Extra Questions for Class 9 History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World

Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World extra questions and answers available here in PDF format. Solving class 9 extra questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions with PDF as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising these questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.

Class 9 History Chapter 5 extra Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Questions

1. Who are Nomads?

Answer: Nomads are the people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living. 

2. Who were Guyar Bakarwals?

Answer: Gujjar Bakarwals are nomadic tribes of Jammu and Kashmir, who are great’ herders of goat and sheep. 

3. What is a ‘kafila’?

Answer: Kafila is a group of several households who move together for a journey. 

4. Name the shepherds of Himachal Pradesh, who have cycle of seasonal movement.

Answer: Gaddi Shepherds of Himachal Pradesh. 

5. What is ‘Bhabar’?

Answer: It is a dry forested area below the foothills of Garhwal and Kumaun. 

6. What does ‘BugyaI’ mean?

Answer: Vast meadows in the high mountains. 

7. Name the pastoral communities of Himalayas known for cyclical movement for the pastures.

Answer: Bhotiyar, Sheepar and Kinnaurs. 

8. Who were ‘Dhangars’?

Answer:‘Dhangars’ were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. 

9. What were the main occupations of ‘Dhangars’?

Answer: Most of them were shepherds, some were blanket weavers and still others were buffalo herders. 

10. Which pastoral tribes live in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh?

Answer:The Gollas herded cattle, The Kurumas and Kurubas reared sheep and goats and sold woven blankets. 

11. What were their main occupations?

Answer: They lived near the woods, cultivated small patches of land, did animal rearing, wove blankets and also engaged in a variety of petty trades and took care of their needs. 

12. Who are ‘Banjaras’?

Answer: Banjaras are well-known group of graziers. They are found in the villages of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. 

13. Which pastoral nomads live in the deserts of Rajasthan?

Answer: Raikas live in the deserts of Rajasthan. 

14. What are the main occupations of Raikas?

Answer: Raikas combined a range of different activities-cultivation, trade, and herding to make their living. 

15. How did the life of nomadic pastoralists change dramatically?

Answer: (i) Their grazing grounds shrank. (ii) Their movements were regulated. (iii) Revenue was increased. 

16. Give one advantage of changing grazing lands into cultivated farms by British in India.

Answer: Land revenue was one of the main sources of income, by expanding cultivation it would increase its revenue collection. 

17. What were ‘Waste Land Rules’?

Answer: By these rules uncultivated lands were taken over and given to selected individuals who were granted various concessions and were encouraged to settle in these lands. 

18. Which forests were declared ‘Reserved Forests’?

Answer: The forests which produced commercially valuable timber like ‘deodar’ or ‘sal’ were declared ‘Reserved’. No pastoralist was allowed to access these forests. 

19. Which forests were classified as ‘Protected Forests’?

Answer:  In these forests some customary grazing rights of pastoralists were granted but their movements were severely restricted. 

20. What kind of permit was given to the pastoralists by the forest department?

Answer: The permit specified the periods in which these pastoralists could live legally within a forest. If they overstayed they were made to pay fines. 

21. What was the Criminal Tribes Act?

Answer:(i) It was passed by the colonial govt. in India. (ii) By this Act many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as criminal tribes. (iii) These tribes were not allowed to move out without a permit. 

22. What was the source of taxation for the colonial government?

Answer: Taxes were imposed on land, on canal water, on salt, on trade goods and even on animals of the pastoralists. 

23. Where have Raikas migrated after the partition of India?

Answer: In recent years they have been migrating to Haryana where sheep can graze on agricultural fields after the harvests are cut. This is the time that the fields need manure that the animals provide. 

24. Name the pastoral communities of Africa.

Answer: Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Simali, Bosan and Turkana are some of the pastoral communities of Africa. 

25. What do these African pastoral communities do for a living?

Answer: They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys and they sell milk, meat, animal skin and wool. Some also earn through trade and transport. 

26. Which areas were covered under Maasailand before colonial times?

Answer: Maasailand stretched over a vast area from North Korea to the Steppes of northern Tanzania. 

27. How was Maasailand divided by the colonial powers?

Answer: In 1885, Maasailand was divided into two international boundaries into two areas called as British Kenya and German Tanganyika. 

28. What was the condition of Maasai after White settlements in their grazing lands?

Answer: (i) They were pushed into a small area in South Kenya and North Tanzania.
(ii) They were confined now to an arid zone with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures. 

29. Name the national parks set up in place of grazing lands by colonial powers.

Answer:(i) Samburu National Park in Kenya
(ii) Serengeti National Park in Tanzania. 

30. What does Maasai mean?

Answer: The title Maasai is derived from the word ‘Maa’. Maasai means ‘My People’. 

31. What were the social categories into which Maasai society was divided?

Answer: Maasai society was divided into two social categories ? (i)Elders   

32. Who were called ‘The Elders’ in Maasai society?

Answer: The Elders formed the ruling group and met in periodic councils to decide on the affairs of the community and settle disputes. 

33. Who were called ‘The Warriors’ among Maasai community?

Answer: The Warriors consisted of younger people, mainly responsible for the protection of the tribe. 

34. What was the significance of Raiding in Maasai Society?

Answer: Raiding was important in a society where cattle was wealth. It is through raids that the power of different pastoral groups was arrested. 

35. How could warriors prove their manliness? 

Answer: Young men came to be recognized as members of the warrior class when they proved their manliness by raiding the cattle of other pastoral groups and participating in wars. 

36. Who are the pastoral nomadic communities of Jammu and Kashmir?

Answer: Gujjar Bakarwals are the pastoral nomadic communities of Jammu and Kashmir. 

37. What is a Bhabar?

Answer: A dry forested area below the foot hills of Garhwal and Kumaun is known as Bhabar. 

38. What is Bugyal?

Answer: Vast meadows in the high mountains is known as Bugyal. 

39. When was the Criminal Tribes Act passed?

Answer: The Criminal Tribes Act was passed in 1871. 

40. What is man dap?

Answer:A man dap is a work place of Gujjar cattle herders where they make ghee which they take down for sale and these are build at about 10000 to 11000 feet. 

41. Who are Raikas?

Answer: The Raikas are a pastoral community of Rajasthan. 

42. What is Dhandi?

Answer: The settlement of Maru Raikas of Rajasthan is known as Dhandi. 

43. In which of the continent of the world, about half of the population lives as pastoralists?

Answer: In Africa about half of the population lives as pastoralists. 

44. In which part of India Gaddi shepherd live?

Answer: The Gaddi shepherd lives in Himachal Pradesh. 

45. In which type of forests, no pastoral activity was allowed?

Answer: In reserved forests, no pastoral activity was allowed.

46. Where do the Maasai cattle herders live?

Answer: The Maasai cattle herders live primarily in East Africa. 

47. What is Kharif Crop?

Answer: The autumn crop, usually harvested between September and October is known as Kharif Crop. 

48. In which state Dhangars are found?

Answer: Dhangars are an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. 

49. Name some pastoral communities of Africa.

Answer: Some pastoral communities of Africa are Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali, Boran and Turkana. 

50. Name some pastoral communities at the Himalayas.

Answer: Bhotiyas, Gujjar Bakarwals, Gaddi and Kinnauris are some pastoral communities of the Himalayas.

51. What is Rabi Crop?

Answer: The spring crop, usually harvested after March, is known as Rabi Crop. 

52. What is Stubble?

Answer: Lower ends of grain stalks left in the ground after harvesting is known as Stubble. 

53. Name some pastoral communities of the central plateau of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

Answer: Gollas, Kurumas, Kurubas are some pastoral communities of the central plateau of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. 

54. Where is Samburu National Park located?

Answer: Samburu National Park located in Kenya. 

55. What does the word ‘Maasai’ mean?

Answer: The word Massai means ‘My Peole’. 

56. Where is Serengeti National Park located?

Answer: Serengeti National Park located in Tanzania. 

57. What was the tax imposed by colonists on pastoralists?

Answer: Grazing tax was imposed by colonists cm pastoralists 

58. How do you define nomadic pastoralists?

Answer: Nomadic pastoralists are people who move from one place to another with their herds to earn a living. 

59. Why were the Maasai tribes pushed into a small area in South Kenya andr North Tanzania?

Answer: The best grazing lands were taken over by the British imperialists for settlement, thus the Maasai tribes were pushed into a small area in South Kenya and North Tanzania. 

60. What is meant by ‘Reserved Forest?

Answer: The forest where no pastoralist was allowed and which produced commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal is known as ‘Reserved Forest’ . 

61. What were the Wasteland Rules?

Answer: By the Wasteland Rules uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals for settlement and agriculture. 

62. How was the Maasai society divided?

Answer: The Maasai society was divided into two social categories. These are Elders and Warriors. 

63. Name the state from which Gaddi shepherds hail.

Answer: Gaddi shepherds hail from the state of Himachal Pradesh. 

64. Who were Banjaras?

Answer: Banjaras were the pastoral community of North India and were found in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. 

Short Answer Type Questions

1. Why did feeding the cattle become a persistent problem for the Maasais? 

Answer: The best grazing lands of cattle were taken over for white settlement and the Maasai were pushed into a small area. Then the continuous grazing in small area deteriorated the quality of pasture, thus the feeding of the cattle became a persistent problems for the Maasais.   

2. What was the occupation of the Pastoral Communities of Karnataka and Aridhra Pradesh?

Answer: The  Pastoral Communities of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka herded cattle, raised sheep and goats and sold woven blankets. Of them, the Gollas herded cattle; the Kurumas and Kurubas lived near the woods, cultivated small patches of land and  took care of their herds indulged in a variety of petty trades. 

3. Write a comment on the closure of the forests to grazing from the standpoint of (a) a forester (b) a pastoralist

Answer: (a) A Forester Since a foresters duty is to ensure the conservation of forests, it is good that the forests have been closed for grazing. This will ensure proper growth of the vegetation and trees, so that the forest wealth will be maintained.
(b) A Pastoralist Earlier our animals were grazing in the forest area, where vegetation was plentiful. Now, since the closure of forests for grazing, our animals have to be taken far away to find grass and vegetation for food. This has put us to a lot of inconvenience, as managing our flock has become more difficult

4. Who are nomads? Give an example.

Answer:(i) Nomads are people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living.
(ii) In many parts of India, we can see nomadic pastroalists on the move with their needs of cattle
(iii) For example, Guj[jar Bakarwals ofJammu and Kashmir, Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh, Gujjars of Garhwal and Kumaon, Dhangars of Maharashtra, etc. 

5. Describe the seasonal movement of Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh.

Answer: (i) They spent their winter in the low hills of the Shiwalik range, grazing their flock in the scrub forests.
(ii) By April, they moved north and spent the summer in Lahul and Spiti.
(iii) When the snow melted and the high passes were clear, many of them moved to higher mountain meadows.
(iv) By September, they began their return movement and descended with their flock to their winter grazing ground, the Shiwalik hills. 

6. How did the Gujyar cattle herders of Garhwal and Kumaon go in search for pastures?

Answer: (i) The Gujjar cattle herders came down to the dry forests of the bhabar in winter and went up to high meadows?the bugyals, in summer.
(ii) Many of them were originally from Jammu and came to the UP hills in the 19th century in search of good pastures.
(iii) This pattern of cyclical movement between summer and winter pastures was typical of many pastoral communities of the Himalayas. 

7. Describe the lifestyle of the pastoralists of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

Answer: (i) Pastoralist tribes such as the Gollas herded cattle, while the Kurumas and the Kurubas reared sheep and goats and sold woven blankets.
(ii) They lived near the woods, cultivated small patches of land, engaged in a variety of petty trades and took care of their herds.
(iii) In the dry season, they moved to the coastal tracts and left when the rain came. So, their seasonal rhythm was during the monsoons and the dry season. 

8. What do you know about the Banjaras of North India?

Answer: (i) They move in the villages of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
(ii) In search of good pastureland for their cattle, they moved over long distances.
(iii) They sold plough cattle and other goods to the villagers in exchange for grain and fodder. 

9. How were ‘Wasteland Rules’ enacted?

Answer: (i) To the colonial officials, all uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive. So, it was seen as ‘wasteland’ that had to be brought under cultivation.
(ii) So, ‘Wasteland Rules’ were enacted in various parts of the country. By these rules, uncultivated lands were taken over and given to selected individuals.
(iii) These individuals were granted various concessions and encouraged to settle these lands. Some of them were made headmen of villages to monitor cultivation. So, the expansion of cultivation meant the decline of pastures for the pastoralists which posed huge problems for them. 

10. Why did the colonial government in India pass the Criminal Tribes Act?

Answer:  In 1871, the colonial government passed the Criminal Tribes Act.
(i) The colonial government wanted to rule over a settled population. Such a population was easy to identify and control.
(ii) Those who were settled were seen as peaceable and law abiding; and those who were nomadic were considered to be criminals.
(iii) By this Act, many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as criminal tribes. 

11. How were the criminal tribes controlled by the British government?

Answer: (i) Once this Act came into force, these communities which were nomadic, now expected to live only in notified village settlements.
(ii) They were not allowed to move out without a permit.                      
(iii) The village police was also told to keep a continuous watch on them. By this Act, nomadic tribes learnt to live a settled life. 

12. How were taxes collected by the British from the pastoralists?

Answer: (i) Tax was imposed on land, canal water, salt, trade goods and even on animals.
(ii) Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures.
(iii) The right to collect the tax was auctioned out to contractors. These contractors tried to extract as high a tax as they could, to recover the money they had paid to the state and earn as much profit as they could within a year. Later on, governments began collecting taxes directly from the pastoralists. 

13. How does drought affect the life of pastoralists? Explain

Answer: (i) Drought affects the life of Pastoralists everywhere.
(ii) When rains fail and pastures are dry, cattle are likely to starve unless they can be moved to areas where forge is available. That is why traditionally, pastoralists are nomadic, they move from place to place. This nomadism allows them to survive bad times and avoid crises. 

14. How were the Maasais restricted to a confined area by the colonial people?

Answer: (i) Maasais were bound to a fixed area, confined within a reserve and prohibited from moving in search of pastures.
(ii) They were not allowed to the best grazing lands and were forced to live in semi-arid regions that were prone to frequent droughts.
(iii) As a result, a large number of Maasai cattle died of starvation and diseases during the drought years. The frequent bad years led to a steady decline of the livestock of pastoralists. 

15. How did poor pastoralists live without their livestock?

Answer: (i) Poor pastoralists who depended only on their livestock did not have resources to tide over bad times. In times of war and famine, they lost nearly everything.
(ii) They had to go looking for work in towns.
(iii) Some managed a living by working as charcoal burners or by doing other odd jobs. The lucky ones got more regular work in road or building construction. 

16. What do you know about Tanganyika?

Answer:(i) Britain conquered what had been German East Africa during the First World War.
(ii) In 1919, Tanganyika came under British control.
(iii) It attained independence in 1961 and united with Zanzibar to form Tanzania in 1964. 

17. Which grazing lands of Kenya were converted into national parks?

Answer: (i) Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania.

(ii) Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves; they could neither hunt animals nor graze their herds in those areas.

(iii) Very often these reserves were in areas that had traditionally been regular grazing grounds for Maasai herds. 

18. Who were Banjaras? Describe the life of Banjaras.

Answer: Banjaras were the pastoral community of North India. They were found in the villages of UP, Punjab, Rajasthan, M.P. and Maharashtra.
(i) They moved in the villages of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
(ii) In search of good pasture land for their cattle, they moved over long distances.
(iii) They sold plough cattle and other goods to the villagers in exhange for grain and fodder. 

19. Explain the annual movement of the Gujjar Bakarwals.

Answer: The Gujjar Bakarwals ofJammu and Kashmir are great herders of goat and sheep. In winter, they live with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range. The Dry Scrub forests provide good grazing grounds for their herds. In summer, they cross the Pir Panjal passes and enter the Kashmir valley. They graze their cattle on the lush green mountain sides, covered with a variety of grasses. With the onset of winter, the Bakarwals are on the move again, back to their winter pastures. 

2. Why did Raikas combine cultivation with pastoralism? Explain any three reasons.

Answer: Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralism because
(i) They lived in the deserts of Rajasthan.
(ii) Over vast stretches of this region no crop could be growth.
(iii) Every year harvests fluctuated on cultivated land. As agriculture was not sufficient for their livelihood, the Raikas moved out in search of pastures for their catties which included camels, sheep and goat. 

Long Answer Type Questions

1. How did the changes brought about by colonial rule affect the lives of pastoralists?

Answer: (i) When grazing lands were taken over and turned into cultivated fields, the available area of pastureland declined. Due to reservation of forests, cattle herders could no longer freely let their cattle graze in the forests.
(ii) As pasturelands disappeared under the plough, the existing animal stock had to feed on whatever grazing land remained. This led to continuous intensive grazing of these pastures, which did not allow time for the natural restoration of vegetation growth.
(iii) This ultimately led to shortage of forests for animals and deterioration of animal stock. Underfed cattle died in large numbers during scarcities and famines. 

2. How did the pastoralists react to the changes brought about by colonial rule?

Answer: (i) Since the new boundaries between India and Pakistan were drawn, it stopped their movement. So they started looking for new places to go. In recent years, they have been migrating to Haryana where sheep can graze on the agricultural fields after the harvests are cut.
(ii) Over the years, some richer pastoralists began buying land and settling down, giving up their nomadic life. Some became settled peasants, while others became traders. When pastoralists lost their cattle and sheep, they started working on the fields in small towns.
(iii) When pastureland was closed to them in one place, they changed the direction of their movement, reduced the size of the herd and combined their pastoral activity with other activities to supplement their income and adapted to the changes in the modern world. 

3. What restrictions were imposed on the pastoralists by the colonial government?

Answer: (i) Pastoral groups were also forced to live within the confines of special reserves. These groups could not move out without special permit. It was difficult to get permit without trouble and harassment. Those found guilty of disobeying the rules were severely punished.
(ii) Pastoralists were not allowed to enter the markets in White areas. They were also prohibited from participating in any form of trade. White settlers never wanted to have any contact with the Blacks but it was not possible since they depended on Black labour for working in the mines, building roads and towns, etc. 

4. Why did pastoral nomads of Jammu and Kashmir migrate?

Answer: (i) By the end of April, they began their northern march for their summer grazing grounds.
(ii) Several households came together for this journey, forming what is known as Kafila. They crossed the Pir Panjal passes and entered the valley of Kashmir.
(iii) With the onset of summer, the snow melted and the mountain sides were lush green. The variety of grasses that sprouted, provided rich nutritious forage for the animal herds.
(iv) By the end of September, the Bakarwals were on the move again, this time on their downward journey, back to their winter base. When the high mountains were covered with snow, the herds were grazed in the low hills. 

5. How did the warriors of Maasai land defend their community?

Answer: (i) The warriors consisted of younger people, mainly responsible for the protection of the tribe.
(ii) They defended the community and organised cattle raids. Raiding was important in a society where cattle was wealth. It is through raids that the power of different pastoral groups was asserted.
(iii) Young men came to be recognised as members of the warrior class, when they proved their manliness by raiding the cattle of other pastoral groups and participating in wars. They, however, were subject to the authority of the elders. 

6. How was pastoral community of the world affected by changes in the modern world?

Answer: Pastoral community in different parts of the world was affected in a variety of ways by changes in the modern world.
(i) New laws and new borders affected the patterns of their movement. With increasing restrictions on their mobility, pastoralists found it difficult to move in search of pastures.
(ii) As pasture lands disappeared, grazing became a problem and pastures deteriorated through continuous overgrazing.
(iii) Times of drought became times of crises, when cattle died in large numbers. 

7. How did pastoralists adapt to new times? 

Answer: Pastoralists did adapt to new times.
(i) They changed the paths of their annual movement, reduced their cattle numbers, pressed for rights to enter new areas, exerted political pressure on the government for relief and subsidy and demanded a right in the management of forests and water resources.
(ii) Pastoralists are not relics of the past. They are not people who have no place in the modern world.
(iii) Environmentalists and economists increasingly came to recognise that pastoral nomadism was a form of life that was perfectly suited to many hilly and dry regions of the world. 

8. How do Gujjar Bakarwals spend their life on the mountains of Jammu and Kashmir?

Answer: (i) They are great herders of goat and sheep. Many of them have migrated to this region while searching for greener pastures.
(ii) Gradually, they have established themselves in the area and moved annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds.
(iii) In winter, when the high mountains were covered with snow, they lived with their herds in the low hills of the Shiwalik range.
(iv) By the end of April, they move upwards for their summer pastures. In summer, these mountains were lush green with a variety of grasses that provided nutritious forage for the animal herds. 

9. What lifestyle did the Dhangars-the pastoral community of Maharashtra- follow? 

Answer: (i) Most of them were shepherds, some were blanket weavers and others were buffalo herders.
(ii) They stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon.
(iii) During monsoons, this tract became a vast grazing ground for the Dhangar flocks. (iv) By October, the Dhangars reached the Konkan. Here, the shepherds were welcomed by Konkani peasants. Dhangar flocks manured the fields and fed on the lower end of the grain stalks called stubble.
(v) With the onset of monsoon, the Dhangars left the Konkan and the coastal areas with their flocks and returned to the dry plateau. Konkani peasants gave supplies of rice to them since grains were scarce in the plateau.  

10. Discuss how the life of pastoralists changed dramatically under the colonial rule.

Answer: (i) The colonisers wanted to transform all grazing lands into cultivated farms. Land revenue was one of the main sources of income for them. By expanding cultivation, it could increase the revenue collection. To the colonial people, all uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive.

(ii) Through Forest Acts, some forests which produced commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal, were declared ‘Reserved’. No pastoralist was allowed to enter these forests. The colonisers believed that grazing destroyed the saplings and young shoots of trees that germinated on the forest floor.

(iii) The colonisers wanted nomadic tribes to live in villages, in fixed places with fixed rights. Those who were settled were seen as peaceable and law abiding.

(iv) Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures.   In most pastoral tracts of India, grazing tax was introduced in the mid-19th century. This tax per head of cattle went up rapidly and the system of collection was made more efficient. 

11. How did the Maasa is of northern Kenya lose their grazing lands? Or Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.

Answer:(i) Before colonial times, Maasai land stretched over a vast area from North Kenya to the steppes of northern Tanzania.

(ii) In 1885, it was cut into half by an international boundary between Britain and Germany.

(iii) The best grazing grounds were gradually taken over for white settlements and Maasais were pushed into a small area in South Kenya and North Tanzania.

(iv) The British encouraged the local people to expand cultivation. Thus, pasturelands were turned into cultivated fields.

(v) By the end of the colonial rule, large areas of grazing lands were turned into game reserves. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves; they could neither hunt nor graze their cattle in these areas. 

12. Describe the social division of the Maasais.

Answer: (i) The Maasai society was divided into two social categories: elders and warriors.

(ii) The elders formed the ruling group and met in periodic councils to decide on the affairs of the community and settle disputes.

(iii) The warriors consisted of younger people, mainly responsible for the protection of the tribe.

(iv) They also organised cattle raids. Raiding was important in a society where cattle was wealth. Raiding asserted the power of the different pastoral groups. Young men came to be recognised as members of the warrior class when they proved their manliness by raiding the cattle of other pastoral groups and participated in wars. They, however, were subject to the authority of the elders.

13. How did the British carry out the administration of the Maasais?

Answer: (i) The British appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of the Maasais, who were made responsible for the affairs of the tribe.
(ii) They imposed restrictions on raiding and warfare, thereby restricting the authority of elders and warriors.
(iii) The chiefs, often collected wealth over time. They had a regular income with which they could buy animals, goods and land.
(iv) They lent money to poor neighbours who needed cash to pay taxes. Many of them began to live in towns as traders.
(v) Their wives and children stayed back in the villages to look after the animals.
(vi) ‘these chiefs managed to survive the devastations of war and drought. They had now botli pastoral and non-pastoral income, and could buy animals when their stock was depleted. 

14. In what ways was cultivation practised in Maharashtra by Dhangars?

Answer: (i) Since the land is semi-arid with low rainfall, nothing but dry crops like hajra could be sown here.
(ii) By October, the Dhangars harvested their bajm and moved westward. After a march of about a month, they reached the Konkan.
(iii) This was a flourishing agricultural tract with high rainfall and rich soil. Here, the shepherds were welcomed by the Konkani peasants.
(iv) After the kharif harvest was out at this time, the fields had to be fertilized and made ready for the rabi harvest.
(v) Dhangar flocks manured the fields and fed on stubble. The Konkani peasants also gave supplies of rice which the shepherds took back to the plateau where grain was scarce.
(vi) With the onset of monsoon, the Dhangars left the Konkan and the coastal areas with other flocks and returned to their settlements on the dry plateau. 

15. How did Raikas of Rajasthan practise cattle rearing?

Answer: (i) In the deserts of Rajasthan lived the Raikas.
(ii) The rainfall in the region is less and uncertain. On cultivated land, harvest fluctuated every year. Over vast stretches, no crop could be grown.
(iii) So the Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralism.
(iv) During the monsoon, the Raikas of Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Bikaner stayed in their home villages, where pasture was available.
(v) By October, when grazing grounds were dry and exhausted, they moved out in search of other pastures and water, and returned again during the next monsoon.
(vi) One group of Raikas known as Maru Raikas herded camels and another group reared sheep and goat. 

16. What do you know about pastoralists communities of Africa?

Answer: (i) In Africa, where over half of the world’s pastoral population lives, even today 22 million Africans depend on some forms of pastoral activity for their livelihood.
(ii) They include communities like Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali, Boran and Turkana. (iii) Most of them now live in the semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts where rainfed agriculture is difficult.
(iv) They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys; and they sell milk, meat, animal skin and wool.
(v) Some of them also earn through trade and transport, others combine pastoral activity with agriculture, still others do a variety of odd jobs to supplement their meagre and uncertain earnings from pastoralism. 

17. Who were Maasais?

Answer: (i) The title Maasai derives from the word ‘Maa’. ‘Ma-Sai’ means ‘My People’.
(ii) The Maasais are traditionally nomadic and pastoral people who depend on milk and meat for subsistence.
(iii) High temperatures combine with low rainfall to create conditions which are dry, dusty and extremely hot.
(iv) Drought conditions are common in this semi-arid land of equatorial heat.
(v) During such times pastoral animals die in large numbers. 

18. Which similarities are observed in the lifestyles of the Pastoralists of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh? Describe.

Answer: (i) Gujjar Bakarwals of J&K are great herders of goat and sheep. They established and moved annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds.
(ii) In winter, high mountains covered with snow, they lived in shiwalik range.
(iii) In summer they begin northern march for the grazing grounds in the valleys of Kashmir. They go in groups called as kafila.
(iv) Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh have a similar cyclic movement. They too spend the winters in shiwaliks – grazing – in scrub forest.
(v) By April they move north and spend summer in Lahul and Spiti.
(vi) When snow melts many move to high ground.

19. Who are pastoral nomads? Explain the life style and occupational activities of pastoral nomads of deserts of Rajasthan. 

Answer: (i) They are groups of people on the move with their herds of goats and sheep or camels or cattle.
(ii) Pastoral Nomads of Desert of Rajasthan:

(a) They are called Raikas.
(b) Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralisms.
(c) During monsoons Raikas of Barmer, Jaisalmer stayed in their home villages where pastures were available.
(d) By October, they move out in search of other pastures and return again during the next monsoon. 

20. (a) Who were Dhangars? (b) What were their occupations? (c) Why were they continuously on the move?

Answer:(a) Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra.

(b) Most of the Dhangars were shepherds, blanket and wool weavers and still others were buffalo herders.

(c) They were continuously on the move in search of pasture for their cattle. They stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon. This was a semi-arid region with low rainfall and poor soil, only bajra could be grown here. In the monsoon, this tract became a vast grazing ground for their cattle. By October, the Dhangars harvested their bajra and started on their move and reached Konkan. Their cattle manured the fields and fed on the stubble. With the onset of monsoon, they returned back to their own settlement in dry plateau.  

21. (a) Who were the Banjaras? (b) Name any two states where they were found. (c) Name a pastoral community of Rajasthan.

Answer: (a) Banjaras are Nomadic people who used to move from one region to another in search of good pastureland for their cattle. They moved over long distances, selling plough cattle and other goods to villagers.

(b) They were found in Uttar Pradesh Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

(c) A Pastoral community of Rajasthan are the Raikas. The uncertainty and meagre rainfall in the desert region leading to fluctuating harvests made the Raikas combine both cultivation and pastoralism as means of occupation. 

22. Distinguish between ‘Reserved Forests’ and ‘Protected Forests’.

Answer: Reserved Forests were the forests which produced commercially valuable timber, like deodar and sal. Protected Forests were the forests which produced non-commercial wood. No pastoralist was allowed an access to the reserved forests. But in the protected forests, some customary grazing rights of pastoralists were granted, but their movements were severely restricted. The colonial officials believed that grazing destroyed the saplings and young shoots of trees and thus prevented new trees from growing. Through various Forests Acts, forests were declared ‘Reserved’ and ‘Protected’ by the British Government. 

23. What factors had to be kept in mind by the pastoralists in order to survive?

Answer: In order to survive the pastoralists took some steps

(i) They had to judge how long the herds could stay in one area and know where could they find water and pasture.

(ii) They needed to calculate the timing of their movements and ensure that could move through different territories.

(iii) They also had to develop a relationship with farmers on the way so that the herds could graze in harvested fields and manures the soil.

(iv) They had to combine a range of different activities like cultivation, trade and herding to make their living.

24. Where did the Gaddi shepherds live? Describe the seasonal movement of the Gaddis.

Answer: The Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh spent their winter in the low hills of Siwalik range, grazing their flocks in the scrub forests. By April, they moved North and spent the summer in Lahul and Spiti. When the snow melted and the high passes were clear, many of them moved onto higher mountain meadows. By September, they began their return movement. On the way they stopped in the villages on Lahul and Spiti, reaping their summer harvest and sowing their winter crops. Then, they descended with their flock to their winter grazing ground on Siwalik hills. Next April, again they started their march with their goats and sheep, to the summer meadows. 

25. Describe any three features of the life of African pastoralists.

Answer: Over half of the world’s pastoral papulation lives in Africa. Even now, over 22 million Africans depend on some form of pastoral activity for their livelihood. (i) Some important pastoral communities of Africa include Bedouins,   Berbers,   Maasai,   Somali, Boran  and Turkana, etc. (ii) Most of them now live in the semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts where rainfed agriculture is difficult. (iii) They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkey. Their main occupation is selling milk, meat, animal skin and wool. They also earn through trade and transport, some type of agricultural activity and also variety of odd jobs. By doing all these jobs, the pastoralists are trying to supplement their meagre and uncertain earnings from pastoralism.  

26. What is the difference between the annual movement of the Gollas of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh from the Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir?

Answer: The movement of the Gujjar Bakarwals revolve around cold and hot season. During winters, when high mountains are covered with snow they move to low hills and in summer they once again move towards the high altitudes. The movement of Gollas of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka revolve around the arrival and departure of monsoon. In the dry season, they move to the coastal tracts and leave when the rains come. Only buffaloes like the wet conditions of the coastal areas during the monsoon months. Other herds has to be shifted to the dry plateau at this time. 

27. How did drought affect the life of pastoralists? 

Answer: Various Forest Acts were introduced to restrict the movements of the nomads. They were prevented from entering many forests. Even if they were allowed, their movements were regulated. They were cut off from the best grazing lands and forced to live within a semi-arid tract prone to frequent droughts. Since lots of restrictions were imposed on their movement, so they could not move to places where pastures were available. Due to this, there was shortage of fodder. For example, A large number of Maasai cattle died of starvation. As the area of grazing lands shrank, the adverse effect of the droughts increased in intensity.

28. Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another? What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?

Answer: Nomads are people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living. Their main occupation is cattle rearing for which they need availability of water and pastures for grazing their animals. When the pastures get depleted they move to another place with their animals, looking for pasture and water. When the water and pastures get depleted they move again and keep repeating the cycle.

Advantages 
(i)The movement of the Nomads allows the pasture to regrow and recover.
(ii) It helps to protect the ecology of the environment.
(iii) It prevents the overuse of pastures.
(iv) The cattle by their dung help in providing manure. 

29. What are some of the problems that pastoralist face in the modern world? How have these groups adopted to the new times?

Answer: In the modern world the life of pastoralists changed largely. Their grazing grounds shrank, their movements were regulated and the revenue they had  to pay increased. Colonial powers thought all uncultivated land as unproductive. Thus, Wasteland Rules were enacted and by these rules uncultivated lands were taken over and used for cultivation. So, the expansion of cultivation led to the decline of pastures for the cattle. Various Forests Acts prevented the pastoralists from entering many forests that had provided forage for their cattle. Even they had to pay taxes on every animal they grazed. But they have adopted to new times by changing the paths of their annual movement and reducing their cattle in their herds. They demanded rights in management of forests and water resources. 

30. Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.

Answer: European countries scrambled for possession of territories in Africa and sliced up the region into different colonies. In 1885, Maasailand was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika. Subsequently, grazing lands were taken over for White settlement and the Maasais were pushed into a small area in South Kenya and North Tanganyika. The Maasais lost about 60 % of their pre-colonial lands. Encouragement was given by the British Colonial Government in East Africa to peasant communities to expand cultivation and pasture lands were converted into cultivated fields. Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanganyika. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves. They could neither hunt animals nor graze herds in these areas. Very often these reserves were in areas that had traditionally been regular grazing grounds for Maasai herds. 

31. There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.

Answer: Both India and East Africa were under the control and dominance of the European colonial powers with similar intentions and objectives. In both places, the pastoral communities lost the pasture land because the colonial powers took control of these pastures and brought them under cultivation. Both in India and East Africa, forest laws were made and the pastoralists were not permitted to use the forests for grazing or taking out forest produce.
The two examples are as follows
(i) The mobility of the pastoralists was severely restricted whereby fodder was in short supply and feeding the cattle became a persistent problem. Many of them were thereby forced to give up their old mode of occupation.
(ii) Both in India and Africa, grazing tax was imposed on the pastoralists. All these created a lot of hardship for the pastoral communities of India and Africa. 

32. How did the pasture lands decline in India? Describe the impact of the shortage of pasture land on the lives of pastoralists.

Answer: The British Government considered all uncultivated land as unproductive. They wanted to transform all grazing lands into cultivated farms. Land revenue was the main sources of its finance. So to increase its revenue the British Government brought the pastures under cultivation. The Colonial Government passed the ‘Wasteland Rules By these rules uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals in a concessional rate. In most areas the lands taken over were grazing lands used by the pastoralists. So expansion of cultivation inevitably meant the decline of pastures. By the mid-19th century, various Forest Acts were implemented in the different provinces of India. Forests were classified as ‘Reserved’ and ‘Protected. No pastoralist was allowed to access to the ‘reserved’ forests. In ‘Protected’ forest, some customary grazing rights of pastoralists were granted but their movement was severely restricted. The decline of pasture lands had a deep impact on the life of pastoralists in following ways.  The decreasing pasture land posed problem for pastoralists, they reduced the number of cattle in their herd.  Some pastoralists discovered new pastures when movement to old pastures became difficult.  Some richer pastoralists began buying land and settling down, giving up their nomadic life.  Some became settled peasants who cultivated lands.  Some became labourers working on fields or in small towns. Some combined pastoral activities with other form of income and adapted to the changes in the modern world. 

33. Why did the cattle stock of the Maasai’s decrease under colonial rule?

Answer: In the 19th century, Maasai tribes could move over vast areas in search of pastures. From the late 19th century, the Colonial Government began imposing various restrictions on their mobility. The Maasai were bound down to a fixed area. They were cut off from the best grazing lands and forced to live within a semi-arid tract prone to frequent droughts. Since, they could not shift their cattle to places where pastures were available, large numbers of Maasai cattle died of starvation and disease. As the area of grazing lands decreased, the adverse effect of the drought increased. In just two years of severe drought, 1933 and 1934, over half of the cattle of Maasai tribes died. In this way, the cattle stock of the Maasai’s decreased under colonial rule. 

34. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter the markets in white areas’. Explain its impact on the pastoralists of Africa.

Answer: From the late 19th century, the Colonial Government began imposing various restrictions on the mobility of the pastoralists. The Maasai and other groups, were forced to live within the confines of special reserves. They could only move within the boundaries of these reserves. In many regions, pastoralists were prohibited from participating in any form of trade. White settlers and European Colonists saw pastoralists as dangerous and primitive. So, the pastoral community was not allowed to enter the markets in white areas. The chief of the pastoralists appointed by the Colonial Government became wealthy and survived devastations of war and drought. But the poor pastoralists did not have the resource to survive in bad times. They had to take add jobs like charcoal burners, daily labourers in road and building construction. Thus, it was not really possible for the colonial power to cut off all links with the pastoral community. Even today, 22 million Africans are pastoralists. While white colonists had to depend on black labour to bore mines, build roads and towns, they had to depend on pastoral community automatically. 

35. (a) Why did the British introduced ‘Wasteland Rules’? (b) What values/lesson you have learnt from the implementation of Wastelands Rule?

Answer: (a) To colonial power, all uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive. It produced neither revenue nor agricultural produce. Thus, it was seen as ‘wasteland’ that needed to be brought under cultivation.   From   the   mid-19th   century ‘Wasteland Rules’ were enacted in various parts of our country. By these rules, uncultivated lands were taken over and given to selected individuals.  These individuals were granted various concessions and encouraged to settle these lands. Some of them were made headman of villages in the newly cleared areas. In this way wastelands transformed into cultivated lands. The Colonial Government imposed tax on these lands and earned revenue from these lands.

(b) From the implementation of Wasteland Rules, I have learnt that on the one hand human efforts can make unproductive land into useful land. On the other side , the expansion of cultivation meant the decline of pastures which deeply affected the life of pastoralists. 

36. How did the pastoralists cope with the serious shortage of pastures? Explain. 

Answer: Under colonial rule when grazing lands were taken over and turned into cultivated fields, the available area of pasture land started declining . The pastoralists reacted to these changes in a different ways:

(i) Some pastoralists reduced their number of cattle as there was not enough pasture to feed them. Others discovered new pastures, when old grazing areas were not available.

(ii) After 1947, the Raikas could no longer move into Sindh. The new political boundaries between India and Pakistan stopped their movement. So in recent years, they have been migrating to Haryana, where sheep can graze agricultural fields after the harvests. The fields also need manure that the animals can provide.

(iii) The rich pastoralists started buying land and gave up their nomadic life. Some have become peasants while others have taken extensive trading some poor pastoralists borrowed money from money lenders to survive. Many of them have lost their cattle and became labourers, working on fields on in small towns.

(iv) In spite of all these difficulties, pastoralists not only continue to survive, in many areas their numbers have expanded over recent decades.  When pasturelands in one place was closed to them, they changed the direction of their movement and reduced the size of the herd. Sometimes they combined pastoral activity with other forms of income and adapted to the changes in the modern world.   

37. Imagine that it is 1950 and you are a 60 years old Raika herder living in post-Independence India. You are telling your grand-daughter about the changes which have taken place in your lifestyle after Independence. What would you say?

Answer: Since the coming of independence, my life has changed quite a bit. Since now there is not enough pasture for our animals, we had to reduce the number of the animals we keep. We have changed our grazing grounds also, as those on the banks of the river Indus have gone into Pakistan and we are not allowed to go there. So, we have found alternative grazing grounds in Haryana, where our herds go when the harvest has been cut. At this time they can feed on the stumps of the plants remaining and also fertilise the soil with manure from their excreta. Your father did not like a herder’s life and so, he decided to become a farmer. I gave him my savings to buy some land and now he is cultivating food grains. I think you will have a much better life than what we had. 

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