Class 9 Civics Chapter 2 Constitutional Design Important Questions
Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 2 Constitutional Design important questions and answers cover the major concepts of the chapter. Solving answers of these important questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions with PDF as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising these questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.
Constitutional Design Class 9 Important Questions and Answers
1. Describe the steps taken to form the Constituent Assembly.
How was the Indian Constituent Assembly formed?
Answer: The Indian Constituent Assembly was formed for the task of framing the Constitution for independent India. The elections to the Provisional Legislative Assembly were held in July 1946. The elected members of the Provisional Legislative Assembly elected the members for the Constituent Assembly through proportional representation system. There were in total of 389 members in the Constituent Assembly. Later with the Partition of India into India and Pakistan, 299 members wrote the constitution. It included 70 members from princely states and nine women. 284 present members gave their assent and the Indian Constitution was passed.
2. Formation of the Indian constitution was no less difficult than that of the constitution of South Africa. Do you agree? Explain with five arguments.
“India emerged as an independent country against heavy turmoil.” Justify the statement.
Answer: It is a fact that like South Africa, India’s Constitution was also drawn up under very difficult circumstances as mentioned below:
(i) India is a huge and diverse country. This made making the constitution a difficult task.
(ii) We got independence in 1947, People were emerging from the status of subjects to that of citizens.
(iii) The country was born as a result of partition on the basis of religious differences. A large number of people were killed in communal clashes. This was a traumatic experience for the people of India as well as Pakistan.
(iv) The British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent. It was a very difficult task.
(iv) The future of the country was not as secure as it is today.
Thus the condition was that of turmoil and uncertainty. People were facing problems such as unemployment, violence and anxiety, separation from their loved ones due to partition.
3. “The familiarity with political institutions of the colonial rule helped to develop an agreement over the institutional design.” Justify the statement.
Answer: The familiarity with political institutions of colonial rule helped to develop an agreement over the institutional design in the following ways.
(a) The British rule gave voting rights to only a few. Later Election Commission was set up and voting rights were granted to all.
(b) Elections were held in 1937 to Provincial Legislatures and Ministries were formed all over British India. The experience gained by Indians in the working of these institutions proved to be very useful for the country in setting up its own institutions and working in them.
(c) The Indian Constitution adopted many institutional details and procedures from colonial laws like the Government of India Act, 1935.
(d) The ideals of the French Revolution, the practice of Parliamentary democracy in Britain and the Bill of Rights in the US-inspired us to set up fundamental rights and duties.
(e) The political institutions of the colonial rule are not just copied. They are questioned at every step to suit our nation’s conditions and set-up. In a way, they serve as a blueprint for setting up our institutions.
4. Explain the importance of the institutional design of the Constitution of India.
Answer: The importance of the institutional design of the Constitution of India as follows:
(a) The constitution is mainly about embodying its values into institutional arrangements.
(b) It is a long and detailed document. Therefore, it needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated.
(c) The constitution describes the constitutional arrangements in a very legal language.
(d) Constitution lays down a procedure for choosing persons to govern the country. It defines who will and how much power one will have to make which decisions.
(e) It also puts limits on what the government can do by providing some rights to the citizens that cannot be violated.
5. Regarding the constitution-making, what was the compromise reached at between the blacks and whites?
Answer: The constitution of South Africa was drawn together by the party of whites which had rules through oppression and the party that led the freedom struggle. The constitution gave to its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country. After long negotiations both parties agreed to a compromise. The whites agreed to the principle of majority rule and that of one person one vote. They also agreed to accept some basic rights for the poor and the workers. The blacks agreed that the majority rule would not be absolute. They agreed that the majority would not take away the property of the white minority.
6. What does the constitution effectively do that makes a country a democratic one?
Answer: A constitution does many things to make a country a democratic one :
(i) It generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kind of people to live together.
(ii) It specifies how the government will be constituted and who will have the power of taking which decisions.
(iii) It lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are.
(iv) It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.
7. Why did the makers of the Indian constitution have anxieties about the present and the future of the country?
Answer: The makers of the Indian constitution had anxieties because making of the constitution for a huge and diverse country like India was not an easy affair. The country was born through partition on the basis of religious differences. At least ten lakh people were killed on both sides of the border in partition related violence. Another problem was that the British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or to remain independent.
8. Describe how the Constituent Assembly worked to prepare the constitution for India.
Answer: The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. First some basic principles were decided and agreed upon. Then a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prepared a draft constitution for discussion. Several rounds of thorough discussion took place, clause by clause. More than 2000 amendments were made. The members deliberated for 114 days spread over 3 years. Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly was recorded and preserved. These are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’.
9. In his speech ‘Tryst with Destiny’, Nehru said, ‘Freedom and power bring responsibility.’ Explain what he meant by this.
Answer: By saying that ‘Freedom and power bring responsibility’, Nehru meant that it is the responsibility of Indians to not relax with ease after having got the freedom, but to constantly strive to fulfil the pledges taken. He said that the service of India meant the service of them millions who suffered, it meant the embing of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity.
10. What is the preamble of the constitution? What is the significance of ‘We the people of India’ and ‘secular’ in the preamble?
Answer: It is an introductory part of the constitution. It is called the key of the Constitution. “We the people of India” means the constitution has been drawn up and enacted by the people through their representatives. Secular means that citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. But there as no official religion.
11. Describe any three features of the Indian constitution.
Answer: (i) It establishes a Sovereign, Democratic, Republic in India
(ii) It establishes a secular state in India
(iii) It provides Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties.
12. What is constitution? Why do we need a constitution?
Answer: It is a set of written rules that are accepted by all the people of a country. It is needed as it is the supreme law that determines the relationship among citizens of a country. It defines how the government will be formed and also limits the powers of the government and defines the rights of the citizens.
13. The Indian constitution is both rigid and flexible. Explain.
Answer: The Indian Constitution is neither wholly flexible nor wholly rigid. It is partly rigid and partly flexible. It is not so flexible as the British constitution is, nor so rigid as the American constitution is.
Some of the articles of the constitution can be amended by a simple majority of the parliament, e.g. changing the names of states, altering boundaries of states, matters relating to citizenship etc. Some of the articles of the constitution can be amended with 2/3 majority of the members of parliament, e.g. the election of the president of India. If any change in it is intended then it has to be passed first by a majority of the total members in each house of parliament.
14. Mention the landmark years in the making of the Indian constitution.
Answer: As far back as 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India. In 1931 at the Karachi Session of Indian National Congress leaders pondered what India’s constitution should be like. Elections held in 1937 to provincial Legislatures and Ministry all over British India. It was beneficial for Indians to gain experience. That is why Indian Constitution adopted many institutional details from colonial laws like the Government of India Act 1935.
15. What is the aim of a socialist state? How can that be achieved?
Answer: We all us generated socially and should be shared equally by society. Government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socioeconomic equalities. Social inequalities have to be reduced, Government should work for the welfare of all.
16. What was the African Policy of Apartheid? How could that come to an end?
Answer: Apartheid was the name of a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa. The White Europeans imposed this system on South Africa. The native people of Africa are black. They had 3/4 of the population. The whites treated all non-whites as inferiors. The non-whites did not have voting rights. The blacks were forbidden from living in the white area. Trains, buses, hospitals, schools, hotels, taxis, cinemas etc were all separate for the whites and blacks. The blacks, coloured and Indians fought for their rights-arranged marches protests and strikes. The racist government for tortured them. On 26 April 1994. Apartheid came to an end with the birth of the Republic of South Africa.
17. Define the following terms mentioned in the Preamble to the constitution of India.
(a) Sovereign (b) Socialist (c) Secular (d) Republic
Answer: (a) Sovereign means people have supreme right to make decisions on internal and external matters. No external power can dictate to the Government of India.
(b) Socialist means that wealth is generated socially it should be shared equally by society.
(c) Secular means that citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion but there is no official religion.
(d) Republic means the head of the State is an elected person and not a hereditary position.
18. What is the Preamble? Explain any three guiding principles explained in the Preamble.
Answer: Preamble is a short statement of the basic values of the constitution. Taking inspiration from American model, most countries have adopted constitutions with a preamble. The preamble of the Indian constitution reads like a poem on democracy. It contains the philosophy on which the entire constitution has been built:
1. Democratic – It will have a democratic government where people will enjoy equal rights
2. Equality – All citizens will be equal before the law; and
3. Fraternity – All world would behave as if they are members of the same family.
19. Why do we need a constitution? Give any four points. [2010 (T-1)]
Answer: Every country has diverse groups of people. People have differences. Hence the need to have a set of rules. To maintain a trust it as best to write down these rules. Thus the constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are acceptd by all. A constitution.
1. generates trust and coordination.
2. specifies how government will be constituted.
3. lays down limits on the powers of the government.
4. expresses the aspirations of the people.
20. In which way was the system of ‘apartheid’ oppressive? [Important]
Answer: The apartheid system was particularly oppressive for the blacks. They were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit. Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, swimming pools, public toilets etc. were all separate for the whites and blacks. They could not even visit the churches where the whites worshipped. Blacks could not form associations or protest against the terrible treatment.
21. What was the appeal made by the black leaders to the fellow blacks after the emergence of the new democratic South Africa?
Answer: After the emergence of the new democratic South Africa, black leaders appealed to fellow blacks to forgive the whites for the atrocities they had committed while in power. They urged the people to build a new South Africa based on equality of all races, and of men and women, on democratic values, social justice and human rights.
22. What is meant by the term ‘Constitution’?
Answer: The constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all people living in that country. It is the supreme law that determines the relationship among the people living in a territory (called citizens) and also the relationship between the people and government. It specifies how the government will be constituted and who will have the power to take different decisions.
23. Describe the advantages that Indians had when they participated in the legislatures which were set up as a result of the elections of 1937.
Answer: Although the legislatures set up in India as a result of elections of 1937 were not fully democratic, the experience gained by Indians in the working of the legislative institutions proved to be very useful for the country in setting up its own institutions and working in them.
24. Give a description of the composition of the Constituent Assembly. [Important]
Answer: The Constituent Assembly was elected mainly by the members of the existing Provincial Legislatures. This ensured a fair geographical share of members from all the regions of the country. Congress, which was the dominant party in the Assembly, itself included a variety of political groups and opinions. It represented members from different languages, castes, religions, classes and occupations.
25. What did Ambedkar mean by ‘Contradiction’ in his concluding speech to the Constituent Assembly?
Answer: In his concluding speech to the Constituent Assembly Dr. Ambedkar said that India was entering a life of ‘contradictions’ on 26th Jan 1950. By this he meant that in politics Indians would have equality but in social and economic life, there would be inequality. In politics India would be recognising the principle of one man one vote, with one value, but in social and economic life, the principle of one man one value would be denied.
26. Why was a constitution necessary for a country like South Africa?
Answer: The oppressor and the oppressed, i.e. the whites and the blacks were planning to live together, as equals. It was not going to be easy for them to trust each other. They wanted to safeguard their interests. The only way to build and maintain trust was to write down some rules. This set of basic rules was the constitution needed for South Africa.
27. What do you understand by secularism? Why is India called a secular country?
Answer: India is a country of many religions and it respects all religions. No religion is given the status of state religion and equal respect is given to all beliefs, faiths and practices. Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion.
28. What are Constitutional Amendments? State its significance in a democratic country like India.
Answer: Constitutional Amendments are changes in the constitution made by the Supreme Legislative body in a country. The constitution of India is a very long and detailed document. Therefore, it needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated.
29. What were the difficulties faced during the making of Indian constitution?
Answer: It was drawn up under very difficult circumstances. Making a constitution for a huge country like India was not an easy affair. The country was born through partition. The problem of princely states was left undecided by the British. There were anxieties about the present and future of the country.
30. State the steps involved in the framing of Indian constitution.
Answer: The drafting of the document called the constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the Constituent assembly Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. Its first meeting was held in December 1946. It had 299 members. The assembly adopted the constitution on 26 November 1949 and it came into force on 26 January 1950.
31. The Preamble of our constitution is a short statement of values. Which country has inspired India to incorporate the Preamble? Why does it start with ‘‘We The People of India?’’
Answer: Taking inspiration from American model, most countries including India have chosen to begin their constitutions with an importance to the people of India by saying that it is the people who have drawn up and enacted the constitution. It has not been handed down to them by a king or any outside power.