Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 The Story of Village Palampur Important Questions

Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 The Story of Village Palampur important questions and answers cover the major concepts of the chapter. Solving answers of these important questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions with PDF as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising these questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.

The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Important Questions and Answers

1. Name any one activity in Palampur which is associated with the tertiary sector.
Answer: Transport

2. When is the Kharif crop season?
Answer: Kharif cropping season is from July to October during the south-west monsoon.

3. What was the major impact of electricity on the farmers of Palampur? Explain.

Answer: Electricity reaching in Palampur transformed irrigation system as electric-run tubewells could be used to irrigate much larger areas of land more effectively. Electric tubewell would draw water from well electrically and no manual handling required. Electricity has also facilitated the harvesting of crops with electric harvesters.

4. What is the basic aim of production? What are the essential four requirements for production?

Answer: Basic aim of production was to produce goods and services that we want. Four requirements for production of goods and services were:
(a) Land and other natural resources like water, forests, minerals
(b) Labour, i.e., people who would do the work. Each worker is providing the labour necessary for production.
(c) Third requirement is physical capital, i.e., variety of inputs required at every stage during production
(d) Fourth requirement is knowledge and enterprise to be able to put together land, labour and physical capital and produce an output.

5. What do you mean by working capital? How does it affect the day-to-day activities in farming?

Answer: Raw materials and money in hand is known as working capital. Some money is always required during production to make payments and buy other necessary items. Working capital is related with day-to-day activities in farming like use of seeds, pesticides, insecticides, manure, wages of labour etc. So production in farming is high for more working capital. Higher working capital would facilitate more purchase of seeds, fertilizers and wages, so higher yield would be there.

6. What do you mean by Rabi crops and Kharif crops? When are they sown and harvested? Give examples also.

Answer: Rabi crops are grown in winter season (between October to December) and harvested in spring season (between mid-late April to mid-late June). Potato, wheat, barley, mustard are Rabi crops.

Kharif crops are sown in rainy season (from July to September) and harvested in autumn season. Examples of Kharif crops are jowar and bajra, sugarcane, cotton, red chillies etc.

7. What is the difference between multiple cropping and modern farming method?

Answer: To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping. For example, sugarcane is sown along with wheat in winter season as sugarcane is harvested once every year. Modern farming methods are the use of improved methods and techniques to be used in agriculture to increase yield per hectare. Use of HYV seeds, insecticides, pesticides, electric tubewell etc. are modern farming methods.

8. Modern farming methods require the farmers to invest more cash than before. Why? Explain.

Answer: Yes, modern farming methods like use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, electric tubewell for irrigation require higher investment in farming because they carry higher cost than traditional one. HYV seeds need more water and also chemical fertilizers and pesticides to produce best results. Higher use of chemicals causes environmental degradation also.

9. What was the major disadvantage associated with HYV seeds? Explain.

Answer: Biggest disadvantage associated with HYV seeds is bigger requirement of water and also chemical fertilizers and pesticides to produce best results. Higher yields are possible only from combination of HYV seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilizers, pesticides etc.

Chemical fertilizers and pesticides degrade our environment killing necessary bacteria in soil. Poor farmers could not afford HYV seeds due to increased requirement of fertilizers and machinery. New machinery replaced manual labour leading to unemployment and rural-urban migration.

10. What are the various farming and non-farming activities in village Palampur?

Answer: Farming activities: Farming is the main production activity in Palampur. About 75% of the people depend upon farming for their livelihood. They use methods of multiple farming and modern farming techniques for increase in their productivity. Well developed irrigational facilities and use of HYV seeds has improved in production levels of agriculture in Palampur.

Non-farming activities: Non-farming activities in Palampur include dairy farming small scale manufacturing units, shop-keeping and transportation activities. Milk is transported to nearby and far of towns. Family members, without hired labours run small manufacturing units with simple techniques shop keepers buy various goods from wholesale markets in cities and sell them in villages. Road transport facilities include rickshaws, tongs, jeeps, tractors, trucks and bullock carts.

11. What do the scientific reports indicate about the modern farming methods? Mention any three points.

Answer: Scientific reports indicate that the modern farming methods have overused the natural resource base.
(i) Green revolution, due to increased use of chemical fertilizers, has led to loss of soil fertility.
(ii) Use of ground water with due help of tubewells for irrigation has reduced the level of ground water.
(iii) Use of chemical fertilizers resulted in loss of soil fertility. Therefore, farmers are forced to use more and more chemical fertilizers to achieve the production levels which in turn raises the cost of production.

12. What are the sources of irrigation in Palampur?

Answer: Palampur holds a well developed system of irrigation. Due to introduction of electricity irrigation system transformed from Persian wheels to electric-run tubewells. Initially, the first few tubewells were installed by the government and then by mid of 1970s the entire cultivated area of 200 hectare was irrigated by privately installed tubewells.

13. What is Green Revolution? Which crop has benefitted the most due to Green Revolution?

Answer: Green Revolution is a revolution of using modern farming methods for higher yield and achieving the self-sufficiency in the production of wheat and rice. It includes use of High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, etc. for producing best results. Wheat has benefitted most due to Green Revolution.

14. What problems do farm labourers face in terms of employment? Explain any three problems. 

Answer: Problems faced by farm labourers are:
(a) Inadequate wages: Government has fixed the minimum wages as Rs 60 day but they do not usually get this amount of money.
(b) Availability of labour: Too much availability of labour forces the labourers to work on lower wages.
(c) Duration of employment: Labourers are sometimes employed on the daily wages and sometimes for the whole year. They do not have surety of job.

15. Explain any three modern farming methods.

Answer: (a) Use of HYV seeds: Use of High Yielding Variety seeds promises larger quantity of production of food grains.
(b) Use of farm machinery: Use of machinery for irrigation, harvesting, threshing etc improves the quality of work as well as reduces time consumption.
(c) Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides: Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides ensure the farmers about the better upbringing of crops in quality and quantity.

16. Many factors are responsible for the poor economic condition of farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali. Can you explain a few of these factors?

Answer: The factors responsible for poor economic conditions of farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali are:

(a) Use of modern farming techniques: Use of modern farming techniques make it difficult for farm labourers to get work. Tractors are used for ploughing, harvesters for harvesting, threshers for threshing and weedicide for removing weeds. This leaves very less or no work for farm labourers.

(b) Poorly Paid: Due to heavy competition for work among the farm labourers, people agree to work for lower wages. The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by government is Rs 60 per day but they are generally paid only half of it. This forces them to take loan from local money lenders which put them in the vicious circle of poverty.

17. Why it is necessary to increase the area under cultivation? Explain.

Answer: (a) Farming: main activity: In Palampur, farming is the main activity as 75% of population earn their living through farming. Unfortunately, not all people engaged in farming have sufficient land for cultivation. So it is necessary to increase area under cultivation.

(b) Use of modern farming methods: Use of HYV seeds, improved methods of irrigation, pesticides, insecticides and chemical fertilisers and new harvesting techniques require larger farming land area of cultivation. In small area, they are not successful and the costs involved is also high.

(c) Land area under cultivation is fixed in Palampur: Since 1960, in Palampur, there has been no expansion in land area. So some of the wastelands in the village had been converted to cultivable land. More alternatives are required of such type.

18. What is the main source of capital for medium and large farmers? How is it different from the small farmers? Explain.

Answer: (a) Surplus wheat selling: Main source of capital for medium and large farmers is supply of surplus wheat in market as they own large area of cultivable land. They retain part of wheat for their own use and sell rest of wheat in market. While for small farmers, no surplus wheat is available so they arrange capital from large farmers or village money lenders for the traders.

(b) Extra work to landowner or large farmers: In order to get loan from land owner or large farmers they have to pay higher interest rates and also extra work on their fields to repay the loan, while medium and large farmers can devote their full time to their own land.

19. Why modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry? Explain.

Answer: (a) A modern farming method requires higher investment: Use of HYV seeds, pesticides, insecticides, electric tubewells etc. require more initial investment as all are costly affairs.

(b) HYV seeds require more water, chemical fertilizer: HYV seeds would give higher yield only in combination of HYV seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, pesticides etc. Use of electric tubewells, mechanical harvesters require more electricity for their operation to produce better results.

20. What were the main terms on which Savita got a loan from Tejpal Singh? How can Savita be benefitted if she gets a loan from the bank?

Answer: Savita arranged money for capital from a big farmer – Tejpal Singh, who belongs to the same village.
Main terms decided to get loan of Rs 3000.
(a) Interest rate of 24%.
(b) Loan given for the period of 4 months.
(c) Extra work to be done by Savita on Tejpal Singh’s field.
(d) Tejpal Singh would give her Rs 35 per day as wages.
These conditions were very tough for a small farmer like Savita but these had to be agreed upon. If she could arrange money from cooperative society or bank she could repay the loan in easy installment on reasonable interest rate of 16–18% and no need to put extra working hours on others land.

21. What was the basic aim of the ‘Green Revolution’ in India? How did it affect the market economy?

Answer: The introduction of HYV seeds and the increased use of fertilisers and irrigation are known collectively as the Green Revolution which was associated with increase in production of food grains in India and make India self-sufficient in foodgrains.

Impact of Green Revolution on market economy
(a) Increased production of foodgrains like wheat and rice: Foodgrain yields continued to increase throughout the 1980s. In financial year 1980, almost 75 percent of the total cropped area under wheat was sown with HYV seeds.
(b) Increased income disparities, higher income growth and reduced incidence of poverty: Green revolution has increased income disparities, higher income growth and reduced incidence of poverty.

22. What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? Explain any four points.
What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land. Explain with the help of examples.
State four steps of optimal utilisation of land.

Answer: Land area under cultivation is fixed. So, the ways of increasing farm produce on the same piece of land are:

(a) Multiple cropping: It is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land. Under it, more than one crop is grown on the same piece of land during the year. Indian farmers should grow at least two main crops in a year. Some farmers have been growing a third crop also over the past twenty years.

(b) Green Revolution: It was brought in India in the late 1960s, the use of HYV (High Yielding Variety) seeds for increase in production of rice and wheat. It promised to produce much greater amount of grains on a single plant.

(c) Use of modern technology: By the use of well developed able to cultivate their land with greater efficiency. Farmers use pumps for irrigation, threshers for threshing, harvesters for harvesting, tractors for Ploughing etc.

(d) Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides: Use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides improves fertility of soil and reduces pest respectively for the particular period of production. This improves the quantity of production.

23. Who provides labour for farming in Palampur? How are they paid for their work?

Answer: After land, labour is the second most necessary factor for production. Small farmers along with the other numbers of their family cultivate their own fields. Thus, they provide the labour required for farming themselves. Medium and large scale farmers hire farm labourers to work on their fields. Farm labourers either engaged from landless families or the families cultivating small piece of land. Farm labourers do not have any right over the crops grown on the land.

They are paid in the following ways:
(i) Wages are paid to them in form of cash or kind, i.e., crops.
(ii) Government has set up minimum wages for farm labourers to be Rs 60 per day but unfortunately they do not get this much and are mostly exploited.
(iii) Sometimes poor farm labourers work for meal also.
(iv) Sometimes they are employed on daily basis and sometimes for the whole year. Thus, durations of their employment is not fixed.

24. What are the four requirements for production of goods and services? Explain.
What are the four requirements of production? Explain with examples.

Answer: There are four requirements of production of goods and services. These requirements are known as factors of production.
These are:
(a) Land: By land we mean not only the level surface but all gifts of nature which are amenable to human control, such as water, forest, minerals etc.
(b) Labour: Manpower required to do the work. The mental and physical work done by people in an organisation comes under labour.
(c) Physical Capital: It means a variety of inputs required at every stage during production.
They can be classified as:
(i) Fixed capital: It includes tools, machines and building that can be used for production for many years.
(ii) Working capital: Money in land and raw material that has to be used in current products are included in working capital.
(d) Enterprise: It means need of knowledge and enterprise to put together all other factors of production and ability to sell the produce in the market. This is also called human capital.

25. What is Green Revolution? Explain some of its features. [2010 (T-1)]

Answer: Green Revolution is a revolution with farmers using modern methods for higher yields and achieving self sufficiency in the production of wheat and rice. It includes use of High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilizers, pesticides etc for producing best results. Farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try it in the late 1960s.

Factors responsible for Green Revolution are:
(a) Increase in yield: HYV seeds promised to produce much greater amounts of grains on a single plant. As a result, the same piece of land produce for larger quantities of food grains.
(b) Use of modern technology: Use of modern technology like tractors, harvesters, tubewells etc have made the implementation of green revolution possible in the environment.
(c) Use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides: Unlike traditional fertilizer and manures, use of chemical fertilizer has increased as a requirement with HYV seeds which improves the quality and quantity of the produce.

26. Explain any two positive and two negative effects of Green Revolution. [2010 (T-1)]
Explain two achievements and two drawbacks of Green Revolution in Indian agriculture.

Answer: Green Revolution was started in the late 1960s with an aim of achieving self sufficiency in the production of grains like wheat and rice.

Two positive effects and achievements of green revolution are:
(a) Increase in productivity of grains: Use of HYV seeds produced much more amount of wheat and rice in comparison to traditional seeds.
(b) Modernisation of agriculture: HYV seeds require well-developed irrigation, use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Use of farm machinery has also encouraged in the green revolution which resulted in development and modernization of agriculture. It also increased the surplus in the field of agriculture.

Two Negative effects and drawbacks of Green Revolution:
(a) Decline in fertility of soil: Too much use of chemical fertilizer resulted in decline of fertility of soil. Farmers have to use more and more chemical fertilizer which increases the lost of production.
(b) Level of groundwater: Use of groundwater for cultivation with the help of tub wells have caused decline in level of ground water.

27. What are the difficulties faced by small farmers in arranging capital in comparison with medium and large farmers.

Answer: Modern farming methods require a great deal of capital, so the small farmers face more difficulties in arranging capital in comparison with medium and large farmers. Most of the small farmers have to borrow money from for large farmers or the village money lenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation. The rate of interest on such loans is very high. This put the small farmers in great distress to repay the loans.
Unlike small farmers, medium and large farmers have their own savings from farming. They sale their good amount of surplus and earn more income. This incomes they utilise in arranging capital for next season of production.

28. Is Palampur a developed village? Explain by presenting four arguments.
How can you say that Palampur is a well developed village?

Answer: Palampur is a well developed village. This can be made clear from the following arguments:
(a) Multiple cropping: Farmers of Palampur have adapted multiple cropping. They plant  three crops on a year and never leave their land idle.
(b) Modern facilities of agriculture: They have a well developed system of irrigation. Electricity came early in Palampur. They use modern machinery like tractors, harvesters etc for farming. Use of HYV seeds and chemical fertilisers is also noticed in Palampur.
(c) Markets and Education: There are small markets setup in Palampur which have all the daily needs commodities available. Kareem is also running computer classes and a good number of students are learning there. High schools and education for women is available here.
(d) Transportation: People of Palampur have facilities of transporting goods to other towns and village with a good transportation system and well developed roads.

29. What are the various ways through which farmers can get loan? Write their advantages and disadvantages.

Answer: Farmers can get loans through the following ways:

(a) Large farmers or village money lenders: Most of the small farmers prefer taking loans from large farmers or village money lenders.

Advantages of taking loans from such sources are:
(i) They are flexible in terms and conditions of repayment and rate of interest.
(ii) They know the lenders personally so get loans without collateral security.

(i) Rate of interest is very high.
(ii) Small farmers are exploited and are trapped in vicious circle of poverty.

(b) Banks and cooperative society: Although, very few number of small farmers approach banks for loan but they provide them better services.

Advantages of loans from banks and cooperatives:
(i) No exploitation of farmers.
(ii) Uniform and nominal rate of interest for all.

(i) Needs proper security and have set terms and conditions.

30. Differentiate between fixed capital and working capital. State any four points.

Answer: Both fixed capital and working capital are the parts of physical capital required for production.

(a) Fixed Capital:
(i) It includes fixed factors of production which are used for years.
(ii) Tools and machines range from very simple tools such as a farmer’s plough to sophisticated machines such as generators, turbines etc.
(iii) It includes tools, machines, buildings etc.
(iv) They remain constant for many years of production and increased or decreased only when needed.

(b) Working Capital:
(i) It includes variable factors of production which are needed to be arranged every time at the time of production.
(ii) Whatever money and raw material required for production are included in it.
(iii) It is required to be arranged according to the desired production.
(iv) They are dynamic depending upon the profits and income of last season.

31. Explain four efforts that can be made to increase non-farming production activities in villages?

Answer: Non-farming production activities should be increased in the village. Unlike farming, non-farm activities required very less land and capital.
(i) Loans can be made available to villagers on low rates of interest so that people with less savings can set up non-farm activities.
(ii) Markets should be made available to sell the goods produced in non-farm activities.
(iii) Development of goods transport, communication system and proper storage of goods should be established to increase the opportunities for non-farm activities in the village.

32. Explain any four non-farming activities in Palampur village.

Answer: Most of the people living in palampur village are involved in production activities. Only 25% of the people working in Palampur village are engaged in activities other than agriculture.

Various non-farm activities in Palampur village are:

(a) Dairy: It is a common activity at Palampur village. People feed their buffaloes on jowar and bajra and sold their milk in Raiganj village. Two traders from Shahpur town have set up collection cum chilling centres at Raiganj from where the milk is transported to far away towns and cities.

(b) Small scale manufacturing units: People get involved in very simple production methods in their homes only with their family members. They make baskets, pottery etc small things and sell them in the markets nearby.
(i) Shopkeepers: People get involved in trade, they buy goods from nearby whole sale markets and sell them in the village. They sell wide range of items like sugar, tea, oil, soap etc. They open shops for eatables near bus stands.
(ii) Transport: People also get involved in providing transportation services like rickshaws, tongas, jeeps, tractors, trucks, bullock cart, bagay etc. The number of people involved in transport has grown over the last several years.

33. What do you mean by Green Revolution? Why was the initial impact of Green Revolution limited to wheat and only to a few regions?

Answer: Green Revolution is a revolution which started in the late 1960s with an aim of achieving self-sufficiency in the production of grains like wheat and rice. The initial impact of Green Revolution was limited to wheat and only to a few regions because initially only the farmers of Punjab, Haryana nad Uttar Pradesh by out the modern farming method in India. They used tubewells for irrigation and made use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers and pesticides in farming. Capital required for using HYV seeds was very high. Therefore small farmers and many backward regions could not use the modern techniques. Results and markets for wheat were better therefore, HYV seeds were utilised more for growing wheat initially. Use of HYV seeds require all other modern techniques of cultivation also therefore for initial time it remained unapproachable in many backward villages and small farmers which work without electricity or own poor farm distribution.

34. What is land? Suggest any three ways to sustain land.

Answer: Land is the levelled surface and other natural resources such as water, forest, minerals etc used for production of goods and services.
Excessive use of chemical fertilizer or modern techniques of farming destroys land and all other natural resources.
Land can be sustained through following ways:
(a) Limited use of chemical fertilizer: Chemical fertilizer should be used in a limited number and only as the per the requirement. Excessive use of chemical fertilizer destroys the fertility of land.
(b) Crop rotation: Crops should be planted in such a way that land gets time of restore its fertility. Different nutrients are required with different lands, therefore planning of multiple cropping should be done in such a way that the land is also able to restore the lost nutrients.
(c) Waste of chemical fertilizer: Waste of chemical fertilizer or pesticides should not be thrown in the water bodies of village as this will pollute the water.
(d) Adequate use of ground water: Ground water should be adequately used so that there is minimum wastage of ground water.

35. Explain any three types of production activities in Palampur.

Answer: (a) Farming at Palampur: Farming is the main activity in village Palampur. Land area available for farming is fixed. Expansion in production is done due to methods of multiple cropping and use of modern farming methods.
(b) Dairy farming: Dairy is a common activity in many families of Palampur. Many families have cows and buffalos. They feed them on jowar nad bajra. They sell milk either in the village or in nearby villages or town.
(c) Small-scale manufacturing: People at Palampur are engaged in some kind of small scale and cottage industries. Simple techniques of production are used on a small scale. Such small scale units are mostly carried at home or in fields with the help of family members. Sugarcane crushing, carpet weaving and basket–making activities are carried under such production units.

36. State any three advantages of multiple cropping.

Answer: Advantages of multiple cropping are:
(a) Efficient use of land: Land is not left idle at any time of the year and therefore more efficiently used in the process of production.
(b) Increase of production: It increases the production on a piece of land during the year.
(c) Increase in income: Multiple cropping increases the agricultural income of the country as well as for the farmers.

37. What can be done to increase the non-farm activities in the Indian Villages?

Answer: The things which can be done to increase the non-farm activities in the Indian villages are:
(a) Banks should provide loans at low-interest rates so that the poor villagers can start some small-scale businesses and can earn their livelihood.
(b) The government should initiate effective employment generating schemes like small-scale industries, computer training centers, vocational courses etc.
(c) The government should provide training to the villagers in different skills.

38. What is the aim of production? State any four requirements for production.    

Answer: The aim of production is to generate income for those people who are involved in the production of goods and services.
The four requirements for production are:
(a) Land: It is a passive factor of production. It requires human effort to make it a productive resource. No activity can take place in the absence of land and it is the basis of all human activities.
(b) Labour: The second requirement is labour, i.e., people who do the work. Some activities require educated and skilled labour to perform the necessary tasks and others require workers who can do the manual work.
(c) Physical capital: The third requirement is physical capital. There are a variety of inputs like machines, tools, raw materials and money required at every stage of production. It includes fixed capital and working capital.
(d) Human capital: It is the knowledge and enterprise to be able to put together land, labour and physical capital to produce an output either to use for themselves or to sell in the market.

39. Distinguish between traditional farming methods and modern farming methods.  


Traditional Methods of FarmingModern Methods of Farming
1. The outdated and old methods of farming used from earlier times are known as traditional methods of farming.1. New and scientific methods of farming which are used nowadays are known as modern methods of farming.
2. These methods are time consuming and production is also low.2. There methods are quick, efficient and easy to used and lead to higher production in less time.
3. Old methods like irrigating lands with the help of Persian wheels are used.3. Machinery like tractors and threshers are used.
4. Traditional seeds are used.4. HYV seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, pesticides etc. are used.
5. Farmers are dependent on monsoon rain.5. Farmers are not dependent on monsoon rain as they have provision of tube wells for irrigation.
6. Cow-dung and other natural manure are used as fertilisers.6. Chemical fertilisers are pesticides are used.
7. Traditional farming methods do not require more inputs which are manufactured in industry.7. Modern farming methods required more inputs which are manufactured in industry.

40. Name any four non-farm production activities practised in Palampur. Give brief descriptions of any three.
Mention any four non-farm production activities of village Palampur. Which activity do you feel most useful for the villagers? Give any two reasons.

Answer: The non-farm activities practiced in Palampur are:
(a) Daily farming: People in Palampur rear buffaloes. They feed them on different types of grass, jowar and bajra. Milk is sold in nearby villages. Some people also set up collection and chilling centers from where milk is transported to nearby cities and towns.
(b) Small-scale manufacturing: This involves simple production methods and is done on small scale. These are carried out at home with family members as labourers. The labourers are rarely hired for these activities.
(c) Shopkeeping: Shopkeepers in Palampur buy goods from wholesale markets in the cities and sell them in the village. Small stores sell a wide range of products like rice, wheat, sugar, oil and some clothes. Some people who have shops near the bus stop use them to sell eatables.
(d) Transport: There are different means of transport in Palampur like rickshaws, tongas, trucks, jeeps and tractors. These means of transport are used to transport goods and people from village to cities and the people get paid for this.
(e) Self-employed: Some people have open computer training centers, stitching centers etc. to obtain more profit and to train more people for better opportunities in life.

I think computer education is most useful for the villagers because:
(i) It generates employment for the people being educated.
(ii) It employs skilled persons in the village to teach so that they would not go to other cities and towns in search of employment opportunities.

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