Extra Questions for Class 9 History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism

Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism extra questions and answers available here in PDF format. Solving class 9 extra questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions with PDF as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising these questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.

Class 9 History Chapter 4 extra Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Questions

1. What is meant by ‘deforestation’?

Answer: Cutting down of forests is referred to as deforestation. 

2. Which commercial crops were grown by British after deforestation?

Answer:Jute, sugar, wheat and cotton were the commercial crops grown by the British in India to feed the growing population of Europe. 

3. Why were forests considered unproductive by the British?

Answer: They considered them to be wild and wasteful. Needs to be ‘brought under cultivation so that the land could yield agricultural products and reverse and enhance the income of the state. 

4. How could English ships be built without a regular supply of strong and durable timber?

Answer:(i) Search parties of Great Britain were sent to explore the forest regions of India. (ii) Within a decade, trees were being felled on a massive scale and vast quantities of timber were being exported from India. 

5. How spread of railways created a new demand for timber?

Answer: To run locomotives, wood was needed as fuel and to Jay railway lines, sleepers were essential to hold the tracks together. Also, wood was used in the interior of the railway coaches.

6. Who was the first Inspector General of Forests in India?

Answer: A German Forest Expert, Dietrich Brandis was the first Inspector General of Forests in India.

7. Name the forest Institute of Dehradun set up in 1906 by Brandis.

Answer: The Imperial Forest Research Institute. 

8. What does ‘Scientific Forestry’ mean?

Answer: (i) Natural Forests which had lots of different types of trees were cut down.
(ii) In their place one type of tree was planted in straight rows, called as plantation. This is known as scientific forestry. 

9. Name the three categories of forests as mentioned in the Act of 1878.

Answer: Three categories were: Reserved, Protected and Village Forests. 

10 Which species of trees were promoted for the building of ships or railways?

Answer: Teak and Sal species were promoted for the building of ships or railways. 

11. From which fruit was oil extracted for cooking and lighting lamps?

Answer:  Fruit of the Mahua tree. 

12. What was the use of a dried scooped out gourd?

Answer: It was used as portable water bottle.

13. What was the effect of Forest Act on the people living nearby?

Answer: People were now forced to steal wood from the forests, and if they were caught, they were at the mercy of the forest guards who would take bribes from them. 

14. What do you mean by Swidden Agriculture?

Answer: (i) It is a traditional agricultural practice in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America. It is also called shifting cultivation.
(ii) A piece of land is cleared and cultivation is practiced. When it lost fertility, they used to shift to the other forest covered area. 

15. What kind of mixture of crops were grown in these plots of forests?

Answer: In Central India and Africa it would be millets, in Brazil manioc, and in other parts of Latin America maize and beans. 

16. How did new forest laws affect the hunter forest dwellers?

Answer: (i) Many people who lived in or near forest had survived by hunting deer, partridges and a variety of small animals. (ii) This customary practice was prohibited by the forest laws. Those caught hunting were now punished for poaching. 

17. How many tigers were killed by British administrator George Yule?

Answer: George Yule killed 400 tigers. 

18. Give one example of a community which had left their traditional occupations and started trading in forest products.

Answer: With the growing demand for rubber in the mid nineteenth century, the Mundurucu people of Brazilian Amazon who lived in villages on high ground and cultivated manioc, began to collect latex from wild rubber trees for supplying to traders. 

19. What kind of products did nomadic communities of India like Banjaras trade in?

Answer: Elephants, hides, horns, silk cocoons, ivory, bamboo, spices, fibres, grasses, gums and resins, etc were the products traded by Banjara communities. 

20. What were ‘Criminal tribes’ forced to do by the British?

Answer: They were forced to work instead in factories, mines and plantations under British supervision. 

21. Which tribes of India were recruited to work on tea plantations?

Answer: Santhals and Oraons from Jharkhand and Gonds from Chhattisgarh were recruited to work on tea plantations. 

22. Name the river which flows across Bastar from east to west.

Answer: River Indrawati. 

23. Name the communities living in Bastar.

Answer: Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatsas and Halbas are the communities living in Bastar. 

24. Where is Bastar located?

Answer: Bastar is located in the southernmost part of Chhattisgarh and it borders Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Maharashtra. 

25. If people from a village of Bastar want to take wood from the forest of another village, what would they do?

Answer: They would pay a small fee called devsari, daud or man in exchange of the wood taken from the forest of another village. 

26. Who were ‘forest villager’?

Answer: Some villagers of Bastar were allowed to stay on in the reserved forests on the condition that they worked free for the forest department in cutting and transporting trees and protecting the forests from fires. These villagers came to be known as ‘forest villagers’. 

27. Name the leader who rebelled against the British.

Answer: Gunda Dhur from village Nethanar. 

28. Where is Java located?

Answer: Java is a rice – producing island in Indonesia. 

29. Which colonial power ruled over Indonesia?

Answer: The Dutch from Belgium. 

30. Which community of Java were skilled forest cutters and shifting cultivators?

Answer: Kalangs of Java. 

31. What restrictions were imposed by the Dutch in Java forest laws?

Answer: (i) The Java people were not allowed to graze their cattle
(ii) The Java people could not transport wood without permit
(iii) The Java people were not allowed to travel on forest roads with horse carts or cattle. 

32. Who was Swrontiko Samin?

Answer: He was from Randublatung village of Java who began questioning state ownership of the forests.

33. When was the Indian Forest Service set up?

Answer: The Indian Forest Service was set up in 1864

34. How much India’s landmass was under cultivation in 1600?

Answer: One-sixth of India’s landmass was under cultivation in 1600.

35. Which Act was passed in 1865?

Answer: Indian Forest Act was passed in 1865. 

36. What do you mean by deforestation?

Answer: The disappearance of forests is referred to as deforestation. 

37. Where was the Imperial Forest Research Institute set up in 1906?

Answer: The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up in 1906 in Dehradun. 

38. How many tigers were killed between 1875-1925?

Answer: Over 80000 tigers were killed between 1875-1925. 

39. Which colonial power ruled Java?

Answer: Java was ruled by the Dutch. 

40. Where is Bastar located?

Answer: Bastar is located in the Southernmost part of Chhattisgarh and borders of Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Maharashtra. 

41. Which country occupied Indonesia during the Second World War?

Answer: During the Second World War, Japan occupied Indonesia. 

42. How many sleepers were required for each mile of railway track?

Answer: Each mile at railway track required between 1760 to 2000 sleepers. 

43. What is scientific forestry?

Answer: Scientific forestry means natural forests which had lots of different types of trees were cut down and in their place, one type of tree was planted in straight rows. 

44. Who was the community of skilled forests cutters and shifting cultivators in Java?

Answer: The Kalangs of Java were a community of skilled forest cutters and shifting cultivators. 

45. Who was the leader of rebel foresters in Andhra Pradesh?

Answer: Alluri Sita Rama Raju was the leader at rebel foresters in Andhra Pradesh. 

46. Which species of trees are suited for building ships and railways?

Answer: Teak and Sal trees are suited for building ships and railways. 

47. From which tree, latex can be collected?

Answer: Latex can be collected from a rubber tree. 

48. Where the Blandongdiensten System was introduced?

Answer: The Blandongdiensten System was introduced in Java by the colonial power Dutch to control the forest land. 

49. What is the local name of shifting cultivation of South-East Asia?

Answer: Lading is the local name of shifting cultivation of South-East Asia. 

50. Name some Indian communities who live in Bastar.

Answer: A number of different communities live in Bastar such as Maria, Muria Gonds, Dhurwar, Bhatras and Halbas. 

51. Who was the leader of the Forest Revolt in Bastar?

Answer: Gunda Dhur was the leader of the Forest Revolt in Bastar. 

52. For which product is Java famous?

Answer: Java is famous as a rice-producing island in Indonesia. 

53. Who was the first Inspector-General of forests in India?

Answer: Dietrich Brandis was the first Inspector-General of Forests in India. 

54. Which transport system was most essential for colonial trade and movement of goods?

Answer: Railways were most essential for colonial trade and movement of goods.

55. How was Siadi creeper used for?

Answer: Siadi creeper was used to make ropes. 

56. Which trees were promoted for building ships or railways by the colonial government?

Answer: Teak and Sal trees were promoted for building ships or railways by the colonial government. 

57. What were the wooden planks laid down across railway tracks to hold tracks in a position called?

Answer: The wooden planks laid down across railway tracks to hold tracks in a position is called sleepers. 

58. Which forest community of Central India sent a petition against stopping of shifting cultivation in 1892?

Answer: Baigas are a forest community of Central India who sent a petition against stopping of shifting cultivation in 1892. 

59. Which river flows across Bastar from East to West?

Answer: The river Indrawati flows across Bastar from East to West. 

70. Name the forest which the Dhurwars were associated with. 

Answer:  Dhurwars were associated with Kanger forest, where reservation first took place. 

Short Answer Type Questions

1. What was ‘A Scorched Earth Policy’?   

Answer: In Java, just before the Japanese occupied the region, the Dutch followed a Scorched Earth Policy, destroying Sawmills and burning huge piles of giant teak logs so that they would not fall into Japanese hands.     

2. What are the various uses of forests in our day-to-day lives?

Answer: (i) Paper is used for making books, wood is used for desks and tables, doors and windows, dyes are used for colouring our clothes, we get spices to add to our food, the cellophane wrapper of toffees, tendu leaf in bidis, gum, honey and coffee, tea and rubber. (ii) Oil in chocolates comes from sal seeds, the tannin used to convert skins and hides into leather or the herbs used for medical purposes are all derived from forests.
(iii) Forests also provide bamboo, wood for fuel, grass charcoal, packaging, fruits, flowers, animals, birds, etc.

3. What were the main causes of deforestation in India during the British rule?

Answer: The main causes of deforestation were the following:
(i) The British encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. The production of food grains was needed to feed the growing urban population and raw material was required for British industries in Britain.
(ii) The British thought that forests were unproductive. They were of the view that space covered with forests could be used for cultivation which could fetch them revenue and enhance the income of the state also. 

4. How were forests cleared to expand the railway network in India in the early 19th century?

Answer:(i) The spread of the railways from the 1850s created a new demand for timber. (ii) Railway was needed for the spread of trade in India. To run locomotives, wood was needed as fuel and to lay railway lines, sleepers were required to hold tlie tracks together. (iii) As the railway tracks spread, a large number of trees were felled. The government gave contracts to individuals to supply timber. These contractors began cutting trees indiscriminately. 

5. State any three main characteristics of Tropical deciduous forests.

Answer: Main characteristics of Tropical deciduous forests: (i) These are the most wide spread forests in India. (ii) They are also called the monsoon forests and are spread over the region. (iii) They receive rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm. (iv) Trees shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks in dry summer. 

6. How did hunting become a big sport for the Indian people?

Answer: (i) In India, hunting of tigers and other animals had been part of the culture of the court and nobility from centuries.
(ii) Many Mughal paintings show princes and emperors enjoying their hunt.
(iii) Under colonial rule, the scale of hunting increased to such an extent that various species became almost extinct. 

7. In what ways did the British regulate forest trade?

Answer: (i) The British government gave many large European trading firms the sole right to trade in the forest products of particular areas.
(ii) Grazing and hunting by the local people were restricted.
(iii) In this process, many pastoralists and nomadic communities lost their livelihoods. Some of them were forced to work in factories, mines and plantations in order to restrict them from entering into forest trade. 

8. How did Indian labour suffer at the British hands in the plantations?

Answer: (i) In Assam, both men and women from forest communities like Santhals and Gonds were recruited to work on tea plantations.
(ii) Their wages were low and conditions of work were very bad, rough and tough.
(iii) They could not return easily to their home villages, as they were kept as bonded labourers who were tied to their landlords. 

9. How were forest laws enacted in Java?

Answer:(i) The Dutch enacted forest laws in Java to restrict villagers’ access to forests. (ii) Now wood cutting was done only for specific purposes like making boats, constructing houses under close supervision, etc.
(iii) Villagers were punished for grazing cattle, transporting wood without a permit or travelling through forests with horse carts or cattle. 

10. What was the effect of laying down of railway lines on forests?

Answer: (i) As early as the 1850s, in the Madras Presidency alone 35,000 trees were being cut annually for sleepers.
(ii) The government gave out contracts to individuals to supply the required quantities. (iii) These contractors began cutting trees indiscriminately. Forests around the railway tracks started disappearing fast.

11. Why did the British appoint the first Inspector General of Forests in India?

Answer: (i) British needed forests in order to build ships and railways.
(ii) They were worried that the use of forests by local people and the reckless felling of trees by traders would destroy forests.
(iii) So, they decided to invite a German expert, Dietrich Brandis, for advice and made him the first Inspector General of Forests in India. 

12. How forest dwellers’ lives changed after new forest laws were imposed?

Answer: (i) The new forest laws changed the lives of forest dwellers in yet another way. (ii) Before the forest laws, many people who lived in or near forests had survived by hunting deer, partridges and a variety of small animals.
(iii) This customary practice was prohibited by the forest laws. Those who were caught hunting were now punished for poaching. 

13. How were people benefitted with the trade in forest products?

Answer:(i) Many communities left their traditional occupations and started trading in forest products.
(ii) This happened not only in India but across the world. For example, with the growing demand for rubber in the mid-19th century, the Mundurucu people of Brazilian Amazon who lived in villages on high ground, began to collect latex from wild rubber trees for supplying to traders.
(iii) Gradually, they descended to live in trading ports and became completely dependent on traders. 

14. Where is Bastar located? 

Answer: (i) Bastar is located in the southernmost part of Chhattisgarh and borders Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Maharashtra.
(ii) The central part of Bastar is on a plateau.
(iii) To the north of this plateau is the Chhattisgarh plain and to its south is the Godavari plain. The river Indrawati winds across Bastar east to west. 

15. Which tribes live in Bastar? 

Answer: (i) A number of different communities live in Bastar such as Maria, Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras and Halbas.
(ii) They speak different languages but share common customs and beliefs.
(iii) The people of Bastar believe that each village was given its land by the Earth, and in return they look after the Earth by making some offerings at each agricultural festival. 

16. Explain some of the common customs and beliefs of the Bastar people.

Answer: Common customs and beliefs of the Bastar people
(i) Believed that land is given by mother earth.
(ii) Respect shown to the spirits of river, forest and mountain.
(iii) All natural resources to be looked after
(iv) Anyone seen cutting forests has to pay a fee. 

17. Explain any five causes of deforestation in India under the colonial rule. 

Answer: (i) Population increased, the demand for food went up.
(ii) British encouraged the production of commercial crops.
(iii) Forest were unproductive.
(iv) The spread of railways from 1850s.
(v) By the early 19th century, oak forests in England were disappearing. This created a problem of timber supply for the Royal Navy.
(vi) Emergence of Plantations. 

18. Describe in brief the Saminist Movement of Indonesia.

Answer: Surontiko Samin of Randublatung village started a movement in Indonesia, questioning state ownership of the forest. The movement gained momentum and by 1907, 3000 families were following his ideas. Some of the Saminists protested by lying down on their land when the colonial power Dutch came to survey it, while others refused to pay taxes, fines or perform any labour. 

19. What is the local name of ‘Madhuca Indica?

Answer: The local name of ‘Madhuca Indica’ is mahua. Villagers wake up before dawn and go to the forest to collect the mahua flowers which have fallen on the forest floor. It can be eaten or used to make alcohol and its seeds can be used to make oil. 

20. There are many tribes living in India. Visit any one of them and give a brief on the life led by the tribals.

Answer:(i) Most of the tribals in India live in far off villages.
(ii) They look after earth, show respect to the spirit of rivers, forests and mountain.
(iii) If they want to buy some wood or take wood from other villagers, they pay taxes like dovsari.
(iv) Some tribals also keep men for protecting their forests.
(v) They also do hunting for fuel, animals meat etc.

Long Answer Type Questions

1. What circumstances led to the foundation of ‘scientific forestry’ by the German expert Dietrich Brandis?

Answer: (i) Brandis felt that a proper system had to be adopted to manage forests and that people had to be trained in the science of conservation.
(ii) He needed legal sanction and rules on the use of forests.
(iii) He felt that the felling of trees and grazing had to be restricted so that forests could be preserved for timber production.
(iv) He set up the Indian Forest Service in 1864 and helped formulate the Indian Forest Act of 1865.
(v) The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at Dehradun in 1906.
(vi) The system they taught here was called ‘scientific forestry’. 

2. What do you know about Scientific Forestry?

Answer:(i) In scientific forestry, natural forests which had different types of trees were cut down. In their place, one type of trees were planted in straight rows which is called plantation.
(ii) Forest officials surveyed the forest, estimated the area and made working plans for the forest management.
(iii) They scientifically planned on how much of the plantation areas to cut every year. The areas cut were then to be replanted, so that they were ready to be cut again in some years. 

3. How were forests classified on the basis of the Forest Act, 1878?

Answer: Classification of forests on the basis of Act of 1878:
(i) Reserved forests: The best forests were called Reserved forests. Villagers could not take anything from these forests.
(ii) Protected forests: They were also protected by the villagers but they could collect wood from the Protected forests.
(iii) Village forests: They were located near the villages and could be exploited by the villagers but not for commercial purposes. 

4. How did Forest Acts affect the villagers?

Answer: (i) Forest Acts meant severe hardships for the villagers.
(ii) They could not cut wood for their houses. They were not allowed to graze their cattle, collect fruits and roots or do hunting or fishing in these forests.
(iii) Thus, they stole wood from the forests and if caught, were at the mercy of the forest guards who would take bribes from them.
(iv) It was common for the police constable and forest guards to harass the villagers by demanding free goods from them. 

5. What were the main causes of the revolt of Bastar?

Answer: (i) In 1905, the British put a stop on shifting cultivation, hunting and collection of forest produce, which affected the people of Bastar.
(ii) Some of the villagers were allowed to stay in the Reserved forests on the condition that they would cut and transport trees and protect the forests from fire for forest department for free.
(iii) People of other villages were displaced without any notice or compensation.
(iv) Villagers had been suffering from increased land rents and demand for free labour by British officials.
(v) The problems were added by the terrible famines of 1899-1900 and 1907-08. These conditions thus led to a revolt by the people of Bastar. 

6. How did the British suppress the revolt of Bastar?

Answer:(i) The British sent troops to suppress the rebellion.
(ii) The adivasi leaders tried to negotiate but the British surrounded their camps and fired on them.
(iii) Then they marched through the villages flogging and punishing those who had taken part in the rebellion.
(iv) Most villages were deserted as people fled into the jungle out of fear.
(v) The British could regain control over Bastar people in three months.

7. Give a brief description about the woodcutter community of Java?the Kalangs.

Answer: (i) The Kalangs of Java were skilled forest cutters and they practised shifting cultivation.
(ii) They were so valuable that when the kingdom of Java split, the Kalang families were equally divided between two kingdoms.
(iii) Without them, it was difficult to harvest teak and build kings’ palaces.
(iv) The Dutch tried to make the Kalangs work under them.
(v) In 1770, the Kalangs resisted by attacking a Dutch fort but they were suppressed. 

8. What was the Blandongdiensten system?

Answer: (i) The Dutch first imposed rents on land being cultivated in the forest and then exempted some villages from paying these rents, if they provided free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber.
(ii) This system was known as Blandongdiensten system.
(iii) Later, instead of rent exemption forest villagers were given small wages, but their right to cultivate forest land was restricted. 

9. What do you know about Samin’s challenge?

Answer:(i) Surontiko Samin of a teak forest village began questioning state ownership of forests.
(ii) He argued that the state had not created the wind, water, Earth and wood, so it could not own it.
(iii) Soon, he organised a widespread movement with the support of his sons-in-law and other families in his village. Some Saminists protested by lying down on their land when the Dutch came to survey it, while others refused to pay taxes or fines or perform labour. 

10. What was the impact of World Wars on the forests? Or The First World War and the Second World War had major impact on forests. Explain this statement with reference to India and Java.

Answer: (i) In India, working plans were abandoned.
(ii) In India, the forest department cut trees freely to meet British war needs. –
(iii) In Java, before the Japanese occupied the region, the Dutch followed ‘a scorched Earth policy’, by destroying sawmills and burning huge piles of teaks logs, so that it would not fall into the hands of Japanese.
(iv) The Japanese also exploited the forests recklessly for their own war industries and forced villagers to cut down forests. (Any three points)

11. What is shifting cultivation? Why did the Europeans decide to ban it?

Answer: In shifting cultivation, parts of forests are cut and burnt in rotation. Seeds are sown in the ashes after the first monsoon rains. The following prompted Europeans to ban it.
(i) They regarded this practice as harmful for forests.
(ii) They felt that the land which was used for cultivation every few years could not grow trees for railway timber.
(iii) When a forest was burnt, there was the added danger of the flames spreading and burning valuable timber.
(iv) Shifting cultivation also made it harder for the government to calculate taxes. Therefore, the government decided to ban shifting cultivation. 

12. Give a brief account of the people of Bastar.

Answer: (i) Bastar is located in the southernmost part of Chhattisgarh.
(ii) Different communities live in Bastar such as Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras, etc.
(iii) They speak different languages but share common customs and beliefs.
(iv) They believe that each village was given its land by the Earth and in return, they look after the Earth by making offerings during the festivals.
(v) In addition to the Earth, they pay respect to the spirits of river, the forest and the mountain.
(vi) Since each village knows its boundaries, they look after their natural resources within that boundary.
(vii) If they want to take some wood from another village, they pay a small fee called ‘devsari’ in exchange.
(viii) Some villages protect their forests by keeping watchmen and each house contributes grains to pay them. They meet once in a year to discuss issues of concern, including forests. 

13. Describe the events that led to the revolt in Bastar against the British.

Answer: (i) People began to discuss their issues in their village councils or bazars, wherever the headmen of several villages assembled.
(ii) Although there was no single leader but Gunda Dhur from village Nethanar became an important figure.
(iii) In 1910, mango boughs, a lump of Earth, chillies and arrows began circulating between villages. They were actually messages inviting villagers to rebel against the British.
(iv) Every village contributed something to the rebellion expenses.
(v) Bazars were looted, the houses of officials and traders, schools and police stations were burnt and robbed, and grain redistributed. (vi) Most of those who were attacked were associated with the British and their oppressive laws. 

14. How was forest conservation carried out by the Asian and African countries later on?

Answer: (i) Conservation of forests rather than collecting timber became a more important goal.
(ii) The government realised that in order to meet this goal, the people who live near the forests must be involved.
(iii) In many cases, such as from Mizoram to Kerala, ‘dense forests have survived only because villages protected them in ‘sacred groves’.
(iv) Some villages have been patrolling their own forests, with each household taking it in turns, instead of leaving it to the forest guards.
(v) Local forest communities and environmentalists are thinking of different forms of forest management. Many movements like the Chipko Movement were started to save trees from the ruthless cutting down for commercial purposes.

15. How were forest products used by the villagers in their day-to-day lives?

Answer: (i) In forest areas, people used forest products like roots, leaves, fruits and tubers for many things.
(ii) Fruits and tubers were nutritious to eat, especially during monsoons before the harvest.
(iii) Herbs were used for medicine, wood for agricultural implements like yokes and ploughs, bamboo makes excellent fences and is abscessed to make baskets and umbrellas.
(iv) A dried scooped-out gourd was used as a portable water bottle.
(v) Almost everything was available in the forest like leaves could be stitched together to make disposable plates and cups, creepers could be used to make ropes, and the thorny bark of the tree was used to grate vegetables. 

16. What kind of life is led by the tribals of Bastar?

Answer: (i) The people of Bastar believe that each village was given its land by the Earth, and in return, they look after the Earth by making some offerings at each agricultural festival.
(ii) In addition to the Earth, they show respect to the spirits of the river, the forests and the mountains as well.
(iii) Since each village knows where its boundaries lie, the local people look after all the natural resources within that boundary.
(iv) If people from a village want to take some wood from the forest of another village, they pay a small fee called devsari, dand or man in exchange.
(v) Some villagers also protect their forests by engaging watchmen and each household contributes some grain to pay them.
(vi) Every year, there is a big hunt where the headmen of villages in apargana meet and discuss issues of concern, including forests. 

17. Explain any five ways in which the lives of the villagers were affected by the Forest Acts.

Answer: The lives of the villagers were affected by the forest laws:
(i) Now the villagers were deprived of their customary practices like hunting, cutting, grazing their cattle, collecting fruits etc.
(ii) One of the major impacts was on the practice of shifting cultivations or swidden agriculture.
(iii) People were now forced to steal wood from the forests and if they were caught, they were at the mercy of the forest guards who would take bribes from them.
(iv) Women who collected fuel woods were especially worried.
(v) It was common for police, constables and forest guards to harass people by demanding free food from them. 

18. If you were in the Government of India in 1862, responsible for supplying the railways with sleepers and fuel on such a large scale, what were the steps you would have taken?

Answer: The Government of India should have taken the following steps
(i) In areas where trees are cut for making sleepers, plant similar nature of trees to those that are cut, so that the forest cover is maintained.
(ii) Try to increase coal mining and supply this to the railways as fuel instead of wood for running the steam engines.
(iii) Limit the cutting of trees by the natives of the forest to only what they personally require and not allow them to trade in wood.
(iv) Prevent poachers from entering the forests to cut wood illegally. 

19. Explain any four ideas of Dietrich Brandis for the management of forests in India during the British period. Or Who was Dietrich Brandis? Explain his achievement in India.

Answer: Four ideas of Dietrich Brandis for the management of forests in India are
(i) Dietrich Brandis, a German expert, was appointed the first Inspector-General of Forests in India.
(ii) He formulated new forest legislation and helped establish research and training institutions. The Imperial Forest Research Institute at Dehradun was founded by him in 1906.
(iii) He set up the Indian Forest Service (IFS) in 1864 and helped to formulate the Indian Forest Act of 1865.
(iv) He took an interest in the forest flora of North-West and Central India and Indian trees. He was among the earliest expert in India to formally link forest protection with local peoples. 

20. Why are the forests affected by wars?

Answer: Forests are affected by wars because forest products are used for fulfilling various needs and requirement during war. In the case of India, during the First World War and the Second World War, the Forest Department was cutting trees freely to meet British war needs. During the Second World War in Java just before the Japanese occupied the region, the Dutch followed a Scorched Earth Policy, destroying sawmills and burning huge piles of giant teak logs, so that they did not fall into Japanese hands. The Japanese exploited the forests recklessly for their war industries, forcing villagers to cut down forests. Many villagers took this opportunity to expand cultivation in the forests. Thus, wars also led to destruction of forests. 

21. What is forestry?

Answer:  Forestry is like science, art and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving and repairing forests and associated resources in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs and values for human benefit. Forestry is practied in plantations and natural stands. The main goal of forestry is to create and implement systems that allows forests to continue a sustainable provision of environmental supplies and services. The challenge of forestry is to create systems that are socially accepted while sustaining the resource and any other resources that might be affected. 

22. Under colonial rule, why did the scale of hunting increase to such an extent that various species became almost extinct?

Answer:  In India hunting of tigers and other wild animals became a game or source of entertainment for the kings and nobles. But under British rule the scale of hunting increased to such an extent that various species became almost extinct. The reasons behind this condition are

(i) The British saw large animals as signs of a wild, primitive and savage society.
(ii) They believe that by killing dangerous animals the British would civilise India.
(iii) They gave rewards for the killing of tigers, wolves and other large animals on the grounds that they posed a threat to cultivators.
(iv) Over 80,000 tigers, 150,000 leopards and 200,000 wolves were killed for reward in the period 1875-1925.
(v) Certain areas of forests were reserved for hunting. 

23. (a) Why were railways essential for the Colonial Government? (b) “The ship industry of England was also responsible for deforestation in India”. Give one reason.

Answer: (a) Railways were very essential for the colonial trade and for the movement of imperial troops.
(b) Due to the high demand, by the early 19th century, oak forests in England were disappearing. This created a problem of timber supply for the Royal Navy which required to build ships. To get the supply of oak for the ship industry, Britishers started exploring Indian forests on a massive scale. With a decade, trees were being felled on a massive scale and vast qualities of timber were being exported from India. 

24. Who were the Kalangs? Mention any four characteristics of this community.

Answer:  The Kalangs were a tribal community of Java. Their four characteristics are
(i) They were skilled forest cutters and shifting cultivators.
(ii) They had a great skill in building palaces.
(iii) They were so valuable that in 1755, when the Mataram kingdom of Java split, the 6000 Kalang families were equally divided between the two kingdoms.
(iv) The Kalangs worked, under the Dutch, when Dutch began to gain control over the forests in the 18th century. 

25 Why did the Colonial Government start commercial forestry in India? Give any three reasons.

Answer: The British Colonial Government started commercial forestry in India
(i) By the early 19th century, oak forests in England were disappearing. The colonial government needed timber supply for the Royal navy and railways which were essential for the movement of imperial troops and commercial trade.
(ii) The Colonial Government took over the forests in India and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates. These areas were enclosed and planted with tea and coffee.
(iii) The British government were worried about the reckless use of forests by the local people. They needed trees that could provide had wood and were tall and straight. So particular species like teak and sal trees were promoted by them. Thus, commercial forestry was started by the Britishers and Indian forests Act was passed in 1865. 

26. What new developments have occurred in forestry in Asia and Africa in recent times?

Answer: In recent times, Asian and African Governments introduced social forestry and the policy of keeping forest communities away from forests have only resulted in conflicts. Conservation of forests rather than collecting timber became the primary aim. In order to meet this goal, the government realized that the involvement of people living near the forests is must. Intact, across India from Mizoram to Kerala dense forests have survived only because villagers protected them in sacred groves known as Sarnas, Devarakudu, Kan, Rai, etc. Some villagers patrolled their own forest with each household taking it instead of leaving it to forest guards. 

27. What were the defects of ‘Scientific Forestry’ technique? Or Describe the defects in the techniques of ‘Scientific Forestry’.

Answer: Dietrich Brandis set-up the Indian Forest Service in 1864 and helped formulate the Indian Forest Act of 1865. In 1906 the Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at Dehradun and ‘Scientific Forestry’ was introduced in India. But ecologists believe that this system is not scientific at all and has many defects These are
(i) In this system natural forest diversity was harmed because different types of trees were cut down.
(ii) This system advocated only those trees in forests which provided timber. It snatched the different needs of forest dwellers. The forest dwellers wanted a mixture of species of trees for their fuel fodder and food.
(iii) It also affected the ecological balance as multi-species forest gradually got converted into plantation. 

28. Explain any five reasons for the expansion of cultivation by the colonial rulers in India. 

Answer: In the colonial period, cultivation expanded for a variety of reasons. These are (i) In Europe, food grains were needed to feed the growing urban population. The demand for wheat increased largely in the 19th century.
(ii) The colonial rulers considered the expansion of cultivation as a sign of progress.
(iii) The British government directly encouraged the production of commercial crops, like Jute, sugar, wheat and cotton to get more profit.
(iv) Europe needed raw materials for industrial production.
(v) In the early 19th century, the colonial state thought that forests were unproductive so forests had to be brought under cultivation and land could yield agricultural products and revenue. In this way the income of the state enhanced.   

29. Have there been changes in forest areas where you live? Find out what these changes are and why they have happened.

Answer: There have been a number of changes in forest areas in India since independence and some which have occurred in my district are as follows
(i) Entry to forest area is restricted and the Forest Department has posted guards to check any illegal entry.
(ii) Although, the number of trees in the forest has increased, reduction of rainfall in recent years has stunted the growth of trees.
(iii) The Adivasi villagers living inside the forest areas are gradually leaving their traditional occupations and migrating to the towns for education and jobs.
(iv) A number of wild animals like tigers and elephants are sometimes seen on the edges of the forest, but they do not venture out for fear of being killed by human beings. Earlier the tigers used to come into the nearby villages and take away animals and small children at night.
(v) The smugling of ivory and skin of tiger has been almost controlled. 

30. What were the similarities between colonial management of the forests in Bastar and Java?

Answer: Forest management of Bastar in India was in the hands of the British and in Java it was in the hands of the Dutch.
(i) The similarities between these two are as follows The Dutch, like the British, wanted timber to build ships and to make sleepers for railway tracks.

(ii) Both the British and the Dutch enacted forest laws to control the forests and put restrictions on the customary rights of the local people. They were prevented from entering the forests, they could not graze cattle or cut wood or take forest produce without permission.

(iii) The British and the Dutch introduced scientific forestry. Both the governments banned shifting cultivation.

(iv) Some villagers in Bastar were allowed to stay in the forests on the condition that their people would provide free labour for the Forest Department in cutting and transportation of trees and protecting the forests from fire. Similarly in Java, the Dutch imposed rents on the cultivated land in the forests and then exempted some villages if they collectively provided free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. This system was known as the ‘Blandongdiensten System’.

(v) When the exploitation by the British in Bastar and the Dutch in Java became too much, the forest communities in Bastar and Java revolted under Gunda Dhur and Surontiko Samin respectively. Both the revolts were crushed by the colonial powers. 

31. How did the Forest Act affect the lives of foresters and villagers? Or How did Forest Act mean severe hardship for villagers across the country? Explain.

Answer: The 1878 Forest Act divided forests in India into three categories: reserved, protected and village forests. Foresters and villagers had very different ideas about a ‘good forest’.

(i) Villagers wanted forests with a mixture of species to satisfy different needs-fuel, fodder and leaves. Villagers could not take anything from ‘reserved’ forests. For house building or fuel, they could take wood from protected or village forests. On the other hand forest department needed trees that could provide hard, tall and straight woods for commercial price. So, they encouraged to plant only Teak and Sal and other trees were cut.

(ii) In forest areas people use forest products roots, leaves, fruits, tuber, etc. Almost everything is available in the forest for their livelihood. The Forest Act meant severe hardship for them. All their everyday practices cutting wood for their houses, grazing their cattle, collecting fruits and roots, hunting and fishing became illegal.

(iii) Now villagers were forced to steal wood and if they were caught, they were at the mercy of the forest-guards, who even claimed bribe from them.
(iv) Women who collected fuel wood and food were scared from the forest guards.
(v) It became common practice for police constables and forest guards to harass villagers by demanding free food for them. 

32. ‘The introduction of railway had an adverse impact on the forests’. Justify by giving examples.

Answer: From the 1860s, the railway network expanded rapidly. Sleepers were the basic inputs required for  constructing a railway line. Each mile of a railway track required between 1760, to 2000 sleepers. To meet this demand, large number of trees were felled. To run locomotive, wood was needed as fuel. As railway was being spread throughout India, more and more wood was required which could be used as fuel. The government gave out contracts of individuals to supply the required quantities. These contractors began cutting trees indiscriminately. Thus, forests around the railway tracks started disappearing fast. As early as the 1850s, in the Madras presidency alone, 35,000 trees where being cut annually for sleepers. 

33. (a) ‘Forest are the National Wealth’. Illustrate your answer with suitable examples. (b) What values/lesson do you learn from this given statement?

Answer:(a) It is quite proper to say that forests are the national wealth.
(i) Forests not only add to the beauty of a country but they are also an important source of many useful products.
(ii) The wood that we get from the forests, it is important for building and construction purposes, for railway track, ship building, furniture and for fuel. In India, many industries are based on the forest products.
(iii) We get the sandalwood, gums, resins, turpentine oil, honey, herbs, lac, etc from forests.
(iv) Grass grown in forests is used for grazing the cattle, sheep, camel, etc. To great extent, the shortage for fodder is also made up by these forests.

(b) From the given statement, I have learnt that forests play an important role in the like of a nation and make a great contribution in the creation of economic structure of a country. 

34. Why is it necessary to increase the areas under forests? Give five important reasons.

Answer: A large part of our forests was cleared for industrial uses,  cultivation, pastures and fuel wood. Thus, a necessity of increasing the area under forests becomes inevitable in India. The five important reasons are
(i) To maintain the ecological balance It is necessary for maintaining ecological balance and absorption of carbon dioxide.
(ii) To regulate the flow of rivers Forests regulate the flow of rivers both in the rainy and dry seasons by absorbing or releasing water systematically. In this way, they reduce the chances of both floods and droughts.
(iii) To provide natural habitat to wildlife Forests provide natural habitat to wildlife and in this way they held in their preservation.
(iv) To help in precipitation or rainfall Forests help precipitations of rainfall and thus minimise the possibility of droughts.
(v) To conserve the soil Forests play an important role in the conservation of soils as the roots of the trees do not allow the soil to flow away with the water. 

35. How did commercial farming led to a decline in forests cover during colonial period?

Answer: Before colonial period, India had nearly one-third of the total land area under forest cover which rapidly  declined. In the early 19th century, the colonial powers held the opinion that forests were unproductive and were in no way useful in increasing the income of the state. Dietrich Brandis set-up the Indian Forest  Service in 1864 and realised that a proper system had to be introduced to manage forests. The Britisher encouraged the production at commercial crops like jute, sugar, wheat, and cotton. They also encouraged plantation of tea, coffee and rubber. So, the Indian farmers cleared forests for the commercial crops. It affected the ecological balance against multi species forest. The Britishers exported timber like oak, sheesham and teak wood for Royal Navy to make strong ships. Expansion of the railway was another reason for clearing forest, as a large number of ‘sleepers’ were required for railway tracks. As the population increased and the demand of food went up. The forest were cleared for the expansion of agricultural land

36. How did the British exploit the forests resource of India for their economic development?

Answer: Under the British colonial rule the process of deforestation for economic development in India became systematic and extensive.
(i) By the early 19th century, oak forests in England were disappearing, British needed timber supply for their Royal navy and they sent search parties to explore forest resources of India in 1820. Within a decade vast quantities of timber were being exported from India.
(ii) Not only Royal navy for the movement of imperial troops, the Britishers needed the expansion of railways for their colonial trade. To run locomotives they needed wood and also for railway tracks they needed timber supply.
(iii) Large areas of natural forests were cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities. For this purpose, the Colonial Government took over the forests and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates.
(iv) In the colonial period, cultivation expanded rapidly. The British directly encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugar wheat and cotton. These crops were demanded for the consumption of urban population and also for the raw materials needed in industrial production.
(v) The colonial power thought that forests were unproductive, so they tried to expand agriculture by clearing forests which would enhance the revenue of the state. Between 1880 and 1920, cultivated area in India rose by 6.7 million hectares. 

37. Describe the new occupations adopted by people when forest department took control of the forests. Or How did the British bring change in the trade of forest products? What were the effects of these changes? Or Explain how did the lives of forest-dwellers change after the forest department took over control of the forests? Mention any five points.

Answer: The forest department took control of the forests by introducing the forest Act of 1865 and 1878.
(i) After this, some people benefitted from the new opportunities, they left their traditional occupations and started trading in forest products.
(ii) From the medieval period onwards adivasi communities were trading elephants and other goods like hides, horns, silk cocoons, ivory bamboo, spices, fibres, grasses, gums, resins, etc.
(iii) The British Government took total control of the trade in forest products. They gave many large European trading firms the sole right to trade in the forest products of particular areas.
(iv) Grazing and hunting by local people were restricted. Many pastoralist and nomadic communities like the Korava, Karacha, Yerukula of Madras Presidency and Banjaras lost their livelihoods.
(v) Sometribals were branded as ‘criminal tribes’ and they lost   their old occupations and were forced to work in factories, mines and plantation under government supervision and were offered a very low wage,. In this way, the lives of forest-dwellers were completely changed after the forest department took over control of the forests. 

38. Write a dialogue between a Colonial Forester and an Adivasi discussing the issue of hunting in the forest.

Answer: A sample dialogue is given below Colonial Forester Who are you? What are you doing inside the forest at this time? Adivasi I am a villager living in XYZ village on the South edge of this forest. I have come to hunt some animals for feeding my family. Colonial Forester Don’t you know that we have banned the hunting of animals in the forest? Go away, you can not be allowed to hunt animals. It is illegal. Adivasi I need the flesh of the animal, so that my wife can cook the food. I regularly hunt for animals and nobody has stopped me before. Colonial Forester No, you will not be allowed to do this. Only Britishers are allowed to hunt animals. Go back to your village. Otherwise, you will be punished. Adivasi Okay, if you say so, I will go. But I will return. 

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