the people have chosen them to do so but because they happen to be born into the royal family. 

32. How does democracy provide a platform to deal with differences and conflicts?

Answer:  In any society people are bound to have differences of opinions and interests. These differences are particularly sharp in a country like ours which has an amazing social diversity. People of our country belong to different regions, speak different languages, practise different religions. So they look at the world very differently and have different preferences. Democracy provides the peaceful solution to this problem. In a diverse country like India, democracy keeps our country together and united. 

33. What have you understood by the term ‘Democracy’?

Answer: Democracy is a form of government in which rulers are elected by the people. But, this definition is not adequate to define democracy. We need to add up following features:
(i) Democracy is a form of government in which rulers elected by the people take all the major decisions.
(ii) Elections offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to   change the current rulers.
(iii) This choice and opportunity is available to all the people on an equal basis.
(iv) The exercise of this choice leads to a government limited by basic rules of the constitution and citizens rights.   

34. “Democracy is better than other forms of governments because it allows us to correct its own mistakes.” Do you agree with it or not ?  

Answer: (i) There is no guarantee that mistakes cannot be made in democracy. No form of government can guarantee that.
(ii) The advantage in a democracy is that such mistakes cannot be hidden for long.
(iii) There is a space for public discussion on these mistakes. And there is a room for correction.
(iv) Either the rulers have to change their decision or the rulers can be changed.
(v) I believe, this cannot happen in a non-democratic government; so I fully agree that democracy does allow us to correct its own mistakes.

35. State the main features of democracy.

Answer: The main features of democracy are:
(i) In a democracy, the final decision-making power must rest with those elected by the people.
(ii) A democracy must be based on free and fair elections, where those currently in power have a fair chance of losing.
(iii) In a democracy, each adult citizen must have one vote and each vote must have one value.
(iv) A democratic government rules within limits set by the constitutional law and citizens’ rights.
(v) Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts. It enhances the dignity of the citizens. 

36. How can you say that Pakistan was not exercising democracy when General Musharraf was ruling?

Answer: In Pakistan, General Musharraf led a military coup in October 1999.
(i) He overthrew a democratically elected government and declared himself the ‘Chief Executive’ of the country.
(ii) Later, he changed his designation to that of a President and in 2002, held a referendum in the country that granted him a five-year extension.  
The government in Pakistan, under General Musharraf, cannot be called a democracy because:
(i) People may have elected their representatives to the national and provincial assemblies but those elected representatives are not really the rulers. They cannot take the final decisions.
(ii) The power to take the final decision rests with the army officials and with General Musharraf and none of them are elected by the people.
(iii) Pakistani media, human right organisations and democracy activists said that referendum held by General Musharraf was based on malpractices and fraud. 

37. Giving an example of Zimbabwe, show how laws were made by one single ruler.

Answer: Since Zimbabwe got independence in 1980, it is being ruled by ZANU-PF which led the freedom struggle.
(i) Its leader, Robert Mugabe has been ruling the country since independence. But ZANU-PF won due to unfair practices in elections.
(ii) His government has made changes in the constitution several times to increase the power of the President and make him less accountable.
(iii) The opposition party workers were harassed and their meetings were disrupted.
(iv) Public protests demonstrations are declared illegal.
(v) Laws are made to limit the right to criticise the President.
(vi) The media has been forced to write and speak in favour of the ruling party.
(vii) There are independent newspapers but the government harasses those journalists who go against it. This example of Zimbabwe shows that popular government can be undemocratic. Popular leaders can be autocratic. If we wish to assess a democracy, it is important to look at the elections and how they are fought. 

38. How did Musharraf establish his rule in Pakistan?

Answer: Musharraf came to power after attempting a military coup. He overthrew a democratically elected government and declared himself the Chief Executive of the country. Later he changed his designation to President and in 2002 held a referendum in the country that granted him a five-year extension. Pakistani media, human right organisations and democracy activists said that the referendum was based on malpractices and fraud. In August 2002, he issued a ‘Legal Framework Order’ that amended the constitution of Pakistan. According to this order, the President can dismiss the national or provincial assemblies. The work of the civilian cabinet is supervised by a National Security Council which is dominated by military officers.  

39. Why Pakistan may not be called a democracy under General Musharraf?

Answer: Pakistan under General Musharraf should not be called a democracy. People may have elected their representatives to the national and provincial assemblies but those elected representatives are not really rulers. They cannot take the final decisions. The power to take final decision rests with army officials and with General Musharraf, and none of them are elected by the people. This happens in many dictatorships or monarchies. They formally have an elected parliament and government but the real power is with those who are not elected.

40. How did China establish a Communist Government?

Answer: In China elections are regularly held after every five years for electing the country’s parliament, called National People’s Congress. The National People’s Congress has the power to appoint the President of the country. It has nearly 3,000 members elected from all over China. Some members are elected by the army. Before contesting the elections, a candidate needs the approval of the Chinese Communist Party. Only those who are members of the Chinese Communist Party or eight smaller parties allied to it were allowed to contest elections held in 2002 -2003. The government is always formed by the communist party.

41. What was PRI? What dirty tricks did it play to win elections in Mexico?

Answer: PRI was a party called Institutional Revolutionary Party of Mexico. All those who were employed in government offices had to attend its party meetings. Even the teachers of government schools used to force parents to vote for the PRI. Media largely ignored the activities of opposition political parties except to criticise them. Sometimes the polling booths were shifted from one place to another in the last minute, which made it difficult for people to cast their votes. The PRI spent a large sum of money in the campaign for its candidates.

42. How did Robert Mugabe establish his dictatorial rule in Zimbabwe, after Independence?

Answer: After Independence, the country has been ruled by ZANU-PF, the part that led the freedom struggle. Its leader Mugabe had been ruling since Independence. Elections have been held regularly and always won by ZANU- PF. President Mugabe is popular but also uses unfair practices in elections. Over the years, his government has changed the constitution several times to increase the powers of the President and make him less accountable. Opposition party workers are harassed and their meetings disrupted. Public protests and demonstrations against the government are declared illegal. There is a law that limits the right to criticise the President. Television and radio are controlled by the government and give only the ruling party’s version. There are independent newspapers but the government harasses those journalists who go against it. The government has ignored some court judgements that went against it and has pressurised judges. 

43. Under what conditions is a government run after the elections?  

Answer: A democratic government cannot do whatever it likes simply because it has won the elections. It has to respect some basic rules. In particular it has to provide some guarantees to the minorities. Every major decision has to go through a series of consultations. Every office bearer has certain rights and responsibilities assigned by the constitution and the law. Each of these is accountable not only to the people but also to other independent officials.

44. Why do we need to define democracy accurately?

Answer: (i) The simple definition of democracy is not adequate. It reminds us that democracy is people’s rule.
(ii) But if we use this definition in an unthinking manner, we would end up calling almost every government that holds an election in a democracy. That would be misleading.
(iii) Every government in contemporary world wants to be called a democracy, even if it is not so.
(iv) That is why we need to carefully distinguish between a government that is a democracy and one that pretends to be one.
(v) We can do so by defining it carefully that democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people and the final decision-making power must rest with those elected by the people. 

45. Why Pakistan under General Musharraf should not be called a democracy as stated by President Musharraf?

Answer: Pakistan under General Musharraf should not be called a democracy due to the following reasons:
(i) People may have elected their representatives to the national and provincial assemblies but those elected representatives are not really the rulers.
(ii) They cannot take the final decisions.
(iii) The power to take final decision rests with army officials and with General Musharraf, and none of them are elected by the people.
(iv) This happens in many countries,’ where formally they have an elected parliament and government but the real power is with those who are not elected. 

46. In which countries, even today, there is denial of equal right to vote?

Answer: The principle of universal adult franchise has been accepted almost all over the world, yet there are many instances of denial of equal right to vote.
(i) In Saudi Arabia, women do not get the right to vote, they remain mpardah and being told not to interfere in the political matters.
(ii) Estonia has made its citizenship rules in such a way that people belonging to Russian minority find it difficult to get the right to vote.
(iii) In Fiji, the electoral system is such that the vote of an indigenous Fijian has more value than that of an Indian Fijian.  

47. Once elected by the people, what kind of duties are needed to be performed by the office bearers?

Answer: (i) A democratic government cannot do whatever it likes, simply because it has won an election.
(ii) It has to respect some basic rules.
(iii) In particular, it has to extend some guarantees to the minorities.
(iv) Every major decision has to go through a series of consultations.
(v) Every office bearer has certain rights and responsibilities assigned by the constitution and the law.
(vi) Each of these is accountable not only to the people but also to other independent officials. 

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