Extra Questions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2 Constitutional Design

Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 2 Constitutional Design extra questions and answers available here in PDF format. Solving class 9 extra questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions with PDF as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising these questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.

Class 9 Civics Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Questions

1. How many members did the Constituent Assembly have that wrote the Indian Constitution?

Answer: The Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian Constitution had 299 members. 

2. Name the President of the Constituent Assembly?

Answer: Dr Rajendra Prasad was the President of the Constituent Assembly. 

3. Is it true that non-democratic countries do not have a Constitution?

Answer: No, it is not true. Whether democratic or not, most countries in the world need to have some basic rules which are called the Constitution. 

4. Name the Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee of India?

Answer: Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar, an eminent lawyer and politician, was the Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee of India. 

5. Earlier to 1992, South Africa practiced a form of racial discrimination. What is it termed as?

Answer:  The racial discrimination practiced in South Africa prior to 1992 was called apartheid.

6. In a republic, how is the Head of State decided or chosen?

Answer: In a republic, the Head of State is a person elected by people. 

7. Nelson Mandela remained in prison for treason for how many years?

Answer: Nelson Mandela remained in prison for about 28 years. 

8. On which day did South Africa gain independence from the rule of the White minority?

Answer: South Africa gained independence from the rule of the White minority on 26th April, 1994. 

9. What is the title of the autobiography of Nelson Mandela?

Answer: The title of the autobiography of Nelson Mandela is, “Long Walk to Freedom”. 

10. Which national leader tried to draft a Constitution for India as far back as in 1928?

Answer: Pandit Moti Lal Nehru tried to draft a Constitution for India in 1928.

11. When were the elections to the Constituent Assembly held in India?

Answer: The elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July, 1946

12. The Constituent Assembly originally had how many members and was left with how many after the partition of the country?

Answer: Originally the Constituent Assembly had 389 members, but was reduced to 299 members after the partition of the country. 

13. In which country did a large number of ‘Whites’ settle and become the local rulers?

Answer: The country is South Africa. 

14. Who said, “…. I shall work for an India in which the poorest shall feel that it is their country in whose making they have an effective voice. ……”?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi said this statement. 

15. Did the ideals of the Quit India Movement contribute to the making of the Indian Constitution?

Answer: No, they did not. However, the Socialist Revolution in Russia, the Bill of the Rights of the US and the ideals of the French Revolution were the contributing factors. 

16. Which organisation led the freedom movement in South Africa?

Answer: The African National Congress (ANC) was the umbrella organisation that led the struggle against the policies of segregation. 

17. From which country’s Constitution have most countries of the world chosen to begin their Constitution with a Preamble?

Answer: Most countries of the world have chosen to begin their Constitution with a Preamble from the Constitution of the USA. 

18.  Did all members of the Constituent Assembly of India hold the same views on all provisions of the Constitution?

Answer: No, they did not. But the Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner to decide all matters. 

19. Why is India considered as a sovereign country?

Answer: India is a sovereign country because people have supreme right to make decisions. 

20. How do you define a country where citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion?

Answer: A country where citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion in known as secular state. 

21. Define the Preamble.

Answer: An introductory statement containing guiding values in a Constitution is known as Preamble. 

22. Name the leader who used to write in the magazine ‘Young India’ in 1931.

Answer:  Mahatma Gandhi used to write in the magazine ‘Young India’ in 1931. 

23. Who is known as the Father of Indian Constitution?

Answer: Dr BR Ambedkar is known as the Father of Indian Constitution.

24. What is ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’?

Answer: Each and every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly have been recorded and preserved as ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’. 

25. In which session of the Congress did Indian National Congress Plan on how independent India’s Constitution should look like?

Answer: In Karachi Session(1931), Indian National Congress planned on how independent India’s Constitution should look like

26. When did the Indian Constitution come into force?

Answer: On 26th January, 1950, the Indian Constitution came into force. 

27. In the Constituent Assembly, the first captain of the Indian hockey team also has a role. Who was he?

Answer: He was Jaipal Singh. 

28. Which country has the largest written Constitution of the world?

Answer: India has the largest written Constitution of the world. 

29. Who often bitterly criticised Mahatma Gandhi and his vision regarding how to remove inequalities from our society?

Answer:  Dr BR Ambedkar had a different understanding of how inequalities could be removed from our society, thus he often bitterly criticised Mahatma Gandhi and his vision.

30. On the basis of what did the system of apartheid divide people?

Answer: On the basis of skin colour the system of apartheid divided    people.  

31. “I have fought against the white domination and I have fought against the Black domination”. Who said this sentence?

Answer: Nelson Mandela said this statement.

32. If the head of the state is an elected person and not a hereditary position. What is it called?

Answer: It is called as Republic.

33. Name the founder of Andhra Mahila Sabha. 

Answer: G Durgabai Deshmukh was the founder of Andhra Mahila Sabha.  

34. Who was Nelson Mandela?

Answer:  Nelson Mandela was the leader of African National Congress (ANC). He remained in for jail for 28 years in South Africa’s most dreaded prison, Robben Island opposing the apartheid regime. 

35. What does ‘Apartheid’ mean?

Answer: The official policy of racial discrimination and ill treatment of blacks followed by the government of South Africa between 1948 and 1989. 

36. Who were called ‘blacks’ in South Africa?

Answer: The native people of South Africa are black in colour, they made up about three-fourth of the population and were called ‘blacks’.

37. How non-whites were treated in South Africa?

Answer: The white rulers treated all non-whites as inferiors. The non-whites did not have voting rights. 

38. What was ANC?

Answer: It was African National Congress, an umbrella organisation that led the struggle against the policies of segregation. This included many workers’ unions and the Communist Party. 

39. Who formed the constitution of New democratic South Africa?

Answer: The party that ruled through oppression and brutal killings and the party that led the freedom struggle sat together to draw up a common constitution. 

40. When was the constitution of South Africa completed?

Answer: After two years of discussion and debate these constitution makers came out with one of the finest constitutions the world has ever had. 

41. How a state denounced by the entire world was being seen as a model of democracy?

Answer:  What made this change possible was the determination of the people of South Africa to work together, to transform bitter experiences into the binding glue of a rainbow nation.

42. What compromise was made by whites minority in South Africa?

Answer: The whites agreed to the principle of majority rule and that of one person one vote. They also agreed to accept some basic rights for the poor and the workers. 

43. What compromise was made by black majority in South Africa?

Answer: The blacks agreed that majority rule would not be absolute. They agreed that the majority would not take away the property of the white minority. 

44. With which rules trust was built between blacks and whites in South Africa?

Answer: These rules determine what the elected governments are empowered to do and what they cannot do. They also decided the right of the citizens. 

45. What is this set of basic rules called?

Answer: This set of basic rules is called a ‘Constitution’.

46. What is a ‘Constitution’?

Answer: The Constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all the people living together in a country. 

47. Why is Constitution considered the Supreme law?

Answer: The Constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living a territory (called citizens) and also the relationship between the people and the government. 

48. What advantage did Indian Constitution makers have unlike South Africa?

Answer: There was one big advantage for the makers of the Indian Constitution. Unlike South Africa, they did not have to create a consensus about what a democratic India should look like. 

49. Who was the first one to draft a constitution for India?

Answer: In 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India. 

50. What resolution was made in 1931, Karachi session?

Answer: In 1931, tne resolution at the Karachi session of, the Indian National Congress dwelt on how independent India’s constitution should look like. 

51. Which basic values were incorporated in our constitution from these pre- independence decisions?

Answer: (i) Universal Adult Franchise.
(ii) Right to freedom and equality.
(iii) protecting the rights of minorities. 

52. Which countries constitutional features inspired Indian Constitution makers?

Answer: (i) Ideals of French Revolution
(ii) Parliamentary democracy of Britain
(iii) Bills of Rights in US and
(iv) Socialist Revolution in Russia. 

53. What was ‘Constituent Assembly’?

Answer: The drafting of the document called the constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the Constituent Assembly. 

54. How many members did the Constituent Assembly have?

Answer: The Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian Constitution had 299 members. 

55. When was the Constitution work completed and when did it come into effect?

Answer: The Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26th November 1949 but it came into effect on January 26, 1950. To mark this day we celebrate 26th January as Republic Day every year. 

56. Why did the Constitution come into effect on 26th January 1950?

Answer:  Since the Constitution makers wanted to give importance to the date 26th January as Jawaharlal Nehru declared Independence Day of India on 26th January 1931. 

57. What is the unusual achievement of our Constitution?

Answer: No large social group or political party has ever questioned the legitimacy of the Constitution itself. 

58. In which manner Constituent Assembly worked?

Answer: The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. 

59. Why was a drafting committee formulated? Who was its Chairman?

Answer: The drafting Committee was formed to prepare a draft of the constitution for discussion. Its Chairman was Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

60. Who was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?

Answer: Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly. 

61. How many amendments were considered on the draft?

Answer: More than two thousand amendments were considered by the drafting Committee.

62. What was ‘Constituent Assembly’?

Answer: The drafting of the document called the constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the Constituent Assembly. 

63. How many members did the Constituent Assembly have?

Answer: The Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian Constitution had 299 members. 

64. When was the Constitution work completed and when did it come into effect?

Answer: The Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26th November 1949 but it came into effect on January 26, 1950. To mark this day we celebrate 26th January as Republic Day every year. 

65. Why did the Constitution come into effect on 26th January 1950?

Answer:  Since the Constitution makers wanted to give importance to the date 26th January as Jawaharlal Nehru declared Independence Day of India on 26th January 1931. 

66. What is the unusual achievement of our Constitution?

Answer: No large social group or political party has ever questioned the legitimacy of the Constitution itself. 

67. In which manner Constituent Assembly worked?

Answer: The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. 

68. Why was a drafting committee formulated? Who was its Chairman?

Answer: The drafting Committee was formed to prepare a draft of the constitution for discussion. Its Chairman was Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

69. Who was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?

Answer: Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly. 

70. How many amendments were considered on the draft?

Answer: More than two thousand amendments were considered by the drafting Committee.

71. How much time it took to form the Constitution of India?

Answer:  It took about 114 days spread over three years for documenting the Indian Constitution.

72. What are ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’?

Answer: Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved. These are called Constituent Assembly Debates. 

73. How these Constituent Assembly Debates are used?

Answer: These debates provide the rationale behind every provision of the Constitution. These are used to interpret the meaning of the Constitution. 

74. What features formed the foundation for India’s democracy?

Answer: The Values that inspired and guided the freedom struggle and were then nurtured by it, formed the foundation for India’s democracy. 

75. What is Preamble?

Answer: The Preamble is like preface of a book, it is the soul of the Indian Constitution. It gives in brief all the laws and action of the government. 

76. What does ‘Sovereign’ mean?

Answer:  It means people have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the government of India. 

77. What does ‘Socialist’ in a democratic Constitution mean?

Answer: Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society. Government should try to reduce socio-economic inequalities. 

78. What is the meaning of the form ‘Secular’?

Answer: Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. But there is no official religion. Government treats all religions, beliefs and practices with equal respect. 

79. What does ‘democratic’ mean?

Answer: It is a form of government where people enjoy equal political rights, elect their rulers and hold them accountable. 

80. What does ‘Republic’ mean?

Answer: In a republic, the head of the state is an elected person and not on a hereditary position. 

81. Why is the term ‘Justice’ included in our Preamble?

Answer: Citizens cannot be discriminated on the grounds of caste, religion and gender. Social inequalities have to be reduced. The government should work for the welfare of all and provide justice. 

82. What kind of liberty is given in the Preamble?

Answer: There are no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens in what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action. 

83. What does ‘Equality’ term mean in the Indian Constitution?

Answer: All are equal before the law. The traditional social inequalities have to be ended. The government should ensure equal opportunities for all. 

84. What does the term ‘Fraternity’ signify in the Preamble?

Answer: All of us should behave as if we are members of the same family. No one should treat a follow citizen as inferior. 

85. What are ‘Constitutional Amendments’?

Answer: Provisions are made to incorporate changes from time to time in our constitution. These changes are called ‘Constitutional Amendments’.

86. Why do we need to make amendments in our constitution?

Answer: Our Constitution is a very long and detailed document. Therefore it needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated. 

87. Name the leader who has played a decisive role in the integration of the Indian princely state.

Answer: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel played a decisive role in the integration of the Indian princely state.

88.  Name the Education Minister in the first Union Cabinet.

Answer: Abul Kalam Azad was the Education Minister in the first Union Cabinet.

89. Name the founder President of Bharatiya Jansangh.

Answer: Shyama Prasad Mukherjee was the founder President of Bharatiya Jansangh.

90. When did the Constituent Assembly adopt the Constitution of India? When did it come into force?

Answer: The Constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November, 1949. It came into force on the 26th January, 1950.

91. Who framed the Constitution of India?

Answer: The Constitution of India was flamed by the Constituent Assembly which was established in 1946

92. Name some important members of the Constituent Assembly.

Answer:  Some important members of the Constituent Assembly were Dr Rajendra Prasad, Dr BR Ambedkar, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr S Radhakrishnan, KM Munshi etc. 

Short Answer Type Questions

1. Which Indian politician bitterly criticized Mahatma Gandhi’s vision?

Answer: Dr BR Ambedkar, who played a key role in the making of the Constitution, had a different understanding from Mahatma Gandhi of how inequalities could be removed. He often bitterly criticised Mahatma Gandhi and his vision. 

2. Which of the guiding values of the Constitution of India means that people have the supreme right to make decisions?

Answer:  The guiding value called ‘Sovereign’ means that people have the supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate to the Government of India. 

3. What does ‘Segregation’ mean in South Africa?

Answer:  Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theaters, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets, were all separate for the whites and blacks in South Africa. This was called ‘Segregation’. 

4. How white racist continued their apartheid besides protests?

Answer:  Many sensitive whites also joined the African National Congress to oppose apartheid. Several countries denounced apartheid as unjust and racist. But the white racist government continued to rule by torturing and killing black and coloured people. 

5.  When did apartheid end in South Africa?

Answer: As protests and strugglers against apartheid had increased, the government realised that they could no longer keep the blacks under their rule through repression. Finally at midnight of 26th April 1994, the Republic of South Africa got freedom from apartheid. 

6. What policies were changed by white regime in South Africa?

Answer: Discriminatory laws were repealed. Ban on political parties and restrictions on media was lifted. After 28 years of imprisonment Nelson Mandela came released from Jail. The apartheid government came to an end. 

7. What does South African constitution teach us?

Answer:  It teaches us that the oppressor and the oppressed in this new democracy were planning to live together as equals. It was not easy for them to trust each other but still they set a good example in front of the other democratic countries of the world. 

8. How difficult it was for India to frame a constitution for united India after independence?

Answer: At that time the people of India were emerging from the status of subjects to that of citizens. The country was born through a partition on the religious basis This was a traumatic experience for the people of India and Pakistan. 

9. What institutional details and procedures Indians derive from colonial laws?

Answer: The experience gained by Indians in the working of the legislative institutions proved to be very useful for the country in setting up its own institutions and working in them. Many institutional details and procedures from colonial laws like the Government of India Act of 1935 have been referred while drafting the constitution. 

10. How was Constituent Assembly formed?

Answer: Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. Its first meeting was held in December 1946. When the country was partitioned into India and Pakistan, the Constituent Assembly was also divided into the Constituent Assembly of India and that of Pakistan. 

11. How was Constituent Assembly formed?

Answer: Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. Its first meeting was held in December 1946. When the country was partitioned into India and Pakistan, the Constituent Assembly was also divided into the Constituent Assembly of India and that of Pakistan. 

12. Who was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?

Answer: The first session of the Constituent Assembly started on 9th December, 1946 where Dr Sachidanand Sinha was chosen as the temporary Chairman of the Assembly. On 11th December, 1946, Dr Rajendra Prasad was unanimously elected its permanent Chairman. 

13. What do you understand by the term ‘apartheid’?

Answer:  Apartheid refers to the official policy of racial separation and ill-treatment of blacks followed by the white government of South Africa between 1948 and 1989. This practice of racial discrimination remained for the longest period in South Africa. 

14. What basic rules are followed to form a Constitution?

Answer: The basic rules are: (i) The rules should lay down how the rulers are to be chosen in future. (ii) These rules should also determine what the elected governments are empowered to do and what they cannot do. (iii) These rules should decide the rights of the citizens. 

15.  What documents were taken by the Constituent Assembly to form the Indian Constitution?

Answer: The documents taken to form the Indian Constitution were: (i) The Indian Constitution was drafted by Motilal Nehru and eight other leaders in 1928. (ii) The resolution at the Karachi Session of the INC on how independent India’s Constitution should look like, in 1931. (iii) Both these documents were committed to the inclusion of universal adult franchise right to freedom and quality and protecting the right of minorities in the constitution of independent India.

16. Indian leaders were inspired by which countries to frame the Indian Constitution?

Answer: The countries which inspired the Indian Constitution were: (i) France: Many Indian leaders were inspired by the ideals of the French Revolution and their resolution on liberty, equality and fraternity. (ii) Britain: Indian leaders were inspired by the practice of Parliamentary democracy in Britain. (iii) US: Their Bill of Rights was a great inspiration. (iv) Russia: The socialist revolution and the socialist economy of Russia also inspired the leaders of India. 

17. How was the Constituent Assembly formed?

Answer: The drafting of the Constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the Constituent Assembly. (i) Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. (ii) Its first meeting was held in December 1946. (iii) The Constituent Assembly was also divided into the Constituent Assembly of India and Pakistan after the partition.  (iv) The Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian Constitution constituted as many as 299 members. It adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949, but it came into effect on 26 January 1950.

18. When was the Constitution completed and why was it imposed on 26 January 1950?

Answer: (i) The Constituent Assembly completed the Constitution on 26 November 1949. (ii) But it was imposed on 26 January 1950 to give due importance to the date, 26th January. (iii) To mark this day we celebrate it as the Republic Day every year. 

19. Give reasons for accepting the Constitution made by the Constituent Assembly more than 50 years ago.

Answer: Some reasons for accepting the same Constitution till today are: (i) The Constitution does not reflect the views of its members alone. It expresses a broad consensus of its time. (ii) The Constituent Assembly represented the people of India. There was no Universal Adult Franchise at that time. So, the Constituent Assembly could not have been chosen directly by all the people of India but it was elected mainly by the members of Provincial Legislatures, which ensured a fair share of all the regions of the country. (iii) The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. 

20. What was the ‘Drafting Committee’?

Answer: The ‘Drafting Committee’ prepared a draft of the Constitution for discussion: (i) It was chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. (ii) Several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the Draft of the Constitution, clause by clause. (iii) The members worked for 114 days spread over three years. Later on, it was thrown to the public to get their opinion.

21. What are ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’?

Answer: Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved. These are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’. (i) These debates provide the rationale behind every provision of the Constitution. (ii) These are used to interpret the meaning of the Constitution. (iii) When printed, these debates constitute 12 bulky volumes.

22. In which two ways can the philosophy of the Indian Constitution be understood?

Answer: The two ways in which the philosophy of the Indian Constitution can be understood are: (i) It can be understood by reading the views of some of the major leaders on the Indian Constitution. (ii) We can understand by reading what the Constitution says about its own philosophy. 

23. What is the role of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in making the Constitution?

Answer: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee. He played a key role in making the Constitution but had a different view on how inequalities could be removed from the society. He thought that in politics, there should be equality but in social and economic life inequalities should be removed. 

24. How did the blacks of South Africa fight against the practice of apartheid?

Answer: Since 1950, the blacks, coloured and Indians fought against the apartheid system. They launched protest marches and strikes. The African National Congress (ANC) was the umbrella organisation which led the struggle against the policies of segregation. This included many workers’ union and the Communist Party. Many sensitive whites also joined the ANC to oppose apartheid and played a leading role in this struggle. Several countries also denounced apartheid as unjust and racist. 

25. What kind of inspiration do we get from South Africa?

Answer: The South African constitution inspires democrats all over the world. A state denounced by the entire world till recently as the most undemocratic one is now seen as a model of democracy. What made this change possible was the determination of the people of South Africa to work together to transform bitter experiences into the binding glue of a rainbow  nation. 

26. What were Nelson Mandela’s views on the South African constitution?

Answer: He felt that the Constitution of South Africa speaks of both past and its future. On one hand, it is a solemn pact in which they, as South Africans, declare to one another that they shall never permit a repetition of their racist, brutal and repressive past. it is also a charter for the transformation of their country into one which is truly shared by all its people’s country which in the fullest sense belongs to all of them, black and white, women and men. 

27. What compromises were made by both ethnic groups of South Africa for their constitution?

Answer:  The whites agreed to the principle of majority rule and that of one-person- one-vote. They also agreed to accept some basic rights for the poor and the workers. The blacks agreed that majority rule would not be absolute. They agreed that the majority would not take away the property of the white minority. 

28.  Why are rules formed in the constitutions of countries?

Answer: These rules lay down how the rulers are to be chosen in future. They also determine what the elected governments are empowered to do and what they cannot do. These rules also decide the rights of the citizens. This set of basic rules is called a constitution. 

29.  Which basic values were accepted by all leaders before the Constituent Assembly met to form the constitution?

Answer: (i) Inclusion of Universal Adult Franchise by giving all the citizens of India the right to vote and contest elections.
(ii) Right to freedom and equality to be granted. Since India remained under British control for a long time and being a country of diversities, it needed equality.
(iii) It also proposed for protecting the rights of minorities in the constitution of independent India.

30. Who was Dr. B.R. Ambedkar? How did he play a key role in the making of Indian constitution?

Answer: Dr. Ambedkar was the chairman of the Drafting Committee. He was a social revolutionary, thinker and agitator against caste divisions and caste-based inequalities. Dr. Ambedkar played a key role in the making of the constitution but had a different understanding of how inequalities could be removed. He often bitterly criticised Mahatma Gandhi and his vision. 

31. How values of freedom struggle were embedded in the Preamble of the Indian constitution?

Answer: Values that inspired and guided the freedom struggle and were in turn nurtured by it, formed the foundation for India’s democracy. These values are embedded in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution. They guide all the articles of the Indian Constitution. The Constitution begins with a short statement of its basic values. This is called the Preamble of the Indian 

32. What does the Indian Preamble on the constitution contain? 

Answer:  The Preamble of the Constitution reads like a poem on democracy. It contains the philosophy on which the entire Constitution has been built. It provides a standard to examine and evaluate any law and action of the government, to find out whether it is good or bad. It is the soul of the Indian Constitution. 

33. What would have happened in South Africa if the black majority had decided to take revenge on the whites for all their oppression and exploitation?

Answer: If the blacks had not forgiven the whites for all their oppression and exploitation and decided to take revenge upon them, there would have been bloodshed everywhere. It could have led to a division of the country and we would not have seen a united and peaceful South Africa that exists now. Fortunately, the black community followed the policy of non-violence in their freedom struggle. 

34. What do you understand by the term ‘apartheid’?

Answer:  Apartheid was the name of a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa, which was imposed on black by the white Europe In this system, the blacks were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit. Trains, buses, taxis, hotels hospitals, schools, colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets, etc were all separate for the whites and the blacks. 

35. What was the ‘Drafting Committee’?

Answer: The ‘Drafting Committee’ chaired by Dr BR Ambedkar prepared a draft of the Constitution for discussion. Several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the Draft Constitution, clause by clause. The members worked for 114   days spread over three years. More than two thousand amendments were considered. Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved.

36. How did the Blacks of South Africa fight against the practice of apartheid? What is meant by apartheid? How did the people of South Africa struggle against it? Or Describe any three efforts made by the people of South Africa to struggle against the apartheid system.

Answer: Apartheid was the name of a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa, which was imposed by the white Europeans on the blacks. (i) Since 1950, the blacks, coloureds and Indians fought against the apartheid system. They launched protest marches and strikes. (ii) The African National Congress led the struggle against this policy of segregation. (iii) Many workers’ unions and the Communist Party joined this movement. (iv) Even many sensitive Whites joined the ANC and played a leading role in this movement.

Long Answer Type Questions

1. What is meant by ‘sovereign, socialist and secular’ as the key words of our Constitution?

Answer:  The Constitution of India declares India as a sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic.
(i) Sovereign The sovereign nature of India signifies that people of India have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters.
(ii) Socialist The socialist nature of India suggests that wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society.
(iii) Secular The word ‘secular’ signifies that the state has no official religion of its own. Every citizen has complete freedom to follow any religion. 

2. The South African Constitution inspires democrats all over the world’. Justify the statement.

Answer:  After two years of discussion and debate the Constitution of South Africa was produced. It gave its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country. The Constitution writers included everybody, no one has treated differently whatever they have done in the past. So all communities sat down together to transform the bitter experience into a binding glue of a rainbow nation. They wanted to solve the problems of the country collectively. The Constitution was based on social equality and justice. Thus the Constitution inspires democrats all over the world. 

3. Who led the struggle against apartheid? State any four practices following in the system of apartheid in South Africa.

Answer: African National Congress (ANC) led the struggle against apartheid. Many sensitive whites also joined the ANC to oppose apartheid and played a leading role in the struggle movement. Apartheid was the name of a system or policy of racial discrimination unique to South Africa. (i) The white Europeans imposed this system on non-white people of South Africa. (ii) The blacks were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in these areas only if they had a permit. (ii) There were separate schools, colleges, hotels, hospitals, trains, buses, cinema halls, theatres, shopping areas and public toilets, swimming pools and beaches, etc for the whites and blacks. (iii) The blacks could not even visit the churches where the whites worshipped. (iv) The non-whites were denied the voting rights and even the basic human right. 

4. What is a Constitution? Why do we need a Constitution? Give any five reasons. Or Why do we need a Constitution in a democracy? Explain any three reasons. Or What is a Constitution? Why do we need a Constitution? Give any four reasons.

Answer:  The Constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all people living together in a country. Constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living in a territory (called citizens) and also the relationship between the people and government. We need a Constitution because
(i) It generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different   kind of people to live together.
(ii) It specifies how the government will be constituted, who will have power to take which decisions.  
(iii) It lays down limits on the powers of the   government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are.
(iv) It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.
(v) Indian Constitution safe guards the interests of minority, OBC, poor and weaker section of our society. It gives universal adult franchise to all and establishes equality for all. 

5. “The manner in which the Constituent Assembly worked gives sanctity to the constitution of India. “Justify the statement with three arguments.

Answer:  The manner in which the Constituent Assembly worked gives sanctity to the Constitution. This statement can be justified by following points
(i) It worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner.
(ii) First some basic principles were decided and agreed upon and a draft of Constitution was prepared.
(iii) Several rounds of thorough discussion took place, clause by clause.
(iv) More than two thousands amendments were considered.
(v) Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly was recorded and preserved. These ‘Constituent Assembly Debates, were printed in 12 volumes. 

6. How has the Indian Constitution embodied the basic values into institutional arrangements? Explain.

Answer:  Indian Constitution is embodying the basic values into institutional arrangements by following ways
(i) The Constitution of India is a detailed document. It needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated. It has to be changed in accordance with people’s aspirations and changes in society. These changes are called Constitutional Amendments.
(ii) The Constitution lays down a procedure for choosing persons to govern the country. (iii) It defines who will have how much power to take which decisions.
(iv) It limits the powers of the government by providing some rights to the citizen that cannot be violated. 

7. Explain the major factors that contributed to the making of Indian Constitution. Or List the factors that contributed to the making of Indian Constitution. 

Answer:  The making of a Constitution for a huge and diverse country like India was not an easy task. The various factors that contributed in the making of our Constitution were (i) Many of our leaders were inspired by the ideals of French Revolution
(ii) They were also influenced by the practice of parliamentary democracy in Britain and the Bill of Rights in the US.
(iii) Socialist Revolution in Russia inspired them to think of a system based on social and economic equality. (iv) At each step they questioned whether the things suited our country or not.

8. What do you understand by Preamble? What is the significance of ‘We the people of India’ and ‘Secular’ in the Preamble?

Answer: The Preamble states the objectives which the Constitution seeks to establish and promote. It is a short statement of basic values with which a Constitution begins. It deals with the ideals, principles and aims of the Constitution. Preamble is the soul of our Constitution. It contains the philosophy on which the entire Constitution has been built. The words ‘We, the people of India’ lay stress on the point that political sovereignty in India rests with the people. The word ‘secular’ means that every citizen has complete right to follow any religion. There is no official religion. Government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect. 

9. Why did the Constitution framers make provisions for amendments in the Indian Constitution?

Answer: The Constitution of India has enough scope for amendment if required for the welfare of its citizens. The makers of the Indian Constitution felt that it needs to be amended regularly to keep it updated. Amendments must be done in accordance with people’s aspirations and needs. To maintain law and order, the dignity and rights of the citizens, the Constitution made some provisions for amendment from time to time. At the same time, the process of amendment is not very easy. All amendments can be initiated only in the Union Parliament, not in any state Igislature. A special majority by two-thirds vote in favour is required to amend the Constitution. 

10. “Like the Constitution of South Africa, Indian Constitution was also drawn up under very difficult circumstances.” Elaborate this statement with the help of any four circumstances.

Answer: The four circumstances that elaborate the statement
(i) At that time, the people of India were emerging from the status of a subject to that of citizens. The country was born through a partition on the basis of religious differences. It was an    extremely traumatic experience for the people.
(ii) The British rulers had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent.
(iii) The future of the nation did not look very secure at that time. The makers of the Constitution had anxieties about the present and the future of the country.
(iv) There were sharp differences of opinion about the path, the country should take after attaining freedom. 

11. Why is the Preamble very important?

Answer:  The Constitution of the Republic of India is introduced to us through a wisely formulated and well written Preamble. It makes the intentions of our constitution makers quite clear through the following points
(i) It declares India to be a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic.
(ii) It envisages Justice-Social, economic and political for all the citizens of India.
(iii) It promises Liberty of all types necessary for the individual, i.e., freedom of thought and expression, freedom of faith, freedom of belief and of worship.
(iv) It would strive for Equality of status and opportunity to all individuals.
(v) It promotes Fraternity which assures the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. 

12. Throw some light on the composition of the Constituent Assembly.

Answer: The Constitution of our country was framed by the Constituent Assembly which was constituted in 1946 under the provisions of the Cabinet Mission Plan. This Assembly originally had 389 members. Of them, most were elected by the Provincial Assemblies and some were nominated by the rulers of the native states. As a result of the partition of the country, its membership was reduced to 308 in 1947. This Assembly   included   eminent   persons   like  Dr Rajendra Prasad, Pt Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr BR Ambedkar,  KM   Munshi,   Rajagopalachari, HC Mukherjee, Baldev Singh etc. Women members like Sarojini Naidu, G Durgabai Deshmukh etc also played an important role in the Constituent Assembly. When the Constitution was completed it had only 299 members in the Assembly.

13. How was the new Constitution of South Africa formed?

Answer: After the emergence of the new democratic South Africa, black leaders said, “let us build a new South Africa based on equality of all races and men and women, democratic values, social justice and human rights.” The party that ruled through oppression and brutal killings and the party that led the freedom struggle sat together to draw up a common constitution. After two years of debate and discussion they came out with a Constitution, which gave to its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country. The Constitution makers decided that everybody should become a part of the new South Africa, despite whatever they had done in the past. 

14. How did South Africa get independence?

Answer: The white European leaders imposed apartheid, i.e. racial discrimination on the blacks of South Africa. Since 1950, the blacks, coloureds and Indians fought against the apartheid system. As protest and struggle against apartheid had increased, the government realised that they could no longer keep the blacks and coloured people suppressed. The government changed its policies and discriminatory laws were repealed. Bans on political parties and restrictions on the media were lifted. On 26th April, 1994, South Africa got independence. The apartheid government came to an end in the newly born democracy, paving the way for the formation of a multi-racial government. 

15. Why do you think there is more importance of a Constitution to a democratic country?

Answer: The Constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are  accepted by all people of a country. The Constitution has more importance in a democratic form of government   because
(i) In a democracy, the government is formed according to the Constitution and also works according to it.
(ii) The Constitution delimits the scope of activity of the various organs of the government. The Constitution specifies who will have the power to take which   decisions.
 (iii) In a democracy, the Constitution safeguards the rights of the citizens.
(iv) The Constitution expresses the aspirations of the   people about creating a good society. It constantly goes on growing and evolving according to the needs and aspirations of the people.  

16. “Indian Constitution is both rigid and flexible”, explain.

Answer: Indian Constitution is both rigid and flexible, because the procedure of amendment is neither easy nor difficult. The Constitution has provided a federal structure for India. The jurisdictions of the centre and state have been defined and demarcated. Both the centre and the states have been authorised to exercise powers independency. There are provisions which can change the Federal structure into a Unitary one. Amendments can be made only with the consent of both the Centre and the States. A special majority of the Union Parliament, i.e., a majority of not less then two-thirds vote is required to amend the Constitution. Thus Indian Constitution enjoys the advantages of a combination of flexibility and rigidity.

17. “Formation of Indian Constitution was no less struggle than that of Africa” – Do you agree Explain with five arguments.

Answer: Like South Africa, India’s Constitution was written under very difficult situation. The making of a Constitution for such a huge and diverse country like India is not an easy task.
(i) After partition the people of India were emerging from the status of subjects to that of citizens.
(ii) India was born through a partition of the undivided India an the basis of religious differences. It was a traumatic experience for both the people of India and Pakistan.
(iii) The British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent. The merger of these princely states was a difficult and uncertain task.
(iv) When the constitution was being written, the future of the country did not look as secure as it does today.
(v) The makers of the Constitution had anxieties about the present and future of the country. 

18. This is not fair! What was the point in having a Constituent Assembly in India if all the basics were already decided?

Answer: We cannot say that there was no point in having a Constituent Assembly to discuss and frame a Constitution if the basics had already been decided. The basics were relating right to freedom, universal adult franchise, rights on minorities which are the basis of any democratic society. These basics were the guiding principles which were further developed and expanded to establish a welfare state. In a democracy it is the Constituent Assembly which makes the Constitutions with the help of the basics. So, the Constituent Assembly in India was established, even if all the basics were already decided. 

19. Name some of the members of the Constituent Assembly? 

Answer: Dr. Rajendra Prasad (Chairman). Jaipal Singh (A sportsman and educationist) Baldev Singh (An entrepreneur and a leader of the Panthic Akali Party) B.RAmbedkar (Chairman Drafting Committee) JawaharLal Nehru (Prime Minister of the Interim Government) Sarojini Naidu (Poet, writer and political activist) Shyama Prasad Mukherjee (Educationist and lawyer).

20. What do you know about Nelson Mandela?

Answer: (i) Nelson Mandela was a South African leader who was tried for treason by the White South African government. (ii) He and seven other leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964, for daring to oppose the apartheid regime in his country. (iii) He spent the next 28 years in Robben Island, South Africa’s most dreaded prison. (iv) He was released after 28 years from jail, and at midnight of the 26th of April 1994, South Africa got independence. He became the first President of independent South Africa. 

21. How was ‘apartheid’ practised in South Africa?

Answer: (i) The system of apartheid divided the people and labelled them on the basis of their skin colour.
(ii) The natives of South Africa were the ‘Blacks’, the people of mixed races were ‘Coloured’ and the people who migrated from India, ‘The Indians’.
(iii) All Non-Whites were treated as inferiors and were deprived of their right to vote.
(iv) They were forbidden from living in white areas.
(v) They could work in white areas only if they had a permit.
(vi) Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools, colleges, libraries, cinema halls, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets were all separate for whites and blacks.
(vii) The Blacks could not visit the churches where the whites worshipped. 

22. What efforts were made to form a new constitution after independence in South Africa?

Answer: (i) After the emergence of the new democratic South Africa, black leaders appealed to fellow blacks to forgive the whites for the atrocities they had committed while in power.
(ii) They thought of building a new South Africa based on equality of all races and men and women on democratic values, social justice and human rights.
(iii) The party that ruled through oppression and brutal killings and the party that led the freedom struggle sat together to draw up a common constitution.
(iv) After two years of discussion and debate, they came out with one of the finest constitutions the world had ever had.
(v) This Constitution gave to its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country.

23. What are the main functions of a Constitution?

Answer: (i) It generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kinds of people to live together.
(ii) It specifies how the government will be constituted, who will have power to take which decisions.
(iii) It lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are.
(iv) It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.
(v) Constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living in a territory and also the relationship between the people and the government. 

24. How was the institutional design formed for the Indian Constitution?

Answer: (i) A constitution is mainly about embodying the values into institutional arrangements
(ii) It is a very long and detailed document. Therefore, it needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated.
(iii) So the makers of the Indian constitution made provisions to incorporate changes from time to time. These changes are called constitutional amendment.
(iv) The Constitution describes the institutional arrangements in a legal language.
(v) Like any constitution, the Indian Constitution lays down a procedure for choosing persons to govern the country. It defines who will have how much power to take which decisions.
(vi) And it also puts limits to what the government can do by providing some rights to the citizen that cannot be violated. 

25. Write a short note on the main features of the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

Answer: (i) We the people of India: The Constitution has been drawn up and enacted by the people through their representatives, and not handed down to them by a King or any outside powers.
(ii) Sovereign: People have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the government of India.
(iii) Socialist: Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by the society. Government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio economic inequalities.
(iv) Secular: Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. But there is no official religion.  Government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect.
(v) Democratic: A form of government where people enjoy equal political rights, elect their rulers and hold them accountable.
(vi) Republic: The head of the state is an elected person and its not a hereditary position. (vii) Justice: Citizens cannot be discriminated on the grounds of caste, religion and gender. Social inequalities have to be reduced. Government should work for the welfare of all, especially for the disadvantaged groups.
(viii) Liberty: There are no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens about what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in actions.
(ix) Equality: All are equal before the law. The traditional social inequalities have to be ended. The government should ensure equal opportunity for all.
(x) Fraternity: All of us should behave as if we are members of the same family. No one should treat a fellow citizen as inferior. 

26. How did South Africa get Independence?

Answer: As protests and struggles against apartheid had increased, the government realised that they could no longer keep the blacks under their rule through repression. The White regime changed its policies. Discriminatory laws were repealed. Ban on political parties and restrictions on the media were lifted. After 28 years of imprisonment, Nelson Mandela walked out of jail as a free man. Finally at the midnight of 26th April 1994 the new national flag of Republic of South Africa was unfurled marking the newly born democracy in the world. The apartheid government came to an end, paving the way for the formation of a multi-racial government. 

27. How was a new constitution of South Africa formed?

Answer:  After the emergence of the new democratic South Africa, black leaders appealed to fellow blacks to forgive the whites for atrocities they had committed while in power. They said let us build a new South Africa based on equality of all races and men and women, on democratic values, social justice and human rights. The party that ruled through oppression and brutal killings and the party that led the freedom struggle sat together to draw up a common constitution. After two years of debate and discussions, they came out with one of the finest constitutions the world has ever had. This constitution gave to its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country. Together, they decided that in search for a solution to the problems, nobody should be excluded, no one should be treated as a demon. They agreed that everybody should become part of the solution, whatever they might have done or represented in the past. 

28. What problems were faced by the South Africans before the formation of the constitution?

Answer: The oppressor and the oppressed in this new democracy were planning to live together as equals. It was not going to be easy for them to trust each other. They had their fears. They wanted to safeguard their interests. The black majority was keen to ensure that the democratic principle of majority rule was not compromised. They wanted substantial social and economic rights. The white minority was keen to protect its privileges and property. 

29. Is it true that the constitution of India expresses a broad consensus of its time?

Answer: Many countries of the world have had to rewrite their constitution afresh because the basic rules were not acceptable to all major social groups or political parties. In some other countries, the constitution exists as a mere piece of paper. No one actually follows it. The experience of our Constitution is different. Over the last half a century, several groups have questioned some provisions of the Constitution. But no large social group or political party has ever questioned the legitimacy of the Constitution itself.

30.What steps were taken by the Constituent Assembly to form the Indian Constitution? 

Answer: The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. Firstly some basic principles were decided or agreed upon. Then a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prepared a draft constitution for discussion. Several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the Draft Constitution, clause by clause. More than 2000 amendments were considered. The members deliberated for 114 days spread over three years. Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved to form 12 bulky volumes of Constituent Assembly Debates.   

31. What is a constitution? Why do we need a constitution for a country?

Answer: The constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all the people living together in a country. It is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living in a territory and also the relationship between the people and the government. Need of the constitution:
(i) It generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kinds of people to live together.
(ii) It specifies how the government will be constituted, who will have power to take which decisions.
(iii) It lays down limits on the powers of the government and tell us what the rights of the citizens are.
(iv) It also expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society. 

32. “Most of the countries of the world keep changing their constitution as needed but Indian Constitutions is accepted even today.” Is it an unusual achievement for any constitution? Give reasons in support of your answer.

Answer: (i) The constitution does not reflect the views of its members alone. It expresses a broad consensus of its time.
(ii) Many countries of the world have had to rewrite their constitution afresh because the basic rules were not accepted to all major social groups or political parties.
(iii) The Constituent Assembly represented the people of India. There was no universal adult franchise at that time. So the Constituent Assembly could not have been chosen directly by all the people of India.
(iv) In social terms, the Assembly represented members from different language groups, castes, classes, religions and occupations. It was elected by the members of the existing provincial legislatures, ensuring a fair geographical share of members from all the regions of the country.
(v) The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. First, some basic principles were declared and agreed upon. Then a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prepared a draft constitution for discussion. These documents were thoroughly studied with several debates and then presented. Over the last half a century, several groups have questioned some provisions of the constitution. But no large social group or political party has ever questioned the legitimacy of the constitution itself. This is an unusual achievement for any constitution. 

33. What are the exclusive features of the Indian constitution? 

Answer: (i) Indian constitution is a very long and detailed constitution. Therefore, it needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated.
(ii) Those who crafted the constitution felt that it has to be in accordance with people’s aspirations and changes in society. They did not see it as a sacred, static and an unalterable law.
(iii) They made provisions to incorporate changes from time to time. These changes are called amendments.
(iv) The constitution describes the institutional arrangements in a very legal language.
(v) It put limits to what the government can do by providing some rights to the citizens that cannot be violated.

You cannot copy content of this page