Extra Questions for Class 9 History chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution extra questions and answers available here in PDF format. Solving class 9 extra questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions with PDF as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising these questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.

Class 9 History Chapter 2 extra Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Questions

1. Who were ‘liberals’?
Answer: Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. 

2. Who were called ‘radicals’?
Answer: Radicals were the one who wanted a nation in which govt. was based on the majority of a country’s population. They opposed the privileges of great landowners and wealthy factory owners. 

3. What were the ideals of ‘Conservatives’?
Answer: They were opposed to radicals and liberals. They believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process. 

4. What problems were brought by Industrialisation?
Answer: Work hours were often long and wages were poor and unemployment created problems for them and housing and sanitation problems were also growing rapidly. 

5. Who all wanted revolutions to put an end to monarchical system?
Answer: Some nationalists, liberals and radicals wanted to overthrow monarchy. 

6. What was the thinking of nationalists regarding existing monarchy?
Answer: Nationalists wanted revolutions that would create ‘nations’ where all citizens would have equal rights. 

7. Give one characteristic of a socialist.
Answer: Socialists are against private property and saw it as the root of all social ills of the time. 

8. Who was Robert Owen?
Answer: Robert Owen was a leading English manufacturer who sought to build a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana (USA).

9. Who was Louis Blanc?
Answer: Louis Blanc was also a nationalist who wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprises. 

10. Name two famous socialists who introduced a communist system.
Answer: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

11. What was a communist society according to Karl Marx?
Answer: Marx believed that to free themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled. 

12. Name the socialist international body which coordinated their efforts.
Answer: The Second International

13.Which socialist parties were formed in Germany, Britain and France?
Answer: (i) Germany: The Social Democratic Party (SPD)
(ii) Britain: Labour Party
(iii) France: Socialist Party. 

14. What is ‘Russian Revolution’?
Answer: The fall of monarchy in February 1917 and the events of October are normally called the Russian Revolution. 

15. Which territories were included in Russian Empire?
Answer: Russian Empire included current day Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, parts of Poland, Ukraine and Belarus. It also included today’s central Asian states as Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. 

16. Which religions were followed in Russian Empire?
Answer:  The majority religion was Russian Orthodox Christianity but there were Catholics, Protestants, Muslims and Buddhists also. 

17. What was the main occupation of Russians?
Answer: About 85 percent of the Russian Empire’s population earned their living from agriculture. 

18. Who owned most properties in Russian Empire?
Answer: The nobility, the king himself and the Orthodox Church owned large properties.

19. How were Russian peasants different from other European peasants?
Answer: They pooled their land together periodically & their commune divided it according to the needs of the individual families. 

20. Name the socialist party formed in Russia in 1898 on Marx’s ideas.
Answer: The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party. 

21. How did this socialist party work in monarchy?
Answer:  It had to operate as an illegal organisation. It set up a newspaper, mobilized Workers and organised strikes.  

22. What role was played by ‘The Socialist Revolutionary Party’ in 1900 Russia?
Answer: This party struggled for peasants rights and demanded that land belonging to nobles be transferred to peasants. 

23. Who were ‘Bolsheviks’?
Answer: It was a political organisation led by Lenin, who thought that in a repressive society like Tsarist Russia the party should be disciplined and should control the number and quality of its members. He believed in a socialist concept.

24. Who were Mensheviks?
Answer: ‘Mensheviks’ also was a political organisation, who thought that party should be open to all and accept the democratic set up of the government. 

25. What was the demand of workers of St. Petersberg in 1904?
Answer: The workers went on strike demanding a reduction in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions. 

26. Which incident was the immediate cause of 1905 Revolution in Russia?
Answer: ‘Bloody Sunday’ was the incident, where over 100 workers were killed and above 300 wounded on a Sunday. 

27. What was a ‘Duma’?
Answer: ‘Duma’ was a Parliament of elected consultative formed with the permission of Tsar after the success of 1905 Russian Revolution. 

28. Name the leader who led procession of workers to winter palace.
Answer: Father Gapon. 

29. Name the countries that formed allied Powers in World War I.
Answer: France, Britain and Russia. Later, Italy and Romania too joined them. 

30. Which countries formed central Powers bloc during World War I?

Answer: Germany, Austria – Hungry and Turkey.

31. What was the new name of St. Petersburg?
Answer: It was a German name, so it was changed to Petrograd, a Russian name. 

32. Which world war situation discredited the government of Russia and the Czar?
Answer: There were over 7 million casualties by 1917 and the Russian army destroyed crops and buildings to prevent the enemy from being able to live off the land. This situation discredited the government of Russia and the Czar Nichalos II. 

33. What was located on the right bank of river Neva in Petrograd?
Answer: The workers, quarters and factories were located on the right bank of river Neva. 

34. Which buildings were located on the left bank of river Neva?
Answer: On the left bank were the fashionable areas, the winter Palace and official buildings, including the Palace where the Duma met. 

35. What is ‘Soviet’?
Answer: ‘Soviet’ was a council of soldiers and striking workers of Russia.

36. What was ‘Petrograd Soviet’?
Answer: When Soviet met in the same building where Duma met, it was named as ‘Petrograd Soviet’.

37. What was the result of February Revolution of 1917 in Russia?
Answer: It brought down monarchy and Duma leaders and soviet leaders formed a provisional government.

38. What was Lenin’s ‘April Thesis’?
Answer: The three demands of Lenin were called April Thesis. They were war to be closed, land to the tiller and banks to be nationalised. 

39. What new name was given to ‘Bolshevik Party’?
Answer: Bolshevik Party renamed itself ‘The Communist Party’ to indicate its new radical aims.

40. Who was the Prime Minister of Russia when October Revolution began?
Answer: Kerensky. 

41. Which secret police was formed to punish the one who criticised Bolsheviks?
Answer: The secret police called ‘Cheka’ first and later OGPU and NKVD.

42. Who controlled the Russian Empire in 1918 and 1919?
Answer: The ‘greens’ (Socialist Revolutionaries) and ‘whiters’ (Pro?Tsarists) controlled most of the Russian Empire. 

43. What was Centralised Planning?
Answer: A process of centralised planning was introduced by Bolsheviks. In it the officials assessed how the economy could work and set targets for a five year period called ‘Five Year Plans’.  

44. How centralised planning led to economic growth?
Answer: Industrial production increased by 100 percent in the case of oil, coal & steel and many new factory cities came into being.  

45. Who was Stalin?
Answer: Stalin was a close associate of Lenin and came to power in Russian after Lenin’s death. He introduced firm emergency measures. 

46. Who were ‘kulaks’?
Answer: It was the name given to the well-to-do peasants of Russia. 

47. Why Kulaks needed to be eliminated?
Answer: To develop modern forms and run them along industrial lives with machinery, it was necessary to eliminate Kulaks, take away land from peasants and establish state controlled large farms. 

48. What does ‘Kolkhoz’ mean?
Answer: These were collective farms. Peasants worked on this land and the profit is shared amongst them. Those who resisted collectivisation were severely punished. 

49. What is Comintern? 
Answer: It is Communist International, a union of pro?Bolshevik Socialist parties.   

50. After 1905, which elected representative body was formed in Russia?
Answer: The elected representative body formed in Russia after 1905 was the Duma.

51. What was the root of all evils in society, according to socialism?
Answer: Private property was the root of all evils in society, according to socialism.

52. What kind of socialist society did the 19th century French socialist, Louis Blanc want?
Answer: Louis Blanc wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprises.

53. Name the international body which formed in 1889 to coordinate the efforts of socialists all over Europe.
Answer:  This organisation was known as the Second International.

54. Where did the Bolsheviks sign a peace treaty with the Germans in March, 1918?
Answer: The Bolsheviks signed a peace treaty with the Germans in March, 1918 at Brest Litovsk in Soviet Russia.

55. Name the ruler of Russia at the start of First World War.
Answer: Tsar Nicholas II was the ruler of Russia at the start of First World War.

56. What were the views of the liberals in 19th century Europe regarding universal adult franchise?
Answer: The liberals were opposed to universal adult franchise. They felt men of property mainly should have the right to vote. They also did not want the vote for women.

57. Which groups of workers were regarded as aristocrats among workers?
Answer: The metal workers were regarded as aristocrats among workers.  

58. At the time of the revolution, what was the profession of the majority of Russia’s population?
Answer: The profession of the majority of Russia’s population was agriculture.

59. Mention the most significant result of the February Revolution.
Answer: The abdication of Tsar Nicholas II was the most significant result of the February Revolution.

60. By what other name was the Russian Revolution of 1917 known?
Answer: The Russian Revolution of 1917 was also known as the October Revolution.

61. Name the original initiator of the ideas of communism.
Answer: Karl Marx (1818-1883), a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist was the original initiator of the ideas of communism.

62. On which issues did the liberals and radicals of 19th century Europe differ?
Answer: The liberals and radicals differed on the issues of property and privileges. Many radicals supported women’s suffragette movements. Unlike liberals, the radicals opposed the privileges of great landowners and wealthy factory owners.

63. Point out the main features of 19th century Europe.
Answer: It was a time of profound social and economic changes in 19th century Europe, when new cities came up and new industrialised regions developed, railways expanded and the Industrial Revolution occurred.

64. Name some important socialists of 19th Century Europe.
Answer: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were important socialists of 19th century Europe

65. Explain the major demands of Lenin’s April Theses’.
Answer: The major demands of Lenin’s ‘April Theses’ were that the war be brought to a close, land be transferred to the peasants and banks be nationalised.

66. Explain the role of Alexander Kerenskii in the Russian Revolution.
Answer:  He became second Prime Minister of the provisional government formed after the February Revolution.

67. What was ‘Cheka’ in Russia after the revolution?
Answer: The Russian Secret Police under Bolshevik rule was referred to by the name ‘Cheka’.

68. Mention the objective of the women’s suffragette movement.
Answer: Its objective was to get the right to vote for women.  

69. The event ‘Bloody Sunday’ was later on called by what name?
Answer: It was called as the 1905 Revolution.

70. Explain the significance of the Russian revolution.
Answer: The major significance of the Russian revolution was the establishment of a socialist state.

71. Who has sought to build a cooperative community called ‘New Harmony’?
Answer: Robert Owen has sought to build a cooperative community called ‘New Harmony.’

72. In which year Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded?
Answer: In 1898 Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded.

73. Name the religion which was followed by most of the people of Russia.
Answer: Russian Orthodox Christianity was followed by most of the people of Russia.

74. Mention the period of civil war in Russia.
Answer: The period of civil war in Russia was 1918-1920.

75. Who led the Bolsheviks in Russia after the division of Socialist Revolution Party?
Answer:  Vladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks in Russia after the division of Socialist Revolutionary party. 

76. What kind of members were incorporated in the Duma under the Tsar in Russia?
Answer: The conservatives were incorporated in the Duma under the Tsar in Russia.

77. Mention the other name of commune in Russia.
Answer: In Russia the commune of farmers was known as ‘Mir’.

78. In the context of Russia who launched the slogan ‘Peace, Land and Bread?
Answer: In the context of Russia Lenin launched this slogan.

79. In the context of Russia what was ‘Kolkhoz?
Answer: Kolkhoz was collective farm in Russia.

80. In the Russian civil war the Bolsheviks and the socialist revolutionaries were represented by which of the following colours? 
Answer: In the Russian civil war the Bolsheviks and the socialist revolutionaries were represented by red and green colours.

81. What was the root of all evils in society, according to socialism?
Answer: Private property was the root of all evils in society, according to socialism. 

82. What was the boundary of the Russian empire during 1914?
Answer: In 1914, besides the territory around Moscow, the Russian empire included current day Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, parts of Poland, Ukraine and Belarus, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. 

83. What was the significance of the Russian Revolution?
Answer: The most significant feature of the Russian revolution was the establishment of a socialist state. 

84. List the religious groups in Russia at the time of Tsar Nicholas II.
Answer: At the time of Tsar Nicholas II, majority of Russians belonged to the Russian Orthodox Christians. Others were Catholics, Protestants, Muslims and Buddhists.

85. What was the April Theses’ of Lenin?
Answer:  In his ‘April Theses’ Lenin declared that the war be brought to a close, land be transferred to the peasants and banks be nationalised. 

86. When did the Bolsheviks make peace with Germany at Brest-Litovsk?
Answer:  In March, 1918, despite opposition by their political allies, the Bolsheviks made peace with Germany at Brest-Litovsk. 

87. When did Lenin persuade the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik party to agree to a socialist seizure of power?
Answer: On 16th October, 1917 Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik party to agree to a socialist seizure of power.

Short Answer Type Questions

1. How the cooperatives were to function, according to Louis Blanc?

Answer: Louis Blanc: He wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprises. He suggested cooperatives in order to guarantee employment for the urban poor. He believed that cooperatives should be formed with the cooperation of the people and its profit should be divided according to the work done by the members. 

2. How did the revolutionaries originate in the year 1815?

Answer: Some nationalists, liberals and radicals wanted revolutions to put an end to the kind of governments established in Europe in 1815. In France, Italy, Germany and Russia, they became revolutionaries and worked to overthrow existing monarchs.

3. Explain the term Conservatives.

Answer: The Conservatives were opposed to any change, i.e. they were opposed to radicals and liberals. By the 19th century, however, they accepted that some change was inevitable, but believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process.

4. What was the boundary of the Russian empire during 1914?

Answer: In 1914, besides the territory around Moscow, the Russian empire included current day Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, parts of Poland, Ukraine and Belarus, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.

5. Who were the Bolsheviks?

Answer: Bolshevism was born at the second congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) in 1903. Bolsheviks were the majority group of workers of Russia. They believed in revolutionary methods for bringing about changes in society and the state. After the October Revolution, Russia became a one-parry state, i.e., the Bolshevik Party, which was renamed as the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik). They changed the whole structure of Russia and Russian Society.

6. Explain the term ‘Mensheviks’.

Answer: Mensheviks were the minority group of the workers of Russia. They believed in parliamentary methods and participation in elections. They thought that the party should be open to all. They favoured parties as were existing in France and Germany, which took part in elections to the legislatures. Whereas the Bolsheviks argued that the working class should lead the revolution in alliance with the peasantry, the Mensheviks envisaged its being led by the bourgeoisie and favoured alliances with the liberals.

7. What was Paris Commune?

Answer: There was a popular uprising in Paris between March and May, 1871. In March, 1871, elections were held in Paris to elect 90 members to serve as the Government of the Commune. The Paris Commune declared that its main purpose was to end exploitation of workers and monopolies. From this commune the concept of ‘Dictatorship of the Proletariat’ emerged. The French Government crushed this uprising ruthlessly. The uprising ended in May

8. What do you mean by the ‘reds’, ‘greens’ and ‘whites’ in the context of Russia?

Answer: Lenin’s New Economic Policy, promulgated by decree on 21st March, 1921, was a temporary retreat from full socialism to partial capitalism for the purpose of rebuilding Russia’s economy. It permitted small businesses to make personal profits, while the state continued to control banks, foreign trade and large industries. Elements of capitalism such as individual profit and private ownership of land were permitted in order to revitalise the Russian economy.

9. Explain the New Economic Policy of Lenin.

Answer: (i) Capitalists are owners of the industries in which they have invested capital. They believe in private property and a class based society. Socialists think that all property and means of production should be socially controlled. They believe in a classless society.
(ii) Capitalists believe that the profit should be enjoyed by the owners of the industry. Socialists believe that the profits are the result of the workers ‘s labour, so the workers deserve to share it.

10. Why did people in Central Asia respond to the Russian Revolution in different ways?

Answer: Although the liberals argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, but they were not ‘democrats’ because
(i) they did not believe in universal adult franchise, i.e., the right of every citizen to vote.
(ii) they felt men of property mainly should have the right to vote.
(iii) they were not in favour of women suffrage.

11. List two differences between the capitalist and socialist ideas of private property.

Answer: The two differences are as follows
(i) The capitalists believed that individuals owned private property whereas the socialists believed that all property belonged to the society as a whole, i.e., to the state.
(ii) The capitalists believed that the profits from the property should belong to the property’s owners, whereas the socialist believed that profits are due to the workers’ labour and so should be shared by them.

12. What was the socialist system?

Answer: Socialists were against private property and felt it to be the root cause of all social ills. They felt that though property provided employment, it gave personal gains to property owners, not to the one who contributed to make the property productive. Socialists wanted that landowners should pay attention to collective interest, rather than their own personal interest. 

13. Describe the visions of Robert Owen and Louis Blanc.

Answer: (i) Robert Owen: He wanted to form a cooperative community called ‘New Harmony’, in Indiana. He felt that the government should also support such cooperatives and encourage them.
(ii) Louis Blanc: He wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprises. He believed that cooperatives should be formed with the cooperation of the people and its profit should be divided according to the work done by members. 

14. How were socialist parties formed in various parts of the world?

Answer: Workers in England and Germany began forming workers associations, for a better living and working conditions. In Germany, these associations worked closely with the ‘Social Democratic Party’ and helped it win the parliament seats. They set up funds to help members in times of distress. In 1905, socialists and trade unionists formed a ‘Labour Party’ in Britain and ‘Socialist Party’ in France. 

15. What were the main causes of the 1905 Revolution?

Answer: Main causes were:
(i) Russia was an autocracy and its ruler was not subject to the parliament.
(ii) Prices of essential goods rose rapidly and real wages declined by 20%.
(iii) About 10,000 workers in St Petersburg went on a strike demanding a reduction in the working hours, increase in wages and improvement in the working conditions.
(iv) Finally, the ‘Bloody Sunday’ incident at Winter Palace provoked the Russians to start the 1905 Revolution against the Tsar. 

16. What was the Duma? How far was it successful?

Answer: Duma was an elected legislative body like the parliament having representatives of the third estate. The Tsar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days and the re-elected Second Duma within three months. He did not want any restrictions or reductions in his powers. He changed the voting laws and packed the Third Duma with the conservative politicians and liberals and revolutionaries were out. 

17. What was the impact of World War I on the Russian economy?

Answer: Industrial equipment disintegrated more rapidly in Russia than any other European country. By 1916, railway lines began to break down and all able-bodied men were called up to the war. As a result, there were labour shortages and small workshops producing essential goods were shut down. Since more ration was sent for the army, there was shortage of bread for the civilians. By the winter of 1916, riots at bread shops were common. 

18. What were the three major demands of the Bolsheviks?

Answer: In April 1917, the Bolshevik leader, Lenin returned to Russia from exile. He and other Bolshevik leaders opposed the war. So he put forward three demands, called as Lenin’s ‘April Theses’.
(i) The war to be brought to an end and Russia should withdraw itself from the war.
(ii) Land to be transferred to the peasants, thus feudalism to be banned.
(iii) Banks be nationalised. 

19. How did the Mensheviks resist the protest of the Bolsheviks?

Answer: In industries, committees were formed to question the industrialists about the way they ran the factories. Trade unions were formed and soldiers’ committees were formed in the army. In June, about 500 Soviets sent representatives to an All Russian Congress of Soviets. As the Provisional Government saw the grip of the Bolsheviks becoming stronger, they decided to take stern measures against the spreading discontent. 

20. What were the causes of the civil war between the Bolsheviks and the Russian army of the Non-Bolsheyik socialists?

Answer: When Bolsheviks ordered land distribution, the Russian army began to break up. Non-Bolshevik socialists, liberals and supporters of autocracy condemned this. Their leaders moved to South Russia and organised troops to fight the Bolsheviks. These troops and Bolsheviks fought a civil war; and looting, banditry and famine became common. 

21. What was the impact of Stalin’s ‘Reign of Terror’? 

Answer: There was criticism on the consequences of collectivisation of farms. Stalin and his supporters charged these critics with conspiracy against socialism. With the result, over two million people were either in prison or labour camps. A large number of them were forced to make false confessions under torture and were executed. Several punished people were talented professionally and were brought with false allegations 

22. What was the impact of industrial society on the social life of the people?

Answer: (i) Industrialisation brought men, women and children to factories.
(ii) Work hours were often long and wages were poor.
(iii) Unemployment was common, particularly during times of low demand for industrial goods.
(iv) Housing and sanitation were problems since towns were growing rapidly.
(v) Liberals and radicals searched for solutions to these issues.      

23. What social changes can be seen in society after industrialisation?

Answer: (i) Industrialisation brought men, women and children to factories.
(ii) Work hours were often long and wages were poor.
(iii) Housing and sanitation problems were growing rapidly.
(iv) Almost all industries were properties of individuals.
(v) Many liberals and radicals themselves were often property owners and employers.
(vi) So, it was the time when new cities came up and new industrial regions developed, railways expanded and the Industrial Revolution happened.

Long Answer Type Questions

1. Who were the socialists in 19th century Europe? What kind of society did they envisage?

Answer: Socialists were against private property and saw it as a root of all social evils. They believed in the idea of cooperatives. In cooperatives people made associations and produced goods together. The profits of the business were divided among all members of the association. However, different socialists had different views regarding how the cooperatives were to be built. Robert Owen, one of the founders of socialism, suggested that cooperatives be built on individual initiative. Other socialists like Louis Blanc wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprises.

2. What was Bloody Sunday? Or Describe the incident known as ‘Bloody Sunday’? State any two events after the Bloody Sunday which led to the revolution of 1905 in Russia.

Answer: On Sunday, 22nd January, 1905, the workers of Russia, led by Father Gapon, reached the winter palace of the Tsar to present a petition. But they were fired at indiscriminately by police and the cossacks resulting in the death of more than 100 workers with 300 workers wounded. This started a series of events that became known as the 1905 revolution. This incident is known as ‘Bloody Sunday’ in Russian history.
(i) The news provoked unprecedented disturbances throughout Russia. Strike took place all over the country.
(ii) The Universities of Russia were closed down when student bodies staged walkouts, complaining about the lack of civil liberties.
(iii) Lawyers, doctors, engineers, middle class workers established Union of Unions and demanded a constituent assembly.

3. What was the Duma? How far was it successful?

Answer: The Tsar of Russia allowed the creation of an elected consultative Parliament which was known as Duma. Duma had representatives from the third estate. The Tsar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days and the re-elected a second Duma within three months. He did not want any questioning of his authority. He changed the voting laws and packed the third Duma with conservative politicians.

In Russia, the ‘reds’ meant Bolsheviks, the ‘greens’ meant socialist revolutionaries and the ‘whites’ meant pro-Tsarists. The Bolsheviks were the majority group of workers under the leadership of Lenin. During 1918 and 1919, the ‘greens’ (Socialist Revolutionaries) and the ‘whites’ (pro-Tsarists) controlled most of the Russian empire. They were backed by French, American, British and Japanese troops who were opposed to the growth of socialism in Russia.

4. List two differences between the capitalist and socialist ideas of private property.

Answer: The Bolsheviks controlled most of the former Russian empire by January 1920. People in Central Asia responded positively and with enthusiasm to the February Revolution of 1917 because the revolution freed them from the oppression of the Tsar’s regime and strengthened their hopes for autonomy. But they responded with fear to the October Revolution of 1917, because the autocracy of the Tsar was replaced by the autocracy of Bolsheviks. In Khiva in central Asia, Bolshevik colonists brutally massacred local nationalists in the name of defending socialism. In this situation, people in central Asia were confused about the real nature of the Bolshevik Government.

5. ‘Liberals of European states were not democratic’. Justify the statement by giving three examples.

Answer: Karl Marx’s theories were central to the party ideology of Lenin’s Bolsheviks and had a key role to play in 1917 revolution and the establishment of the Russian communist state. Marx believed that all historical changes was caused by a series of class struggles between the bourgeoisie ‘haves’ and the proletariat ‘have nots’. Vladimir Lenin was majorly influenced by Marx’s writings. Karl Marx said that industrial society was capitalist under which workers did not get their share properly. He wanted the whole society to have the common control over the means of productions i.e., all production units should be nationalised. He thought that capitalism could be voted out only through revolution. Marx’s idea deeply influenced Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution and they followed it whole heartedly.

6. What was the contribution of Karl Marx in beginning about the Russian Revolution of 1917?

Answer: The First World War had a severe impact on Russian industry.
(i) Russia’s own industries were few in numbers and the country was also cut off from other suppliers of industrial goods by German control of the Baltic sea.
(ii) Industrial equipment disintegrated more rapidly in Russia than any other country in Europe.
(iii) By 1916, railway lines began to breakdown.
(iv) Able-bodied men were called up to the war and as a result there were labour shortages and small workshops producing essentials were shut down.
(v) Large supplies of grains were sent to feed army, bread and flour became scarce and riots at bread shop became common incident.

7. Explain any three effects of the First World War on the industries in Russia. Or State any three effects of the First World War on the Russian Economy.

Answer: (i) At the beginning of 20th century in Russia most industry was owned by industrialists.
(ii) Government supervised large factories to ensure minimum wages and time of working hours.
(iii) In crafts units and small workshops sometimes like working hours were 15 hours, compared with 10 or 12 hours in big factories.
(iv) Workers were divided into different social groups and they were also divided by skill.
(v) Women consisted of 31 percent of the factory labour force. The wages of a female worker was less than a male worker.
(vi) Some workers formed associations to help other workers in times of hardship.

8. Describe the conditions of the workers under Tsar in Russia? 
Or 
Describe any three points regarding the condition of workers in Russia in the beginning of the 20th century. Or Explain the condition of workers in Russia before 1917.

Answer: In Russia, the nobility, the crown and Orthodox Church owned large landed properties.
(i) Unlike the peasants of France, the Russian peasants did not have any respect for the nobles.
(ii) In Russia, the peasants wanted the land of the nobles and sometimes they refused to pay rent. Even the peasants murdered the landlords.
(iii) In 1902, peasant agitation occurred on a large scale in South Russia and in 1905 it spread all over Russia.
(iv) Russian peasants were different from the other European peasants. Sometimes they pooled their land together.
(v) Peasants established commune (mir) which divided the land according to the needs of the individual family.

9. Discuss the relationship between peasants and nobles in Russia during early 19th century.

Answer: At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian people were mainly agriculturists. About 85 per cent of the Russian population was agriculturists which is higher than other European countries.
(i) Industry in Russia was developed in some pockets like St Petersburg and Moscow. Large factories existed alongside craft workshops.
(ii) Many factories were setup in the 1890s. The reason behind it was the extension of railway network and the increase of foreign investment.
(iii) Coal production doubled and iron and steel output quadrupled at that time.
(iv) Most industries were owned by industrialist, but government supervised the wage scale and timing of the factories.

10. Describe the economic condition of Russia before 1905.

Answer: (i) In Russia the war was initially popular and the policies of Tsar Nicholas II were supported by the people.
(ii) The First World War on the ‘Eastern front’ differed from that on the ‘Western front’. In the West, armies fought from trenches, but in the East, armies moved a good deal and fought battles leaving large casualties.
(iii) Russia’s army lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916. There were over 7 million casualties by 1917.
(iv) As the German armies moved forward, the Russian army destroyed crops and building to prevent the enemy to enter easily.
(v) The situation discredited the Russian government and Tsar.
(vi) The Russian Soldier did not wish to First Such a War. 

11. What was the condition of Russia during the First World War?

Answer: In March 1917, Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed provisional government to run the country. Lenin and Bolshevik party thought that the time wars not ripe for socialist revolution and the Provisional government needed to be supported.

(i) In the meantime Bolshevik influence grow and the Provisional government saw its power reduce. So it decided to take stern measures against the spreading discontent. 
(ii) Peasants and their socialist leader wanted a redistribution of land which could not be fulfilled by the government.
(iii) This government could not succeed to control over industry by the workers.
(iv) But it resisted attempts by workers to run factories.
(v) This government began arresting the leaders and the popular demonstrations staged by the Bolsheviks were repressed.   

12. What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905?

Answer: Social Conditions Russian society was divided into three classes, the clergy, nobility and the working class. Serfdom was abolished in 1861, but the peasants, who constituted 85 percent of the population, had to pay heavy taxes for small holdings. Economic Conditions After industrialisation, many factories were set-up by industrialists. The wages were minimum and the working hours were sometimes 15 hours. The condition of the workers was miserable. The state treasury was bankrupt due to heavy expenditure. Political Conditions Under the autocratic rule of Tsar Nicholas II, the Russian empire was vast and feudal. The disastrous defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 had eroded the prestige of Tsar Nicholas II. 

13. In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917? Or Explain any five differences between the peasants of Russia and peasants of Europe.

Answer: Working population of Russia was different from other European countries in the following ways
(i) About 85 percent of Russians were agriculturists. In France and Germany, the farmers were between 40 per cent to 50 per cent.
(ii) Industrialisation started late in Russia and industries were only found in small pockets.
(iii) Workers were a divided social group and maintained strong links with the villages they come from. In Europe, the industrial revolution changed a mainly rural society into an urban one.
(iv) In Russia sometimes the working hours for workers were 15 hours, compared with 10 or 12 hours in Europe.
(v) Unlike European peasants, Russian peasants had no respect for nobles and some even tried to grab the land of nobles. 

14. Describe the main events of the October Revolution in Russia.

Answer:  The main events of the October Revolution in Russia were 

(a) On 16th October, 1917, Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik party to agree to seizure of power. A military Revolutionary committee was appointed under the leadership of Leon Trotskii. 

(b) The uprising began on October 24, when pro-government troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace. In a swift response, the Military Revolutionary Committee ordered its supporters to seize government offices and arrest ministers. 

(c) The city was under the committee’s control and the ministers had surrendered. Uprisings took place in other cities also. By December, the Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow Petrograd area. 

15. What was the Communist International?

Answer: After the First World War, the Communist International was organised in 1919 on the lines of the First International (1864-76) and the Second International (1889-1914). It was founded in Moscow in March, 1919 on the initiative of the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution in Russia and at a time of revolutionary upsurge in central Europe. It is also called the Third International. Its main objectives were to establish unity among the workers of the world, to fix their daily hours of work, to oppose imperialism and colonialism, to oppose oppression and wars, to promote revolution, etc. Under its guidance, various communist parties were formed in many countries of the world. The Communist International was dissolved in June, 1943. 

16. What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?

Answer:  The main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution were
(i) The Bolsheviks were totally opposed to private properties; thus most of industry and banks were nationalised.
(ii) Lands  of  the clergy and nobility were confiscated and land was declared state property.
(iii) In cities, the large houses were partitioned to accommodate other families.
(iv) The use of old titles of aristocracy was banned.
(v) To assert the social change, new uniforms, e.g.. Soviet hat, were designed for the army and the officials.
(vi) The Bolshevik party renamed itself as the Russian Communist Party,  Russia became a one-party state. All Russian Congress of Soviets became the Parliament of the country. 

17. Why were there revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905? What were the demands of the revolutionaries?

Answer: (a) The causes of the revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905 were
(i) Russia’s defeat in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904 due to the poorly organised Russian army.
(ii) The prices of essential commodities rose so that real wages declined by 20 per cent 
(iii) Workers were dismissed at the Petiole Iron Works.
(iv) The procession of workers led by Father Gapon reached the Winter Palace where it was attacked by the police. In this incident 100 workers were killed and 300 wounded. This is known as ‘Bloody Sunday’ which finally led to revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905. 

(b) The revolutionaries demanded a reduction in daily working hours to eight, increase in wages and improvement in working conditions.

18. Explain the views of socialist on private property. Name the international body set-up to spread and coordinate their efforts. Or Explain the views of the socialists on private property with special emphasis on Karl Marx. Name the International body setup to spread and coordinate their efforts.

Answer: (i) Socialists were against private property. They saw it as the root of all social evils.
(ii) Socialists favored society as a whole rather than single individually owned property, more attention would be  paid to collective social interests.
(iii) Marx said that in capitalism, factories were owned by the capitalists and the profit of capitalists was produced by workers.
(iv) But the workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property.
(v) Marx suggested that to free themselves from the capitalist exploitation, the workers had to the construct a radically socialist society. In a socialist society, all property was socially controlled.
(vi) Marx believed that workers would triumph in their conflict with capitalists and there should be ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’. This communist society is the natural society of the future. To coordinate their efforts, Socialists formed the international body, viz, the ‘Second International.’  

19. Describe the circumstances which were responsible for the Russian Revolution?
Or
Explain any five causes leading to the outbreak of Russian Revolution.
Or 
Highlight the social and political conditions that led to Russian Revolution?

Answer: The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolution in Russia in 1917. The Emperor was forced to abdicate and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917. In the second revolution, during October, the provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik government.

The main circumstances which were responsible for the Russian Revolution are
(i) Russia’s own industries were few in numbers and the industrial workers were exploited extremely.
(ii) In Russia 85 per cent of people were agriculturists. The king nobles and church owned large landed properties. Like the industrial workers, peasants also lived in miserable conditions.
(iii) Russia had an autocracy. Tsar Nicholas II was a deeply conservative ruler and maintained a strict authoritarian system. He cared little for the general people. He dragged the Russian into the First World War.
(iv) Karl Marx’s theory communism appealed to the people. He said that workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of capitalists by the revolution.
(v) The popularity of Bolshevik party increased steadily under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin.  
The   Bolsheviks   had   formed committees   and  Soviets  and  created conditions which eventually led to the Russian Revolution. 

20. Mention the values which are associated with Stalin’s collectivization programme. Mention three values.

Answer: By 1927 -1928, the towns in Soviet Russia were facing an acute problem of grain supplies. Stalin introduced collectivization programme. From 1929, the communist party forced all peasants to cultivate in collective farms (Kolkhoz). The bulk of land and implements were transferred to the ownership of collective farm. It was possible by eliminating the class of ‘kulaks’ well to do or rich farmers of Russia.

The values which are associated with Stalin’s collectivization programme are as follows
(i) Promotion of State controlled large farms to increase production and solved the problem of grain scarcity.
(ii) Transfer of Ownership of Land took away land from peasants and established the collective farm, the state controlled large farms.
(iii) Elimination of a Social Class eliminated ‘kulaks’ the well to do peasants of Russia. 

21. What were the impacts of the Russian Revolution in Russia? Or Explain any five effects of the Russian Revolution of 1917 over Russia? 

Answer: (i) The Russian Revolution put an end to the autocratic Tsarist rule in Russia. It abolished the Romanov dynasty.
(ii) It led to the establishment of world’s first communist/socialist government.
(iii) The new Soviet Government announced its with drawl from the First World War.
(iv) The socialist government announced the nationalization of all industries, private lands. Banks, mines, railways, telephones, etc. These were declared as state’s property.
(v) Planned economic development started at the time of Stalin. Collectivization of agriculture was introduced by Stalin. From 1929, the party forced all peasants to cultivate in collective farms.
(vi) Planned economy soon turned the USSR into a powerful industrial nation by the Second World War. Poverty began disappearing from Russia. With the outbreak of World War II, USSR had given socialism a global face.

22. Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?

Answer: The Tsarist autocracy collapsed in 1917 due to social, economic and political reasons. Social Reasons In the First World War the defeat of the Russian army was shocking and demoralising. There were over 7 million casualties, and 3 million refugees by 1917. The rest of the population became hostile to the Tsar. Economic Reasons There were labour shortages due to the participation of able-bodied men in the war which led to the shutdown of many small factories. Moreover, large quantities of grain were sent to feed the army. For the people in cities, bread and flour became expensive and scarce. This scarcity led to riots at bread shops. People became very dissatisfied with the policies of the Tsar.

Political Reasons Tsar Nicholas II was an autocratic, inefficient, weak ruler who believed in the Divine Rights of the king. The bureaucracy got special rights and privileges, but the general public got none. Moreover the Tsar had built a vast empire and imposed Russian language and culture on diverse nationalities. A large section of the Russian empire became hostile to the Tsar and his corrupt bureaucracy. All these factors led to discredit of the government and brought about the end of Tsarist autocracy. 

23. Why were there revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905? What were the demands of revolutionaries?

Answer: The causes of the revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905 were
(i) Due to Russia’s defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, prices of essential goods rose dramatically, so that real wages declined by 20 per cent.
(ii) At the Putilov Iron Works, dismissal of some workers caused a strike. During the subsequent events, a procession of workers was attacked by police in which 100 workers died. This was known as ‘Bloody Sunday’.
(iii) Subsequently, strikes took place all over the country, resulting in the creation of an elected Parliament or Duma. The revolutionaries demanded a reduction in daily working hours to eight, increase in wages and improvement in working conditions. 

24. Differentiate between the ideas of liberals, radicals and conservatives.

Answer: (i) Liberals: They believed in changing the society. They wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against government. However, they thought that only propertied men should have the right to vote. They also did not want women to vote.
(ii) Radicals: In contrast, they believed in the rule of majority of the country’s population. They opposed the privileges of the landowners and factory owners and supported women’s right to vote.
(iii) Conservatives: They opposed both the liberals and radicals. Earlier they opposed any kind of change but by the nineteenth century, they accepted the change but believed that the past has to be respected and change had to be brought through a slow process. 

25. Who was father Gapon? Narrate the events leading to the ‘Bloody Sunday’ incident and the 1905 Revolution.

Answer: Father Gapon was the leader of the procession of workers who marched towards the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. Events:
(i) When this procession of workers reached the Winter Palace, it was attacked by the police.
(ii) Over a hundred workers were killed and about three hundred wounded.
(iii) This incident known as the ‘Bloody Sunday’ started a series of events leading to the 1905 Revolution.
(iv) Strikes took place, universities closed down and student bodies staged walkouts.
(v) Lawyers, doctors and engineers and other middle class workers formed unions and demanded constituent assembly. 

26. Who was Karl Marx? What was his theory of socialism?

Answer: Karl Marx was a communist who introduced the concept of socialism. Karl Marx’s Theory:
(i) He felt that the industrial society belonged to the capitalists.
(ii) Capitalists owned the capital invested in industries, but the profit was produced by workers.
(iii) He believed that the condition of workers would never improve, as long as profit is taken by the capitalists.
(iv) Marx believed that to free themselves from the capitalists’ exploitation, workers had to form a socialist society where all property was socially controlled. This would be a communist society. 

27. What were the main causes of the Russian Revolution?

Answer: Main causes were:
(i) Autocratic rule of Tsars: In 1914, the Russian emperor was Tsar Nicholas II. He fought a number of wars to expand his empire in the north and west in Europe. He has borne the expenditure of war by taxing the common people of Russia.

(ii) Conditions of peasants: Majority of the Russians were agriculturalists. Major part of the land was owned by nobles and clergy and these peasants worked as farmers on daily wages. They were paid less and worked more and sometimes under debt, they were not even paid wages.

(iii) Status of industries: Industry was found in pockets. Prominent industrial areas were St. Petersburg and Moscow. Craftsmen undertook much of the production, but large factories existed alongside crafts workshops. Foreign investment in industries increased with the extension of Russia’s railway network.

(iv) Conditions of workers in the industries: Most industries were owned by private industrialists. Though the government supervised factories’ working hours and wages of the workers, but still rules were broken. Women workers were also paid less than men. Some workers formed associations to help members in times of unemployment and financial hardships.

(v) Formation of socialist parties: All political parties were illegal in Russia before 1914. The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded in 1898 by socialists, who respected Marxist ideas. But because of government policies, it had to operate secretly as an illegal organisation. It set up a newspaper, mobilized workers and organised strikes.

28. Describe the history of the Socialist Movement in Russia.

Answer: In 1898, the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was formed on the lines of Karl Marx. Some socialists formed the Socialists Revolutionary Party in 1900, to struggle for peasants rights and demanded that land belonging to nobles be transferred to peasants. Lenin felt that these were peasants who were poor as well as rich, so they could not all be a part of the socialist movement. Lenin, who formed the Bolshevik group felt that in a society like Tsarist Russia, party should be disciplined and should control its members number and quality, whereas Mensheviks thought that the party should be open to all. The party was divided over the strategy of organisation, Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. Bolsheviks were led by Lenin and Mensheviks by Kerensky. 

29. Describe the condition of Russia during World War I.

Answer: In Russia, the war was initially popular and people agreed to Tsar Nicholas’ policies. The First World War on the eastern front differed from western front. In the west, armies fought from trenches along eastern France. In the east, armies fought battles with large casualties. Defeats were shocking and demoralising. As German armies further moved, the Russian army destroyed crops and buildings to prevent the enemy to enter easily. Destruction of crops and buildings led to over three million refugees in Russia. The situation discredited the government of the Tsar. Even soldiers did not like to fight such a war.

30. State the main events leading to the February Revolution in Petrograd.

Answer: All the workers’ quarters and factories were located on the right bank of the river Neva. On the left bank were the fashionable areas, the Winter Palace, official buildings and the palace where Duma met. In February 1917, there was severe food shortage in workers’ quarters. On 22 February, a lockout took place at a factory leading to a strike by the workers. In other factories also, workers went on strikes and women led the way to the strikes. This came to be called, ‘The International Women’s Day’. The workers ultimately crossed the river and surrounded the official buildings in protest. The government imposed a curfew and called out the cavalry and police to keep a check on them. 

31. How was the February Revolution able to bring down the monarchy in Russia?

Answer: On Sunday the 25 February, the government suspended the Duma. Demonstrations returned back on the streets of the left bank. People raised slogans about bread, wages, better hours and democracy. The government tried to control the situation by calling the army but the cavalry refused to fire at the  demonstrators. Now soldiers also joined workers and had all gathered to form a Council called the ‘Soviet’. This was the Petrograd Soviet. The very next day, a delegation went to see the Tsar and advised him to accept defeat. He decided to abdicate on 2 March and the Soviet leaders and the Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government. New Russia’s future would be decided by the Constituent Assembly, elected on the  basis of universal adult franchise. Petrograd had led the February Revolution that brought down the monarchy in February 1917. 

32. Which events led to the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia?

Answer: (i) A conflict grew between the Provisional Government and the Bolsheviks as Lenin feared that the Provisional Government may set up a dictatorship.
(ii) On 16 October 1917, Lenin persuaded them to accept socialists’ power and appointed a Military Revolutionary Committee under Leon Trotskii to organise the seizure.
(iii) The uprising began on 24 October and Kerenskii, the Prime Minister left the city to call troops.
(iv) In a swift response, the Military Revolutionary Committee ordered its supporters to seize government offices and arrest ministers.
(v) By nightfall, the city was under the Committee’s control and the ministers had surrendered.
(vi) Uprisings took place in other cities. There was heavy fighting but by December, the Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow-Petrograd area.

33. What changes were brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?

Answer: (i) Bolsheviks were totally opposed to private property.
(ii) Most industry and banks were nationalised in November 1917. This meant that the government took over ownership and management.
(iii) Land was declared a social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility.
(iv) In cities, they enforced the partition of large houses according to family requirements.
(v) They banned the use of the old titles of aristocracy.
(vi) The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party. 

34. What do you know about Stalin’s Collectivisation Programme?

Answer: From 1929, the party forced all peasants to cultivate in collective farms. The bulk of land and implements were transferred to the ownership of collective farms. Peasants worked on the land and the profit was shared. Enraged peasants resisted the authorities and destroyed their livestock. Those who resisted the collectivisation were severely punished. Many were deported and exiled. As they resisted collectivisation, peasants argued that they were not rich and they were not against socialism. Stalin’s government allowed some independent cultivation but treated such cultivators unsympathetically. 

35. What were the views of liberals about the transformation of society in the 18th century?

Answer: Views of liberals: (i) Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions.
(ii) They also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers.
(iii) They wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against governments.
(iv) They argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials.
(v) However, they did not believe in universal adult franchise. They felt men who own property mainly should have the vote. They also did not want the vote for women. 

36. What were the effects of the Russian Revolution on the world? 

Answer: (i) In many countries, communist parties were formed?like the Communist Party of Great Britain.
(ii) The Bolsheviks encouraged colonial people to fight for their independence.
(iii) Many Non-Russians from outside the USSR participated in the conferences held by socialists and the Bolshevik-founded Comintern (a Communists International).
(iv) Some received education in the USSR’s Communist University of the Workers of the East.
(v) With the outbreak of World War II, the USSR had given socialism a global face and world stature.    

37. Why the period after the success of French Revolution can be called the age of social change?

Answer: (i) The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a dramatic change in the way in which society was structured.    
(ii) Before the 18th century society was broadly divided into estates  and orders and it was the aristocracy and church which controlled  economic and social power.
(iii) Suddenly, after the revolution, it seemed possible to change this. In many parts of the world including Europe and Asia, new ideas  about individual rights and who controlled social power began to  be discussed.
(iv) In India, Raja Rammohan Roy and Derozio talked of the significance of the French Revolution and many others debated the ideas of post-revolutionary Europe.
(v) The developments in the colonies, in turn, reshaped these ideas of societal change. 

38. “World War I left Russia in such a situation that it led to February revolution in Petrograd.” Do you agree?

Answer: (i) In World War I, Russian defeats were shocking and demoralising, Russia’s army lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916.              
(ii) As they retreated, the Russian army destroyed crops and  buildings to prevent the enemy from being able to live off  the land. The destruction of crops and buildings led to over 3 million refugees in Russia.                                  
(iii) The war had a severe impact on industry. Russia’s own industries were few in number and the country was cut off from other  suppliers of industrial goods by German control of the Baltic Sea.
(iv) Industrial equipment disintegrated more rapidly in Russia than elsewhere in Europe. By 1916, railway lines began to break down.
(v) Able-bodied men were called up to the war. As a result, there was labour shortage and small workshops producing essentials were shut down.
(vi) Large supplies of grain were sent to fed the army. For the people in the cities, bread and flour became scarce. By the winter of 1916, riots at bread shops were common.
(vii) In the winter of 1917, conditions in the capital, Petrograd, were grim. In February 1917, food shortages were deeply felt in the workers quarters, leading to lockouts and about fifty factories called a strike. 

39. What was the global influence of Russian Revolution? 

Answer: (i) In many countries, communist parties were formed like the  Communist Party of Great Britain.                
(ii) The Bolsheviks encouraged colonial people to follow their experiment of taking power.
(iii) Many non-Russians from outside the USSR participated in the Conference of the People of East and the Bolshevik-founded Comintern (an international union of pro-Bolshevik socialist parties).
(iv) Some received education in USSR’s Communist University of the Workers of the East.
(v) By the time of the outbreak of the Second World War, the USSR had given socialism a global face and world stature.

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