Extra Questions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 5 Democratic Rights

Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 5 Democratic Rights extra questions and answers available here in PDF format. Solving class 9 extra questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions with PDF as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising these questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.

Class 9 Civics Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Questions

1. What are rights?

Answer: Rights are reasonable claims of person recognised by society and sanctioned by law. 

2. Which Fundamental Right ensures the ban on bonded labour?

Answer: The Fundamental Right, which ensures the ban on bonded labour is ‘Right against exploitation’.

3. What makes any political system democratic?

Answer: The availability of different Civil Rights, Political Rights and Economic Rights makes any political system democratic. 

4. If our Fundamental Rights are violated, where can we seek the remedy?

Answer: If our Fundamental Rights are violated, we seek remedy to the Supreme Court or High Court.

5. Under which Article of the Constitution, ‘abolition of un touch ability’ lies in?

Answer: Abolition of un touch ability’ lies in Article 17, of Indian Constitution. 

6. How many Fundamental Rights does the Indian Constitution provide?

Answer: Indian Constitution provides six Fundamental Rights. 

7. What is meant by ‘Begar’?

Answer: ‘Begar’ is a practice where the worker is forced to render service to the ‘master’ free of charge or at a nominal remuneration. 

8. What is the meaning of ‘traffic in human beings’ as described in Indian Constitution?

Answer: In Indian Constitution, traffic means selling and buying of human beings, usually women, for immoral purposes. 

9. What is inspiration behind the Directive Principles of State Policy?

Answer: The Directive Principles of State Policy have been inspired by the Directive Principles given in the Constitution of Ireland and also by the principles of Gandhism. 

10. What is a secular state?

Answer: In a secular state, no religion can get any privilege or favour and there is no official religion.

11. In the Indian Constitution, the Right to Equality is granted by five articles. Which are these articles?

Answer: The Right to Equality is granted by Articles 14 to 18. 

12. Name any two political rights.

Answer: Two political rights are Right to Vote and Right to Fight Election. 

13. Give any two features of Fundamental Rights. 

Answer: Two important features of Fundamental Rights are that these are limited and these can be suspended during emergency.   

14. What is Amnesty International?

Answer:   It is an international human rights organisation which helps the people who suffer due to violation of human rights. 

15. How are rulers of Saudi Arabia elected?

Answer: The country is ruled by a hereditary king and the people have no role in electing or changing their rulers. 

16. How do citizens exercise their rights in Saudi Arabia?

Answer: Citizens cannot form political parties or any political organisation. There is no freedom of religion. Every citizen is required to be Muslim. 

17. What are rights?

Answer: Rights are claims of a person over other follow being over the society and over the government. 

18. How can we claim our right?

Answer: A right is possible when we make a claim that is equally possible for others. We cannot have a right that harms or hurts others. 

19. What are the three qualities of rights?

Answer: (i) They are reasonable claims of persons.
(ii) They are recognised by society.
(iii) They are sanctioned by law. 

20. What are Fundamental Rights?

Answer: Some rights which are fundamental to our life are given a special status. They are called Fundamental Rights.

21. Name the six Fundamental Rights provided by the Indian Constitution to Indian citizens.

Answer: (1) Right to Equality (2) Right to freedom of religion. (3) Right to freedom (4) Cultural & Educational rights. (5) Right against exploitation. (6) Right to constitutional remedies. 

22. How is Rule of Law considered the foundation of any democracy?

Answer: It means that no person is above the law. These cannot be any distinction between a political leaders, government official and an ordinary citizen. 

23. What does ‘un touch ability’ mean?

Answer: Untouchability does not only mean refusal to touch people belonging to certain castes. It refers to any belief of social practice which looks down upon people on account of their birth with certain caste labels. 

24. What does ‘Freedom’ mean?

Answer:  Freedom means absence of constraints. In practical life it means absence of interference in our affairs by others be it other individuals or the government. 

25.  What is meant by ‘traffic in human beings’?

Answer: Traffic here means selling and buying of human being, usually women for immoral purposes. 

26. What are writs?

Answer: A formal document containing an order of the court to the government issued only by High Court or the Supreme Court. 

27. What does ‘Right to freedom of Religion’ mean?

Answer: Every person has a right to choose, practise and propagate any religion he or she believes in. Every religious group or sect is free to manage its religious affairs. 

28.  What is Amnesty International? 

Answer: An international organisation of volunteers who campaign for human rights all over the world. 

29. What was the reason given by America for imprisoning people at Guantanamo Bay?

Answer: America considered the people as their enemies and linked them to the attack on New York on 11th September, 2001. 

30. Which body exposed to the world that prisoners at Guantanamo Bay were being tortured in ways that violated the US laws?

Answer: Amnesty International, an international human rights organisation reported that prisoners at Guantanamo Bay were being tortured in ways that violated the US laws.

31. What was Slobodan Milosevic’s attitude towards the Albanians?

Answer: Slobodan Milosevic was a narrow-minded Serb nationalist, who wanted Serbs to dominate the Albanians as his government was hostile to the Kosovo Albani.

32. How was the Massacre of Albanians finally stopped?

Answer: Several countries intervened to stop the Massacre of Albani.

Short Answer Type Questions

1. Why are rights necessary for the very sustenance of a democracy?

Answer: In a democracy every citizen has to have the right to vote and the right to be elected to government. For democratic elections to take place it is necessary that citizens should have the right to express their opinion, form political parties and take part in political activities. 

2. In what situation should a government project the citizen’s rights?

Answer: Things may go wrong when some citizens may wish to take away the rights of others. This usually happens when those in majority want to dominate those in minority. The government should protect the citizen’s rights in such a situation.

3. What does ‘Rule of law’ mean?

Answer: The constitution says that the government shall not deny to any person in India equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws. It means that the laws apply in the same manner to all, regardless of a person’s status. This is called the ‘Rule of Law’. 

4. Is it true that every citizen from the Prime Minister to a small farmer, is subjected to the same laws?

Answer: A few years ago a Prime Minister of the country faced a court case on charges of cheating. The court finally declared that he was not guilty. But as long as the case continued, he had to go to the court give evidences and file papers, just like any other citizen. 

5. How is right to equality exercised?

Answer: The government shall not discriminate against any citizen on the grounds of religion, caste, ethnicity, sex or place of birth. Every citizen shall have access to public places like shops, restaurants, hotels and cinema halls. All citizens have equality in the matters relating to employment also.

6. What is meant by ‘freedom of speech and expression’?

Answer: Our ideas and personality develop only when we are able to freely communicate with others. Even if a hundred people think in one way, we should have the freedom to think differently and express our views accordingly. Government in a democracy should give this freedom to its citizens.

7. How do citizens of India exercise freedom to travel to any part of the country?

Answer: Citizens of India enjoy single citizenship and are free to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India. This right allows lakhs of citizens to migrate from villages to towns and from poorer regions of the country to prosperous regions and big cities. 

8. What is ‘Begar’?

Answer:‘Begar’ is a practice where the worker is forced to render service to the ‘master’ free of charge or at a nominal remuneration. When this practice takes place on a lifelong basis, it is called the practice of bonded labour. 

9. In what way is child labour prohibited by the Indian constitution?

Answer: The constitution prohibits child labour. No one can employ a child below the age of fourteen to work in any factory or mine or in any other hazardous work, such as railways and posts.

10. What is ‘Secularism’?

Answer: Secularism is based on the idea that the state is concerned only with relations among human beings, and not with the relation between human beings and the God. Indian Secularism practises an attitude of a principled and equal distance from all religions. 

11. What is a ‘Secular State’?

Answer: A Secular state is one that does not establish any one religion as official religion. The state has to be neutral and impartial in dealing with all religions. 

12. Why do we need Cultural and Educational rights?

Answer: It is language, culture and religion of minorities that needs special protection. Otherwise they may get neglected or undermined under the impact of the language, religion and culture of the majority. That is why, the constitution specifies the cultural and educational rights of the minorities. 

13. What does Right to Constitutional Remedies imply?

Answer: It is possible that sometimes our rights may be violated by fellow citizens, private bodies or by the government. When any of our rights are violated we can seek remedy through courts. If it is Fundamental Right we can directly approach the supreme court or the High court of a state.

14. What is PIL?

Answer: PIL is called as Public Interest litigation. Under PIL any citizen or group of citizens can approach the Supreme Court or a High Court for the protection of public interest against a particular law or action of the government. 

15. What does ‘Right to Education’ mean?

Answer: Now school education has become a right for Indian citizens. The governments are responsible for providing free and compulsory education to all children up to the age of 14 years under this right.

16. What is RTI?

Answer: RTI is Right to Information. Parliament has enacted a law giving the right to information to the citizens. This Act was made under the Fundamental Right to freedom of thought and expression. We have a right to seek information from government offices. 

17. What are Human Rights?

Answer: Human Rights are universal moral claims that may or may not have been recognised by law. But then rights give you a right to be treated as equal by law. Every human being who is born anywhere has the right to live and enjoy his life and should not be tortured by any means.

18. How were prisoners tortured by the US army in Guantanamo Bay prison?

Answer: (i) The prisoners were being tortured in ways that violated the US laws.
(ii) They were being denied the treatment that even prisoners of war must get as per the international treaties.
(iii) Prisoners were not released even after they were officially declared ‘not guilty’. 

19. Which three qualities are required for calling any claim, a right?

Answer:(i) Rights are reasonable claims of persons.
(ii) Rights are recognised by the society.
(iii) Rights are sanctioned by law. 

20. Can an Indian citizen enjoy the freedom to travel in any part of the country?

Answer: (i) Citizens are free to reside and settle in any part of India.
(ii) This right allows lakhs of people to migrate from villages to towns and from poorer regions of the country to prosperous regions and big cities.
(iii) For example, a person who belongs to Assam wants to start a business in Hyderabad. He may not have any connections with that place or people there, he may have not seen it ever. Yet as a citizen of India, he has the right to set up base there. 

21. What procedure should a citizen follow to get proper legal justification, if he or she is arrested?

Answer: (i) A person who is arrested and detained in custody will have to be informed of the reasons for such arrest and detention.
(ii) A person who is arrested and detained shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period of 24 hours of arrest.
(iii) Such a person has the right to consult a lawyer or engage a lawyer for his defence. 

22. How does a person exercise his right to freedom of religion?

Answer: (i) Every person has a right to profess, practise and propagate the religion he or she believes in.
(ii) Every religious group or sect is free to manage its religious affairs.
(iii) A right to propagate one’s religion, however, does not mean that a person has the right to compel another person to convert into his religion by means of force, fraud, inducement or allurement. 

23. How were prisoners treated in Guantanamo Bay?

Answer: Treatment of prisoners in Guantanamo Bay was very humiliating.
(i) There was no trial before any magistrate and US law was completely violated.
(ii) This place is not located in US but an area near Cuba controlled by American Navy, so nobody knows the location of the prison.
(iii) Families of prisoners, media or even UN representatives were not allowed to meet the prisoners. 

24. ‘The Right to Freedom is a cluster of several Rights’. Explain.

Answer:(i) Freedom of speech and expression.
(ii) Assemble in a peaceful manner.
(iii) Form associations and unions.
(iv) Move freely throughout the country.
(v) Reside in any part of the country.
(vi) Practice any profession, occupation, trade and business. 

25. What was the result of the intervention of other countries to stop the killings of Albanians?

Answer: Several countries intervened to stop the killing of Albanians, as a result Milosevic lost power and was tried by the International Court of Justice for crimes against humanity.

26. The Indian Constitution under right against exploitation highlights certain values. What are these? 

Answer: (i) To prohibit selling and buying of human beings
(ii) To prohibit forced labour
(iii) To ban bonded labour
(iv) To ban child labour in hazardous industries. 

27. Name any four Political Rights,

Answer: Four Political Rights are                            
(i) Right to Vote              
(ii) Right to Assembly  
(iii) Right to Hold any Public Office;             
(iv) Right to Petition       

28. The Constitution does not give people their religion. Then, how can it give people the Right to Practice their Religion?

Answer: It is true that the Constitution does not give the people their religion. However, it does not prevent the people from the Right to Practice their Religion, because the Constitution provides every person has a right to profess, practice and propagate the religion he or she believes in. Every religious group or sect is free to manage its religious affairs. In this way, our Constitution gives people the Right to Practice their Religion. 

Long Answer Type Questions

1. What was the background in which the ethnic massacre took place in Kosovo?

Answer:(i) Kosovo was a province of Yugoslavia before it split. In this province, the Serbs were in minority and Albanians were in majority, while it was the other way round in the rest of the country.
(ii) A narrow-minded Serb nationalist Milosevic had won the elections. His government was hostile to the Kosovo Albanians.
(iii) He wanted the Serbs to dominate the country. Many Serb leaders thought that ethnic minorities like the Albanians should either leave the country or accept the dominance of the Serbs. 

2. How does society affect the implementation of rights?

Answer: Every society makes certain rules to regulate one’s conduct. They tell us what is right and what is wrong. What is recognised by the society as rightful becomes the basis of rights.
(i) The notion of ‘right’ changes from time to time and society to society.
(ii) When the socially recognised claims are written into law, they acquire real force. Otherwise, they remain merely as natural or moral rights.
(iii) When law recognises some claims, they become enforceable. We can then demand their application. When fellow citizens or the government do not respect these rights, we call it violation of our rights. 

3. What is meant by ‘Rule of Law’?

Answer: (i) The constitution says that the government shall not deny to any person, in India, equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws.
(ii) It means that the laws apply in the same manner to all, regardless of a person’s status. This is called Rule of Law.
(iii) Rule of Law is the foundation of any democracy. It means that no person is above the law. There cannot be any distinction between a political leader, government official and an ordinary citizen. 

4. How or why is the ‘Right to Freedom’ called a cluster of several rights?

Answer:  Under the Indian Constitution, all citizens exercise a number of freedoms which are all covered in the right to freedom. So every citizen has the right to all of the following freedoms: (i) Freedom of speech and expression
(ii) Freedom of assembly in a peaceful manner
(iii) Freedom to form associations and unions
(iv) Freedom to move freely throughout the country
(v) Freedom to reside in any part of the country
(vi) Freedom to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business. 

5. How can you say that freedom of speech and expression is one of the essential features of any democracy?

Answer:(i) Our ideas and personality develop only when we are able to freely communicate with others. Even if hundred people think in one way, you should have the freedom to think differently and express your views accordingly.
(ii) You may disagree with a policy of the government or activities of an association. You are free to criticise the government in your conversation with parents, friends and relatives.
(iii) You may publicise your views through a pamphlet, magazine or newspaper. You can do the same through paintings, poetry or songs.

6. How can citizens exercise their freedom to hold rallies and demonstrations?

Answer: (i) Citizens have the freedom to hold rallies and demonstrations in our country guaranteed by the constitution.
(ii) But such meetings have to be peaceful.
(iii) They should not lead to public disorder or breach of peace in society.
(iv) Those who participate in these activities and meetings should not carry weapons with them.
(v) Citizens can also form associations like workers in a factory can form a workers’ union to promote their interests. 

7. Which three evils are tackled by right against exploitation?

Answer: The Constitution mentions three specific evils and declares them illegal.
(i) Traffic in human beings: Traffic here means selling and buying of human beings, usually women, for immoral purposes.
(ii) Begar: Our constitution also prohibits forced labour or begar in any form. It is a practice where the worker is forced to render service to the ‘master’, free of charge or at a nominal salary. When this practice takes place on a lifelong basis, it is called ‘bonded labour’.
(iii) Child labour: The Constitution also prohibits child labour. No one can employ a child below the age of 14 years to work in any factory or mine or in any other hazardous work such as in the railways and at ports. Many laws have been made to prohibit children from working in industries such as beedi making, firecrackers and matchbox, printing and dyeing

8. What are the provisions of cultural and educational rights?

Answer: The Constitution specifies the cultural and educational rights of the minorities. (i) Any section of citizens with a distinct language or culture have a right to conserve it.
(ii) Admission to any educational institution maintained by the government or receiving government aid cannot be denied to any citizen on the grounds of religion or language. (iii) All minorities have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. Here, minority does not mean only religious minority at the national level. 

9. Why did Dr. Ambedkar call the Right to Constitutional Remedies ‘the heart and soul’ of our constitution?

Answer: (i) Right to Constitutional Remedies is a fundamental right. This right makes other rights effective.
(ii) It is possible that sometimes our rights may be violated by fellow citizens, private bodies or by the government. When any of our rights is violated, we can seek remedy through courts.
(iii) If it is a Fundamental Right, we can directly approach the Supreme Court or the High Court of a state. That is why, Dr. Ambedkar called the Right to Constitutional Remedies ‘the heart and soul’ of our constitution. 

10. What is PIL? How does it work?

Answer: (i) In case of any violation of a Fundamental Right, the aggrieved person can go to a court for remedy.
(ii) But now, any person can go to court against the violation of a Fundamental Right, if it is of social or public interest. This is called Public Interest Litigation (PIL).
(iii) Under the PIL, any citizen or group of citizens can approach the Supreme Court or the High Court for the protection of public interest against a particular law or action of the government. 

11. What did Amnesty International do to get Guantanamo Bay prison closed?

Answer: (i) Amnesty International, an international human rights organisation, collected information on the condition of the prisoners in Guantanamo Bay and reported that prisoners were being tortured in ways that violated the US laws.
(ii) They were being denied the treatment that even prisoners of war must get as per international treaties. Prisoners were not released even after they were officially declared not guilty.
(iii) The UN Secretary General said that the prison in Guantanamo Bay should be closed down. The US government refused to accept these pleas. 

12. What happened in Kosovo (Albania) in 1999?

Answer: (i) A massacre was being carried out by the army of their own country, working under the directions of a leader, Milosevic, who came to power through democratic election.
(ii) This was one of the worst instances of killings based on ethnic lines in recent time.
(iii) Finally, several other countries intervened to stop the massacre. Milosevic lost power and was tried by an International Court of Justice for crimes against humanity. 

13. Why do some rights need to be placed higher than the government?

Answer: (i) Things may go wrong when some citizens may wish to take away the rights of others. This usually happens when those in majority want to dominate in the minority.
(ii) The government should protect the citizens’ rights in such a situation. But sometimes elected governments may not  protect or may even attack the rights of their own citizens. (iii) That is why, some rights need to be placed higher than the government, so that the government cannot violate them. 

14. Why has constitution made un touch ability a punishable offence?

Answer: (i) The constitution mentions an extreme form of social discrimination, the practice of un touch ability and clearly directs the government to put an end to it.
(ii) The practice of un touch ability has been forbidden in any form.
(iii) Un touch ability, here does not only mean refusal to touch people belonging to certain castes. It refers to any belief or social practice which looks down upon people on account of their birth with certain caste labels.
(iv) Such practice denies them interaction with others or access to public places as equal citizens. So, the constitution made untouchability a punishable offence.

15. “Right to Freedom” is the most important Fundamental right. Analyse this statement.

Answer: Right to Freedom is the most important right:
(i) Freedom means absence of interference in our affairs by it others-be individual or Government.
(ii) Freedom of speech and expression.
(iii) Assembly in a peaceful manner.
(iv) Form unions and associations
(v) Move freely throughout country.
(vi) Reside in any part of the country and practice any profession.

16. What are ‘rights’? How can we claim a right?

Answer: Rights are claims of a person over other fellow beings, the society and the government.
(i) A right is possible when we make a claim that is equally possible for others. You cannot have a right that harms or hurts others.
(ii) The Serbs in Yugoslavia could not have claimed the whole country for themselves.
(iii) The claims we make should be reasonable. They should be such that it can be made available to others in equal measure.
(iv) A right comes with an obligation to respect others’ rights. 

17. Why do we need rights in a democracy?

Answer:  (i) Rights are necessary for the very sustenance of a democracy.
(ii) In a democracy, every citizen has to have the right to vote and the right to be elected to the government.
(iii) For democratic elections, it is necessary that citizens should have the right to express their opinion, form political parties and take part in political activities.
(iv) Rights protect the minorities from the oppression of the majority.
(v) Rights are a guarantee which can be used when things go wrong. Things may go wrong when some citizens may wish to take away the rights of others. So, rights perform a very special role in democracy. 

18. What are the main features of Right to Equality?

Answer:  (i) Every citizen, from the Prime Minister to a small farmer in a remote village, is subject to the same laws.
(ii) Under Right to Equality, the government shall not discriminate against any citizen on the grounds of religion, ethnicity, sex or place of birth.
(iii) Every citizen shall have access to public places like shops, restaurants, hotels and cinema halls.
(iv) All citizens have equality of opportunity in matters relating to employment or appointment to any position in the government. No citizen shall be discriminated against or made ineligible for employment on any grounds.
(v) Equality means giving everyone an equal opportunity to achieve whatever one is capable of. Sometimes, it is necessary to give special treatment to someone in order to ensure equal opportunity. 

19. What is Secularism? How did the Indian Constitution make India a secular state?

Answer: Secularism does not confer any privilege or favour on any particular religion. All religions are treated equally by the law.
(i) Secularism is based on the idea that the state is concerned only with relations among human beings and not with the relation between human beings and God.
(ii) A secular state is one that does not establish any one religion as the official religion. (iii) Indian secularism keeps equal distance from all religions.
(iv) The state has to be neutral and impartial in dealing with all religions. 

20. How does the constitution protect our rights?

Answer: (i) Fundamental Rights are guaranteed against the actions of the Legislature, the Executive and any other authority instituted by the government.
(ii) There can be no law or action that violates the Fundamental Rights.
(iii) Courts also enforce the Fundamental Rights against private individuals and bodies. (iv) The Supreme Court and High Courts have the power to issue orders or ‘writs’ for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights.
(v) They can also award compensation to the victims and punishment to the violators. In case of any violation of a Fundamental Right, the aggrieved person can go to a court for remedy.

21. Write a short note on the National Human Rights Commission.

Answer: (i) NHRC is an independent commission set up by the law in 1993.
(ii) Like the Judiciary, the commission is independent of the government.
(iii) The commission is appointed by the President and includes retired judges, officers and eminent citizens.
(iv) It does not bear the burden of deciding cases. So it can focus on helping the victims secure their human rights.
(v) These include all the rights granted to the citizens by the constitution.
(vi) The NHRC cannot punish the guilty. That is the responsibility of the courts.
(vii) Like any court, it can summon witnesses, question any government official, demand any official paper, visit any prison for inspection or send its own team for on-the-spot inquiry

22. How are the scope of rights expanded?

Answer: (i) Certain rights like right to freedom of press, right to information, and right to education are derived from the Fundamental Rights.
(ii) Now school education has become a right for Indian citizens. The governments are responsible for providing free and compulsory education to all children up to the age of 14 years.
(iii) Parliament has enacted a law giving the right to information to the citizens. This Act was made under the Fundamental Right to freedom of thought and expression.
(iv) Constitution provides many more rights, which may not be Fundamental Rights. For example, the right to property is not a Fundamental Right, but it is a constitutional right. (v) Sometimes, the expansion takes place in what is called human rights. There are universal moral claims that may or may not have been recognised by law.

23. What are Fundamental Rights? Mention the six Fundamental Rights provided in the Indian Constitutions. Which Fundamental Right protects the rest of the Fundamental Rights? 

Answer: (i) Some rights which are fundamental to our life are given a special status in the Constitution. They are called Fundamental Rights.
(ii) The Constitution provides six

Fundamental Rights: (1) Right to Equality  
(2) Right to Freedom
(3) Right to Freedom of Religion
(4) Cultural and Educational Rights
(5) Right against Exploitation
(6) Right to Constitutional Remedies. 

(iii) Right to constitutional remedies protects the rest of the Fundamental Rights.

24. If you were a Serb, would you support what Milosevic did in Kosovo? Do you think this project of establishing Serb Dominance was good for the Serbs?

Answer:  If I were a Serb, I would not support what Milosevic did in Kosovo because what he did was very unjust and discriminatory towards the Albani This method of establishing Serb dominance was not good for the Serbs because this action of Milosevic led to conflict and hostility between the Serbs and the Albani The Albanians were massacred by the army of their own country. Ultimately, Milosevic lost power and was tried by the International Court of Justice for crimes against humanity. 

25. What are the examples of elected governments not protecting or even attacking the rights of their own citizens? Why do they do that?

Answer:  Examples of elected governments not protecting or even attacking the rights of their own citizens are
(i) Ethnic Massacre of Albanians in Kosovo.
(ii) Policy of apartheid in South Africa.
(iii) Rule of Augusto Pinochet in Chile.
(iv)Rule of Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe. These rulers wanted to hold power and keep the people under their control so that they would not oppose them and they could rule without problems. 

26. Everyone knows that the rich can have better lawyers in the courts. What is the point in talking about equality before law?

Answer: It is true that the rich can have better lawyers in the courts, but the law is the same for everyone. Being rich or having good lawyers does not mean that equality of law also changes. Whether a person is rich or poor, the law remains the same for all citizens. The judiciary follows the rule of law for all without discriminating on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth

27. Should the freedom of expression be extended to those who are spreading wrong and narrow minded ideas? Should they be allowed to confuse the public?

Answer: No, the freedom of expression should not be extended to those who are spreading wrong and narrow minded ideas, since it is harmful for society and democracy. No, they should not be allowed to confuse the public because it would be wrong to do so. Spreading wrong information for personal gains is wrong. Their views can instigate violence, which is dangerous for our society. Nobody can use freedom of speech and expression to incite people or rebel against government.

28. “Rights are not limited only to Fundamental Rights as enumerated in the Constitution.” Justify the statement. Or How is the scope of rights always expanding? Mention any five facts. Or How has the scope of rights expanded in the present scenario?

Answer: Our Constitution and law offer a wider range of rights. Over the year the scope of rights has expanded.  Sometimes it leads to expansion in the legal rights that the citizen can enjoy.  From time to time, the courts gave judgments to expand the scope of rights. Certain rights like right to freedom of press, right to information and right to education are derived from the Fundamental Rights. So, we can say that, rights are not limited only to  Fundamental  Rights  as  enumerated  in the Constitution. In fact, Constitution provides many more rights which may not be Fundament Riehts. 

29. Can the President of India stop you from approaching the Supreme Court to secure your Fundamental Rights?

Answer: No, the President of India even cannot stop me from approaching the Supreme Court to secure my Fundamental Rights because the Fundamental Rights have been enshrined in our Constitution. This means that our Constitution provides and protects these rights and they cannot be taken away or violated by any person or government action or law, which also includes the President of India. The Right to Constitutional Remedies is a Fundamental Right, according to which we have the right to approach the Supreme Court in case of violation of rights by any person or government, law. So, nobody can stop us from going to court to secure our Fundamental Rights. 

30. Mention the Fundamental Rights which have been provided to the citizens by the Constitution.

Answer: The Indian Constitution itself classifies the Fundamental Rights under seven groups as follow
(i) Right to Equality
(ii) Right to Freedom
(iii) Right against Exploitation
(iv) Right to Freedom of Religion
(v) Cultural and Educational Rights
(vi) Right to Property
(vii) Right to Constitutional Remedies

Of these, the Right to Property has been eliminated by the 44th Amendment Act of the Constitution. The remaining six Fundamental Rights are necessary for the very sustenance of our democracy. These Fundamental Rights are given a special status in our Constitution.

31. What is the meaning of Fundamental Rights?

Answer: In Indian Constitution, some rights which are fundamental to our life are given a special status. These are called Fundamental Rights. The Preamble to our Constitution talks about securing for all its citizens equality, liberty and justice. Fundamental Rights put this promise into effect. Fundamental Rights are considered essential for the overall development of a person. Sometimes, even elected government may not protect these rights of their own citizens. That is why some rights need to be placed higher than the government, so that the government can not violate these. 

32. (a) When was National Human Rights Commission established? (b) Who appoints the commission? (c) What is its main objectives?

Answer: (a) National Human Rights Commission was established in 1993.
(b) The Commission is appointed by the President.
(c) The Commission focuses on helping the victims to secure their human rights. These include all the rights granted to the citizens by the Constitution. The Commission also consider the Human Rights mentioned in the UN sponsored international treatise that India has signed. The NHRC makes independent and credible inquiry into any case of violation of human rights. The Commission presents its findings and recommendations to the government. 

33.  Right to Freedom is the ‘cluster of freedoms’. Justify.

Answer: The Right to Freedom is considered as the ‘cluster of six freedoms’. Article 19 of Indian Constitution guarantees the following freedoms to all the citizens
(i) Freedom of speech and expression
(ii) Freedom to assemble in a peaceful manner without arms
(iii) Freedom to form associations or unions
(iv) Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India
(v) Freedom to reside in any part of India
(vi) Freedom to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business. 

34. “The Right to Constitutional Remedy is the ‘heart and soul’ of the Indian Constitution” Justify the statement. Or Who said that the Right to Constitutional Remedies is the ‘heart and soul of our Constitution? What does this statement mean? Or Why is the Right to Constitutional Remedies considered the ‘heart and soul of our Constitution’? 

Answer: The Right to Constitutional Remedy is the ‘heart and soul’ of the Indian Constitution the following ways
(i) When any of our rights is violated, we can seek remedy through courts. If it is a fundamental right, we can directly approach the Supreme Court or the High Court of the state.
(ii) If any act of legislature or executive takes away or limits any of the fundamental rights, it will be invalid. We can challenge such laws of the central or the State Government in the court of law.
(iii) The Supreme Court and the High Courts have the power to issue directions, orders or writs for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights.
(iv) Rights to Constitutional Remedies makes other rights effective. This right is the guardian of other rights.

35. Describe the features of Right against Exploitation.

Answer: Right against Exploitation, given in Articles 23 and 24 of Indian Constitution saves people from any type of exploitation. The Constitution prohibits ‘traffic in human beings’. Traffic means selling and buying of human beings, usually women for immoral purposes. The Constitution prohibits bonded labour, begar or forced labour. ‘Begar’ is a practice where the worker is forced to render service to the master free of charge or at a nominal remuneration. When this practice takes place on a life-long basis, it becomes ‘bonded labour’. The Constitution also prohibits child labour. No one can employ a child below the age of 14 to work in any factory or mine or any other hazardous work, such as railways and ports.

36. Discuss the position of the citizens of Saudi Arabia with regard to their government.

Answer:  Saudi Arabia is ruled by a hereditary king and the people have no role in electing or changing their rulers. The Saudi King rules as absolute monarch. The king governs according to Islamic law. He selects the legislature as well as executives. He appoints the judges and can change their decisions. Citizens are not allowed to form political parties on political organisations. Media cannot report anything that the monarch does not like. There is no freedom of religion. Every citizen is required to be Muslim. Non-Muslim residents can follow their religion in private, but not in public. Women are subjected to many public restrictions. The testimony of one man is considered equal to that of two women. 

37. How do the Right to Constitutional remedies ensures and guarantees the enforcement of our fundamental rights?

Answer:  The Fundamental Rights are enforceable. If it affected then Right to Constitutional remedies can save it. Fundamental Rights are guaranteed against the actions of the legislature/the executive or any other authorities instituted by the government. There can be no low or action that violates the Fundamental Rights. If any acts of the government takes away or limits any of the Fundamental Rights, it will be null and void. Under the Right to Constitutional Remedies, the courts have the power to enforce the Fundamental Rights against any private individuals or bodies. They have the power to issue direction orders or writ for the enforcement of Fundamental Right. The courts also award compensation to the victims and punishment to the violators. It exercises its jurisdiction Suo motu on the basis of Public Interest Litigation (PIL). 

38. (a) Is Right to Education a Fundamental Right? Justify your answer. (b) What values/lesson you have learnt from the given constitutional right?

Answer: (a) On 1st April, 2010, India joined a group of few countries in the world with a historic law, making education a Fundamental Right of every child. This Right to Education is included in Article 21-A of Indian Constitution. This right makes elementary education is compulsory and a” entitlement for children in the 6-14 age group. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory  Education Act will directly benefit children, who do not go to school at present. Children, who had either dropped out of schools or never been to any educational institution, will get elementary education as it is binding on the part of the local and State Government to ensure that all children in the 6-14 age group get schooling. The financial burden will be shared between the centre and the states. (b) From the given constitutional right I have learnt, that we should desire to bring everyone on the education platform. 

39. Write short notes on the following Fundamental Rights. (a) Right to Freedom of Religion (b) Cultural and Educational Rights

Answer: (a) Right to Freedom of Religion Right to Freedom of Religion, covered in Articles 25, 26, 27 and 28 of our Constitution, which provides religious freedom to all citizens of India. The objective of this right is to sustain the principle of secularism in India. India is a secular state and there is no official religion in India. According to the Constitution, all religions are equal before the state. Every person has a right to profess, practice and propagate the religion of his choice.
(b) Cultural and Educational Rights As India is a country of many languages, religions and cultures, the Constitution provides special measures in Article 29-30, to protect the rights of the minorities. Here, the Constitution specifies the Cultural and Educational Rights of the minorities. Any section of citizens with a distinct language or culture have a right to conserve it. No citizen can be discriminated against for admission in state or state aided institution. All minorities, religious or linguistic can set up their own educational institutions to preserve and develop their own culture. 


40. Why do we need rights in a democracy?

Answer: Rights are very essential part for the very sustenance of a democracy. Without rights democracy will became meaningless and ineffective. For democratic elections, it is necessary that citizens should have the right to express their opinions, from political parties and take part in political activities. Rights protect minorities from the oppression of majority. They ensure the majority cannot do whatever it likes. The government is expected to protect citizen’s rights. But sometimes elected government may not protect or  may even attack the rights of their own citizens. So, g some rights need to be placed higher than the government so that it cannot violate them. 

41. (a) Right to Constitutional Remedies is very special right. What is so special about this right? 
(b) What values/lesson you have learnt from the given constitutional right?

Answer: (a) Right to Constitutional Remedies is very special Right because it is through this Right that all other Fundamental Rights are safeguarded and arbitrary action of the state is checked. This right makes other rights effective. It is possible that sometimes our rights may be violated by fellow citizens, private bodies or by the government. If it is a Fundamental Right, we can directly approach the Supreme Court or the High Court of a State. The Supreme Court and High Courts have the power to issue directions, orders or writs for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights. Most eminent of the writs are?Habeas corpus, Mandamus,  Prohibition,  Quo-warranto  and Cerdorari. They award compensation for the violation for Fundamental Rights. Thus, without the Right to Constitutional Remedies, the other Fundamental Rights become meaningless.

(b) From the given constitutional right I have learnt, that everyone should respect the Constitutional Rights. 

42. List out any four characteristics of Fundamental Rights.

Answer: Some rights which are fundamental to our life are given a special status in our Constitution, these are called Fundamental Rights. Some features of Fundamental Rights are as follow
(i) Fundamental Rights are the promotion and enhancement of Human Rights.
(ii) Fundamental Rights primarily protect individuals from any arbitrary state action. But some rights are enforceable against individuals. For instance, the Constitution abolishes untouchability and also prohibits ‘begar’.
(iii) These rights are not absolute or uncontrolled and are subject to reasonable restrictions.
(iv) Fundamental Rights given in the Constitution are universal, justiciable and comprehensive. Universal means they are for all the citizens of India without any discrimination. Justiciable means individual can move to the court if his rights are violated, comprehensive means these rights safeguard our social, economic, cultural and religious interest. 

43. What was the Amnesty International’s report regarding the prisoners in Guantanamo Bay? State the condition of prisoners according to the report of Amnesty International in Guantanamo Bay. 

Answer: The Amnesty International reported that the prisoners were being tortured in ways that violated the US laws. They were being denied the treatment that even prisoners of war must get as per international treaties. Prisoners were not released even after they were officially declared not guilty, Condition of prisoners in Guantanamo Bay
(i) About 600 people were secretly picked up by the US forces from all over the world and put in a prison in Guantanamo Bay. The America government said they were enemies of the US and linked to the attack on the US.
(ii) In most cases the governments of their countries were not asked or even informed about their imprisonment.
(iii) Families of prisoners, media or even UN representatives were not allowed to meet them.
(iv) The US army arrested them, interrogated them and decided whether to keep them.
(v) There was no trial before any magistrate in ins US. Even the prisoners could not approach courts in their own country.  

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