Extra Questions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 6 Population

Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Population extra questions and answers available here in PDF format. Solving class 9 extra questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions with PDF as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising these questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.

Class 9 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Questions

1. What does ‘census’ mean?

Answer:  Census is an official counting of population done periodically. In India it is done regularly every tenth year.

2. According to 2001 census, which state is most populous?

Answer: Uttar Pradesh with the population of 166 million people is the most populous state of India.

3. In which states of India does half of India’s population live?

Answer: Almost half of India’s population lives in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. 

4. How is density of population calculated?

Answer: Population density is calculated as the total number of persons living per square km area.

5. What was the population density of India in 2001 census?

Answer: 324 person per sq. km. 

6. What is the highest and lowest density of India?

Answer: Highest density of population is 904 per sq. kms in West Bengal and lowest is 13 persons per sq. kms in Arunachal Pradesh

7. Why do some states of India have sparse population?

Answer: Rugged terrain and unfavourable conditions are primarily responsible for sparse population in some states of India. 

8. Why do most of the peninsular states have moderate population?

Answer: Most of the peninsular states have moderate population because of hilly dissected and rocky nature of the terrain, moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile soils.

9. Why do Northern plains and Kerala have very high density of population?

Answer: Northern plains and Kerala have a very high density of population because of flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall. 

10. What does growth of population mean?

Answer: Growth of population refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country during a specific period of time, say during the last ten years.

11. How do we get absolute increase in numbers of population?

Answer: It is obtained by simply subtracting the earlier population from the later population. It is referred as to absolute increase. 

12. How is annual growth rate calculated?

Answer: The difference between birth rate and death rate gives us the annual growth rate.

13. How is birth rate calculated?

Answer:  Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. 

14. How is death rate counted?

Answer: Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. 

15. What is migration of population?

Answer: Migration is the movement of the people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal or international. 

16. What does ‘Age Composition’ mean?

Answer: The age composition of the population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country. 

17. How is ‘Age Composition’ an important component of population?

Answer: To an important degree, a person’s age influences what he needs, buys, does and his capacity to perform. 

18. In which category are children below 15 years counted?

Answer: Children are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education and medical care. So, they are counted in dependent population.

19. What is the age of working population in India?

Answer: Working population is aged between 15-59 years. They are economically productive and biologically reproductive. 

20. How people above the age of 59 years are called dependent population?

Answer: They can be economically productive though they may have retired. They may be working voluntarily but they are not available for employment through recruitment. 

21. What is Sex Ratio?

Answer: Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population. 

22. What was the sex ratio of India in the year 2001?

Answer: It was 933 women per thousand males. 

23. Why literacy is considered an important quality of a population?

Answer: Actually only an informed and educated citizen can make intelligent choices and undertake research and development projects.

24. Who is considered a literate in India?

Answer: According to the census of 2001, a person aged 7 years and above who can read and write with understanding in any language is treated as literate. 

25. What is the literacy rate of male and female as per the census of 2011?

Answer:  It is 75.26 per cent for males and 53.67 per cent for females.

26. What is referred as occupational structure?

Answer: The distribution of population according to different types of occupation is referred as occupational structure.

27. In which three types occupations are broadly classified?

Answer: Occupations are classified as:
(i) Primary Activities,
(ii) Secondary Activities,
(iii) Tertiary Activities. 

28. What are the main Primary Activities?

Answer: Primary activities include agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying, etc. 

29. Which occupations are covered under Secondary Activities?

Answer: Secondary activities include manufacturing industry, building and construction work, etc.  

30. Which activities are considered as Tertiary Activities?

Answer: Tertiary activities include transport, communications, commerce; administration, and office services. 

31. Who are Adolescents?

Answer: Adolescents are generally grouped in the age group of to 19 years. 

32. What is NPP? 

Answer: NPP is National Population Policy 2000 a comprehensive family planning programme initiated by government of India.    

33. In the Census of India held in the year 2011, what was the density of population in India?

Answer:  In the Census of India held in the year 2011, the density of population in India was 382 persons per sq km. 

34. In how many years is the official enumeration of population carried out by the Census Bureau?

Answer: The official enumeration of population is carried out every 10 years. The last Census was held in 2011. 

35. As per the 2011 Census, which state has the least density of population?

Answer: The state with the least density of population, as per the 2011 Census, was Arunachal Pradesh with 17 persons per sq km. 

36. When did the National Population Policy come into effect?

Answer: The National Population Policy came into effect in the year 2000.

37. Out of the countries USA, Bangladesh, China and Great Britain, which one has a higher population density than India?

Answer: India had a population density of 382 persons per sq km, as per 2011 Census. Only the population density of Bangladesh was more at 1034 persons per sq km (as per the last estimate).

38. What ages are considered as the age of the working population in India?

Answer:  In India, the working age population is the population of the people who are between the ages of 15 years and 59 years. 

39. Which age range is considered as of adolescents in India?

Answer:  In India, the population of adolescents is the population of the people who are between the ages of 10 years and 19 years. 

40. Is it correct that there has been a substantial improvement in life expectancy at birth during the last 50 years in India?

Answer: Yes, it is correct. The life expectancy at birth has increased from 36.7 years in 1951 to 64.6 years in 2001, an increase of almost 28 years. 

41. What is sex ratio?

Answer:  The sex ratio is the number of females per 1000 males in a particular area, state or country at a particular time. 

42. Which social indicator out of sex ratio, literacy rate, age composition and death rate, is important to measure the extent of equality between males and females in a society at a given time?

Answer:  The sex ratio is the social indicator which measures the extent of equality between males and females in a society at a given time. 

43. Why is the year 1921 considered as a great demographic divide in India?

Answer:  Before 1921, the population was not stable, as sometimes it increased and at other times it decreased. Between 1911 and 1921, the population of India decreased, but it is going on increasing since then. 

44. What kind of migration does not change the size of the population in a country?

Answer: Internal migration from one city to another or from rural areas to urban areas within a country does not change the size of the population. 

45. In which year was the first Family Planning Programme started by the Government of India?

Answer: The first Family Planning Programme was started in 1952 by the Government of India. 

46. Under what conditions, will a person be considered literate?

Answer: A person will be considered literate if that person can read and write any language with understanding by the age of 7 years. 

47. Which activity out of construction, accountancy, fishing and transportation is a primary activity?

Answer: Fishing is a primary activity, construction is a secondary activity, while accountancy and transportation are tertiary activities. 

48. Almost 50% of India’s population lives in five states. Name them.

Answer:  Almost 50% of India’s population lives in the five states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. 

49. Which states of India have the highest and lowest sex ratios?

Answer: Kerala has the highest sex ratio of 1084 and Haryana has the lowest sex ratio of 877 (as per the 2011 Census). 

50. What is meant by dependency ratio?

Answer: The dependency ratio is the proportion of a population composed of people who are too young or too old to work. 

51. Which state out of Rajasthan, Bihar, Assam and Jammu and Kashmir, has the highest population density?

Answer: Bihar has the highest population density at 1102 persons per sq km. 

52. What is the major reason for the state of Kerala having a very high population density?

Answer: Kerala has a very high population density because it has a fertile soil and gets abundant rainfall, thus resulting in good prospects for the occupation of agriculture. 

53. Does the term ‘birth rate’ mean the percentage of live births in 1 year?

Answer: No, the correct meaning of the term ‘birth rate’ is the number of live births in a year per 1000 persons. 

54. Which group of persons out of adults, adolescents, the aged and children, comprise the maximum proportion of India’s population?

Answer: Adults comprise the maximum proportion of India’s population at 58.7 % of the population. 

55. When was the first Census held in India? 

Answer:  The first Census in India (on a limited scale) was held in 1872. The first complete census was taken in 1881 and subsequently has been taken every 10 years.

56. In the Census of India held in the year 2011, what was the density of population in India?

Answer: In the Census of India held in the year 2011, the density of population in India was 382 persons per sq km.

57. In how many years is the official enumeration of population carried out by the Census Bureau?

Answer: The official enumeration of population is carried out every 10 years. The last Census was held in 2011. 

58. As per the 2011 Census, which state has the least density of population?

Answer:  The state with the least density of population, as per the 2011 Census, was Arunachal Pradesh with 17 persons per sq km.

59. When did the National Population Policy come into effect?

Answer: The National Population Policy came into effect in the year 2000. 

60. Out of the countries USA, Bangladesh, China and Great Britain, which one has a higher population density than India?

Answer: India had a population density of 382 persons per sq km, as per 2011 Census. Only the population density of Bangladesh was more at 1034 persons per sq km (as per the last estimate). 

61. What ages are considered as the age of the working population in India?

Answer: In India, the working age population is the population of the people who are between the ages of 15 years and 59 years. 

62. Is it correct that there has been a substantial improvement in life expectancy at birth during the last 50 years in India?

Answer: Yes, it is correct. The life expectancy at birth has increased from 36.7 years in 1951 to 64.6 years in 2001, an increase of almost 28 years. 

63.  What is sex ratio?

Answer: The sex ratio is the number of females per 1000 males in a particular area, state or country at a particular time. 

64. Which social indicator out of sex ratio, literacy rate, age composition and death rate, is important to measure the extent of equality between males and females in a society at a given time?

Answer: The sex ratio is the social indicator which measures the extent of equality between males and females in a society at a given time. 

65. What kind of migration does not change the size of the population in a country?

Answer:  Internal migration from one city to another or from rural areas to urban areas within a country does not change the size of the population.

66. In which year was the first Family Planning Programme started by the Government of India?

Answer: The first Family Planning Programme was started in 1952 by the Government of India.

67. Under what conditions, will a person be considered literate?

Answer:  A person will be considered literate if that person can read and write any language with understanding by the age of 7 years. 

68. Which activity out of construction, accountancy, fishing and transportation is a primary activity?

Answer: Fishing is a primary activity, construction is a secondary activity, while accountancy and transportation are tertiary activities. 

69. Almost 50% of India’s population lives in five states. Name them.

Answer:  Almost 50% of India’s population lives in the five states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. 

70. Which states of India have the highest and lowest sex ratios?

Answer: Kerala has the highest sex ratio of 1084 and Haryana has the lowest sex ratio of 877 (as per the 2011 Census). 

71. What is meant by dependency ratio?

Answer: The dependency ratio is the proportion of a population composed of people who are too young or too old to work. 

72. Which state out of Rajasthan, Bihar, Assam and Jammu and Kashmir, has the highest population density?

Answer: Bihar has the highest population density at 1102 persons per sq km. 

73. What is the major reason for the state of Kerala having a very high population density?

Answer: Kerala has a very high population density because it has a fertile soil and gets abundant rainfall, thus resulting in good prospects for the occupation of agriculture. 

74. Does the term ‘birth rate’ mean the percentage of live births in 1 year?

Answer:  No, the correct meaning of the term ‘birth rate’ is the number of live births in a year per 1000 persons. 

75. Which group of persons out of adults, adolescents, the aged and children, comprise the maximum proportion of India’s population?

Answer:  Adults comprise the maximum proportion of India’s population at 58.7 % of the population. 

76. When was the first Census held in India? 

Answer:  The first Census in India (on a limited scale) was held in 1872. The first complete census was taken in 1881 and subsequently has been taken every 10 years. 

Short Answer Type Questions

1. What is the impact of migration on population?

Answer: Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population, normally it adds to the population. It also changes population composition of urban and rural population in terms of age and sex composition. 

2. What are the push and pull factors of internal migration in India?

Answer: In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the push factor in rural areas. These are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas and the pull of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions.

3. How proportion of people working in different activities varies iii developed and developing countries?

Answer: Developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities, whereas developing countries tend to have a higher proportion of their workforce engaged in primary activities 

4. What can be the reasons for the declining death rate in India?

Answer: The substantial improvement is the result of many factors including ‘improvement in public health, prevention of fatal diseases and application of medical practices in diagnosis and treatment of ailments.

5. What is the most significant feature of the Indian population?

Answer: The most significant feature of the Indian population is the size of its adolescent population. It comprises about 20% of the total population, which is very high when compared to the other countries. 

6. What is migration? Which are the two types “of migration? Describe the trends of migration in India.

Answer: (i) Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories.
(ii) Migration can be internal or international.
(iii) In India, most migrations have been form rural to urban areas because of the push factor in rural areas. These are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas and the ‘pull’ of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions.

7. What is census? When was the first census held in India? Which type of In formations can we get through census?

Answer: (i) A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically.
(ii) In India, the first census was held in the year 1872. The first complete census, how ever, was taken in the year 1881. Since then, the censuses have been held regularly every tenth year
(iii) The Indian census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data. 

8. What do you know about the size and distribution of India’s population on the basis of the 2001 Census?

Answer:  According to the Census 2001 data:
(i) UP with a population size of 166 million people is .the most populous state of lndia.
(ii) The Himalayan state of Sikkim has a population of just about 0.5 million and Lakshadweep has a population of only 60 thousand people.
(iii) Almost half of India’s population live in just five states:
(a) UP, (b) Maharashtra, (c) Bihar, (d) West Bengal and (e) Andhra Pradesh. 

9. What do you mean by growth of population? How is it calculated?

Answer: Growth of population or population growth refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country during a specific period of time, say during the last ten years. It can be expressed in two ways:
(i) A bsolute Numbers: 11 is obtained by simply subtracting the earlier population from the later population. It is referred to as the ‘absolute increase’.
(ii) Annual Growth Rate: When the rate or pace of population is studied in per cent per annum. If increase is 2 per cent, i.e., there was an increase of two persons for every 100 persons in the base population. This is referred to as the annual growth rate.

10. What are the three main processes of change of population?

Answer: The three main processes of change of population are – birth rates, death rates and migration.
(i) Birth rate: It is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. If is a major component of growth because in India, birth rates have always been higher than the death rates.
(ii) Death rate: It is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian population has been The rapid decline in the death rate. (iii) Migration: Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between countries).

11. Give reasons for how migration plays a significant role in changing the composition and distribution of the population.

Answer: (i) In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the push factor in rural areas.
(ii) There are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas.
(iii) The pull of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions also leads to migration.
(iv) Migration is an important determinant of population change.
(v) It changes not only the population size but also the population composition of the urban and rural population in terms of age and sex composition. 

12. What is age composition? How does it affect the population’s social and economic structure?

Answer:  The age composition of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country.
(i) It is one of the most basic characteristics of population.
(ii) To an important degree, a person’s age influences what he needs, buys, does and his capacity to perform.
(iii) Consequently, the number and percentage of a population found within the children, working age and aged groups are notable determinants of the population’s social and economic structure. 

13. What are the three broad categories of division of population on the basis of their economic structure?

Answer: (i) Children (generally below 15 years): They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education and medical care.
(ii) Working age (15-59 years): They are economically productive and biologically reproductive. They comprise the working population.
(iii) Aged (above 59 years): They can be economically productive, though they may have retired. They may be working voluntarily, but they are not available for employment through recruitment.

14. What is sex ratio? How is it calculated?

Answer:  Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1,000 males in the population. This information is an important social indicator, to measure the extent of equality between males and females in a society, at a given time. The sex ratio in India has always remained unfavourable for females. The sex ratio of India in 1951 was 946 females per 1,000 males and in 2001, it declined to 933 females per 1,000 males. 

15. Who is a literate person according to the Census 2001? Why is literacy considered important for the quality of the population?

Answer: According to the Census 2001 data, a person aged 7 years and above who can read and write with understanding in any language is treated as literate. Literacy is considered very important for the quality of a population because of the following: (i) Only an well-informed and educated citizen can make intelligent choices and undertake research and development projects. (ii) Low levels of literacy are a serious obstacle for economic improvement.

16. What is occupational structure? How are occupations generally classified?

Answer: The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as Occupational Structure. Occupations are generally classified as:
(i) Primary activities: These include agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying, etc.
(ii) Secondary activities: These include the manufacturing industry, building and construction work, etc.
(iii) Tertiary activities: These include transport, communication, commerce, administration and other services. 

17.What does the National Population Policy indicate?

Answer: (i) The NPP 2000 provides a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years.
(ii) It reduces the infant mortality rate to below 30 per thousand live births.
(iii) It helps in achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine-preventable diseases.
(iv) It has promoted delayed marriage for girls and has made family welfare a people-centred programme. 

18. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?

Answer: (i) Health is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development.
(ii) If the health of our country’s population is looked after properly by the government, the ability to produce more will increase.
(iii) Good health is related to a disease-free population and a healthy population is always an asset to a country. 

19. What is demographic divide? In which year is this divide seen in India and why?

Answer: When there is a sudden fluctuation in population or the growth rate declines, it is called demographic divide.
(i) In India, it took place in 1981 as the rate of growth started declining gradually.
(ii) It happened as the birth rate declined rapidly during this period.
(iii) Since 1981, birth rates declined, resulting in a gradual decline in the rate of population growth. 

20. Sex ratio in the country has always remained unfavourable to females. What are its reasons?

Answer:(i) Preferential treatment is given to a male child and female children get neglected in most Indian homes.
(ii) The infant mortality rate in India is high and female infant mortality rate is still higher.
(iii) Women generally have lower social, political and economic status in the Indian society. We find dowry deaths, opposition to widow Remarriages and low nutritional levels in women. 

21. What is the most significant feature of the Indian population?

Answer:  The most significant feature of the Indian population is the size of its adolescent population. It comprises about 20% of the total population, which is very high when compared to the other countries. 

22. What is the importance of people in this world?

Answer: (i) People are important for the development of the economy and society.
(ii) People make use of resources. They themselves are also resources, but with varying quality.
(iii) Coal is but a piece of rock, until people are able to invent technology to obtain it and make it a ‘resource’.

23. How is population a pivotal element in social studies? 

Answer: (i) It is the point of reference from where all other elements are observed.
(ii) Resources, calamities, disasters all are meaningful only in relation to human beings.
(iii) Good health is related to a disease-free population and a healthy population is always an asset to a country. 

24. Explain any three elements which are responsible for population growth. Or Describe the factors that cause changes in the size of population.

Answer:  The three elements responsible for population growth are increasing birth rate, declining death rate and increased migration into the country from outside.
(i) Birth rates are affected by factors like nutrition, fertility, social value, the availability of contraception and culture.
(ii) Death rates are affected by disease, war, improved healthcare and nutrition.
(iii) Migration into the country is affected by characteristics of a country that attracts people to it push and pull factors.

25. Describe the three different population density zones of India.

Answer:  The three population density zones in India are high, moderate and low.
(i) The high population density zone, which has a population density greater than 500 persons per sq km, consists of the states Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Kerala.
(ii) The low density zone, which has a population density lesser than 100 persons per sq km, consists of the states Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Jammu and Kashmir.
(iii) The remaining states fall in the moderate population density zone with 250-500 persons living per sq km. 

26. Explain what the Census is.

Answer: Census usually refers to the complete process of preparation, collection, compilation, evaluation, analysis and dissemination of data on demographic, social, economic and housing characteristics of the population of a country. Such information is fundamental for any geographic information system developed   for   socio-economic   and often environmental, analysis purposes. In India, it is held once every 10 years. 

27. What is meant by occupational structure? Explain the occupational structure of India.

Answer: Occupational structure is the mix of different types of occupations found in a society. It also describes the distribution of people among those occupations (namely primary, secondary and tertiary occupations), which gives some sense of which types of work predominate in a society. In India in 2005, 54.2% of the population was in primary occupations, 18.8% in secondary occupations and 27% in tertiary occupations. 

28. Differentiate between dependent and working population.

Answer: The dependent population in a country is either too young to work, i.e., children or too old to work, i.e., the aged or elderly. The working population falls in the middle age group (in India this is considered from 15 to 59 years). The working population is economically productive and carries the burden of meeting all the needs of nutrition, healthcare, housing etc of the dependent population. 

29. How does density of population depend upon topography and climatic conditions?

Answer: Some advantages of having a healthy population are The people can work more efficiently to increase production which will ultimately lead to an increase in national income. (ii) The population can save the expenditure of the government on healthcare so that the same money can be invested on other progressive pl (iii) Less number of people will become dependent on the earning members, thus reducing the economic overload on the working population. 

31. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?

Answer: Relationship between age composition and dependency ratio
(i) Children below 15 years of age are economically unproductive and aged above 59 years do not get employment through recruitment.
(ii) The percentage of children and the aged affects the dependency ratio because these groups are not producers   

32. Categories the population of a nation into three broad categories on the basis of age composition and explain them.

Answer:  Age Structure It means the number of people in different age groups in a given population. Death Rate It is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. Birth Rate It is the number of live births per thousand person in a year. 

Long Answer Type Questions

1. What is the relationship between occupational structure and development?

Answer:  (i) The proportion of people working in different activities varies in developed and developing countries.
(ii) Developed nations have a high proportion of people engaged in secondary and tertiary activities.
(iii) Developing countries tend to have a higher proportion of their workforce engaged in primary activities.
(iv) In India, about 64 per cent of the population are engaged only in agriculture.
(v) The proportion of population dependent on secondary and tertiary sectors is also less (about 13 and 20 per cent, respectively) in India.
(vi) Now, however, there has been an occupational shift in favour of the secondary and tertiary sectors with the growing industrialisation and urbanisation in recent times. 

2. Which areas are sparsely populated in India and why?

Answer: Sparsely populated areas of India are high mountain regions of Jammu and Kashmir and Arunachal Pradesh and desert parts of Rajasthan.
Reasons:
(i) Extremely cold climatic condition, which makes living difficult.
(ii) High and snow covered areas do not favour any kind of habitation.
(iii) There are few regions which are fertile but they, too, are small and scattered. Besides that, it is difficult to approach these areas since there are no good means of transportation and communication available.
(iv) Desert area of Rajasthan is arid, hot and dry region. It has sandy soils, not suitable for cultivation. So, it does not favour any habitation.  

3. What significant improvements have been noticed in the health status of our population? 

Answer: Following improvements have been made in the health status of our population: (i) Diseases like small pox and plague have been eradicated.
(ii) Inoculation and vaccinations are provided to control dengue fever, leprosy, TB and polio, etc.
(iii) The infant mortality rate has also substantially reduced.
(iv) Improvement has been shown in sex ratio also in some states of India.
(v) Good public health facilities are provided to prevent spread of diseases and periodically information is imparted to the public to take precautions. 

4. What is density of population? Give India’s population distribution by density with the reasons responsible for the same.

Answer: Density of population is calculated as the number of persons per unit area. The population density of India in 2001 was 324 persons per sq. km.
(i) Regions with sparse population density: Rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions are primarily responsible for sparse population in these areas. For example, Jammu and Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram.
(ii) Regions with moderate population density: Hilly, dissected and rocky nature of terrain, moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile soils have influenced the population densities in these areas. For example, Assam and peninsular states.
(iii) Regions with high density of population: These areas have high population density because of the flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall. For example, Northern plains and Kerala.

5. What is the relationship between occupational structure and development?

Answer: The distribution of population according to different types of occupations is referred to as the occupational structure. They are generally classified as follows:
(i) Primary Activities: These include agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying, etc.
(ii) Secondary Activities: These include manufacturing industries, building and construction work, etc.
(iii) Tertiary Activities: These include transport, communications, commerce, administration and other services. The proportion of people working in different activities varies in developed and developing countries. Developed nations have high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities. Developing countries tend to have a higher proportion of their workforce engaged in primary activities. So, in the above manner, there is a relationship between occupational structure and development.

6. What is the role of NPP 2000 in the life of adolescents? Or What are the significant features of National Population Policy 2000?

Answer: (i) NPP 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major sections of the population that need greater attention.
(ii) Besides nutritional requirements, the policy put greater emphasis on other important needs of adolescents like protection from unwanted pregnancies arid sexually transmitted diseases.
(iii) It called for programmes that aim towards encouraging delayed marriages and child-bearing.
(iv) It aimed at providing food supplements and nutritional services.
(v) It also aimed at strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage.

7. What is the difference between Population Growth and Population Change? Or Distinguish between population growth and population change.

Answer: Growth of Population: It refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country/region during a specific period of time. Population growth can be expressed in the absolute numbers as well as percentage per annum. Annual growth rate is measured in terms of percentage. For example, if it is 2 per cent, there is an increase of 2 persons for every 100 persons.

Change in Population: It happens due to the birth rate, death rate and the migration. If birth rate is high and death rate is low, there will be a growth in population. In migration, people move across regions and territories. Migration can be internal or international. Internal migration does not change the size of the population but influences the distribution of population within the nation. 

8. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?

Answer: (i) Health is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development of a country.
(ii) Sustained efforts of government programmes have registered significant improvement in the health conditions of the Indian population.
(iii) Good public health facilities provide preventive measures in advance to eradicate diseases.
(iv) The government of India should concentrate more on public health so that we have healthy productive workers. This will help in the development of the country.
(v) The substantial improvement is the result of many factors including improvement in public health, prevention of infectious diseases and application of modern medical practices in diagnosis and treatment of ailments. 

9. What are the major components of population growth? 

Answer: Birth rate, death rate and migration are the three major components of population growth.
(i) Birth rate is the major component of growth because if birth rate is higher than death rate, growth rate will automatically increase.
(ii) Another major component is death rate. These days we find that there are improved health facilities and there is awareness among people about their health maintenance. With the result, death rate has declined leading to growth rate of the population.
(iii) Migration is another component of population growth. Though internal migration does not change the population of the country but it does affect the distribution of population within the country. International migration definitely changes the size of the population. 

10. “Resources, calamities and disasters are all meaningful only in relation to human beings”. Explain the statement with suitable arguments.

Answer: The following arguments explain the given statements
(i) The statement highlights the importance of the human resource. It is the people who develop the economy and society.
(b) It is the people who make and use resources.
(c) Resources have no meaning without people, e.g., coal is just a piece of rock until people were able to make is usable.
(ii) Natural events like a river flood or Tsunami become a ‘disaster’ only when they affect a crowded settlement.
(iii) Population is the pivotal element from which the significance is derived. Thus, we can say that resources, calamities and disasters have no meaning without human beings. 

11. What is the relationship between age composition and dependency ratio? Explain.

Answer: The rate of population growth in India is declining since 1981 because the birth rates have declined rapidly. This is due to
(i) Improvement in female education and literacy, due to which the people realised the need of a small family.
(ii) Better living conditions and healthcare, which have been reducing the child mortality rate. When the mortality for children falls, the fertility rate falls even more.
(iii) The positive effect of birth control measures and  easy availability of contraceptives. 

12. Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981? Explain any three reasons.

Answer: The categories are
(i) Children (below 15 years), who are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education and healthcare.
(ii) Working age (15 to 59 years), who are economically   productive   and   biologically reproductive. They comprise the working population.
(iii) The aged or elderly (60 years and above), who can be economically productive though they may have retired. They may be working voluntarily but they are not available for employment through recruitment. 

13. Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.

Answer:  The major components of population growth are birth rate, death rate and migration. The natural increase of population is the difference between birth rate and death rate. The birth rate is a major component of population growth, because in India birth rates have always been higher than death rates. However, the main cause of growth of the population has been the rapid decline in the death rate during the last 50 years due to better healthcare, nutrition, etc. Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between countries). 

14. Discuss the major components of population growth,

Answer: The following arguments justify the given statement
(i) Since 1981, the growth rate started declining.
(ii) During this period, birth rates declined rapidly.
(iii) Still 182 million people were added in the 1990s.
(iv) When low annual rate is applied to a very large population, it yields a large absolute increase.
(v) When more than a billion people increase even at a lower rate, the total number being added becomes very large.  

15. Explain the term annual growth rate of population. How it is affected by the birth rate?

Answer: (i) The increase in the number of persons per 100 persons in the base population, in a given years is called the annual growth rate.
(ii) The annual growth rate is affected by the birth rate in the following ways
(a) With the increase in birth rate, the annual growth rate generally increases.
(b) For a larger population, even a lower birth rate, the annual growth rate keeps on increasing.
(c) e.g., since 1981 the birth rates declined rapidly, still 18.20 crore people were added to the total population in the 1990s alone. If we calculate annual growth rate based on these data, it becomes very high. 

16. Distinguish between population growth and population change.

Answer:

Population GrowthPopulation Change
This refers to the  increase in number of the inhabitants in a region during a specific time period.Natural increase of population and immigration are the major components of population growth.
This refers to the change in  the distribution,   composition and size of population  in a region during a  specific time periodNatural increase of population, immigration and emigration are the major components of population change.

17. What is the National Population Policy (NPP 2000)? Why was NPP 2000 initiated by the government?

Answer:  The National Population Policy provides a reliable and relevant policy framework for improving family welfare services and for measuring and monitoring the delivery of family welfare services and their demographic impact in future. It was initiated by the government for improving healthcare quality and coverage, measuring and monitoring the delivery of family welfare programme so as to enable the increasingly literate and aware families to achieve their reproductive goals and the country to achieve rapid population stabilisation. It also aims at promoting synergy with the ongoing educational, info-technology and socio-economic transition so that India can achieve not only rapid population stabilisation, but also sustainable development as well as improvement in economic, social and human development in the new millennium.

18. What is the relation between occupational structure and development?

Answer: The distribution of the population according to the different types of occupations is referred to as the occupational structure of a population. Occupations are generally classified as primary (agriculture, mining, fishing, etc) secondary (manufacturing industry, building and construction work, etc) and tertiary (transport, communications, banking, etc). The proportion of people working in different activities reflects the economic development of a country. Developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities. Developing countries tend to have a higher proportion of their workforce engaged in primary activities.

19. Why is the distribution of population in India uneven? Explain with five examples. Or What could be the reason of uneven distribution of population in India?

Answer: The following examples show why distribution of population in India is uneven (i) Fertility of the soil and availability of water in the Northern Plains and Kerala causes a large number of people to be employed in agriculture.
(ii) An undulating terrain and mountainous areas of Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Jammu and Kashmir do not provide much scope of a livelihood and so they have a low population density.
(iii) An equable climate and reasonable amount of rainfall in most of the coastal states favour people living in such areas. Thus they have a moderate population density.
(iv) A harsh climate like the desert of Western Rajasthan deters people from living in such locations, leading to a sparse population there.
(v) Development of transport, industrialization and urbanisation in urban areas increases the population density in such areas. 

20. What is migration? Which are the two types of migration? Describe the trends of migration in India,

Answer: Migration is the temporary or permanent relocation of population inside or outside the boundaries of a country or state. The two types of migration are internal (within the country from one area to another) and international (between countries). Internal migration does not change the size of the population, but influences the distribution of population within the nation. The trends of temporary migration in India are of the herders, who take their flocks to different pastures during the summer and winter. These herders live mostly in the hilly and desert areas. Permanent migration occurs from the rural areas to the urban areas in search of employment opportunities, as there is great poverty and unemployment in rural areas of India.

21. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?

Answer: Aims/Objectives of National Population Policy 2000
(i) Imparting free and compulsory school education upto 14 years of age.
(ii) Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
(iii) Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine preventable diseases. (iv) Promoting delayed marriage for girls.
(v) Making family welfare a people centered programme.
(vi) Protection of adolescent   girls   from unwanted pregnancies.
(vii) Protection of adolescents from Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) and education them about the risks of unprotected sex.
(viii) Making contraceptive services accessible and affordable.
(a) Providing food supplement and nutritional services.
(b) Strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage. 

22. How is migration a determinant factor of population change?

Answer: Migration also causes change in the number of people, but if it is movement of people within the country (called internal migration), it will not cause a change in the population, but only change their distribution. Migration of people between countries (called international migration) will change the size of the population besides changing its character or demography. In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the ‘push’ factor in rural areas. These are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas and the ‘pull’ of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions. Migration is an important determinant of population change. It changes not only the population size, but also the population composition of urban and rural populations in terms of age and sex composition.  In India, the rural-urban migration has resulted in a steady increase in the percentage of population in cities and towns,  

23. The National Population Policy (NPP 2000) had envisaged the total population of India to increase to a maximum of 1162 million by 2010, but the population has exceeded this figure by a significant amount. (a) What could have been the reasons for exceed? (b) What values/lesson have you learnt from the Implementation of National Population Policy 2000? 

Answer: (a) The estimate was based on the population as it was when the policy was framed in the year 2000 and assumed that the present trends will continue. However, the reasons for the estimate going wrong are
(i) the large size of the population in the reproductive age group. The increase in population will continue for some more years because high reproductive fertility in the past has resulted in a large proportion of the population being currently in the reproductive age group.
(ii) higher fertility due to the unmet need for contraception. Measures for adoption of contraception are not widely available accessible and affordable, particularly in the rural areas.
(iii) high desired fertility due to the high Infant Mortality Rate (IMR). Repeated child births are seen as an insurance against multiple infant (and child) deaths and accordingly, high infant mortality nullifies all efforts at reducing fertility
(iv) many girls are married below the age of 18, the minimum legal age of marriage, resulting in a typical reproductive pattern of “too early, too frequent, too many”.
(b) From this policy I have learnt that to control the population, there is a need of concerted efforts by both Government and the people. 

24. Kerala has a sex ratio of 1084 females per 1000 males. Puducherry has 1038 females per every 1000 males, while Delhi has 866 females per 1000 males and Haryana has just 877 females. What could be the reasons for such variation?

Answer: Kerala and Puducherry have a sex ratio of more than 1000 females per 1000 males while Delhi has 866females per 1000 males and Haryana just 877 females because (a) Kerala and puducherry have good health facilities, which reduces infant mortality.
(b) These states have higher literacy rates. Due to higher literacy of women, they are understanding the advantages of small families.
(c) In Delhi, there is a heavy migration of males who get jobs in the metropolis. Generally, their families stay back in their villages or home towns. This leads to a very high number of males in Delhi.
(d) In Haryana, female feticide is rampant because of people’s desire to have a male heir, due to a patriarchal family system. This has led to the skewed sex ratio in Haryana. 

25. Kerala has a sex ratio of 1084 females per 1000 males. Puducherry has 1038 females per every 1000 males, while Delhi has 866 females per 1000 males and Haryana has just 877 females. What could be the reasons for such variation?

Answer: Kerala and Puducherry have a sex ratio of more than 1000 females per 1000 males while Delhi has 866females per 1000 males and Haryana just 877 females because (a) Kerala and puducherry have good health facilities, which reduces infant mortality.
(b) These states have higher literacy rates. Due to higher literacy of women, they are understanding the advantages of small families.
(c) In Delhi, there is a heavy migration of males who get jobs in the metropolis. Generally, their families stay back in their villages or home towns. This leads to a very high number of males in Delhi.
(d) In Haryana, female feticide is rampant because of people’s desire to have a male heir, due to a patriarchal family system. This has led to the skewed sex ratio in Haryana. 

26. Kerala has a sex ratio of 1084 females per 1000 males. Puducherry has 1038 females per every 1000 males, while Delhi has 866 females per 1000 males and Haryana has just 877 females. What could be the reasons for such variation?

Answer: Kerala and Puducherry have a sex ratio of more than 1000 females per 1000 males while Delhi has 866females per 1000 males and Haryana just 877 females because (a) Kerala and puducherry have good health facilities, which reduces infant mortality.
(b) These states have higher literacy rates. Due to higher literacy of women, they are understanding the advantages of small families.
(c) In Delhi, there is a heavy migration of males who get jobs in the metropolis. Generally, their families stay back in their villages or home towns. This leads to a very high number of males in Delhi.
(d) In Haryana, female feticide is rampant because of people’s desire to have a male heir, due to a patriarchal family system. This has led to the skewed sex ratio in Haryana. 

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