Extra Questions for Class 10 Science Chapter 8 How Do Organisms Reproduce
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How Do Organisms Reproduce Class 10 Science Extra Questions with Answers
Question 1: What is the effect of DNA copying which is not perfectly accurate on the reproduction process?
Answer: DNA copying is not perfectly accurate and the resultant errors are a source of variations in populations of organisms.
Question 2: Mention the mode of reproduction used by
(a) Amoeba (b) Planaria.
Answer: Mode of reproduction used by
(a) Amoeba is Binary fission.
(b) Planaria is Regeneration.
Question 3: Name the information source of making proteins in the cell. State two basic events in reproduction.
Answer: The DNA in the cell nucleus is the information source of making proteins.
The two basic events in reproduction are:
(i) Creation of a DNA copy,
(ii) Additional cellular apparatus by the cell involved in the process.
Question 4: State the method used for growing rose plants.
Answer: Artificial methods of vegetative propagation like cutting are used to grow rose plants.
Question 5: State what type of method is used for growing jasmine plant.
Answer: Artificial methods of vegetative propagation like layering is used for growing jasmine plant.
Question 6: Name the largest cell present in the human body.
Answer: The largest cell present in the human body is ovum.
Question 7: What is ‘reproduction’? Mention the importance of DNA copying in reproduction.
Answer: Reproduction is the process of producing new individuals of the same species by existing organisms of a species, i.e. parents. The importance of DNA copying in reproduction are as follows:
(i) DNA copying is called DNA replication. In this process, one copy each of replicated DNA will be passed to daughter cells.
(ii) Variations may be introduced during DNA copying. This inbuilt tendency for variation during reproduction forms the basis of evolution.
Question 8: “Variations that confer an advantage to an individual organism only will survive in a population.” Justify.
Answer: It is because the chances of survival depend on the nature of variations and different individuals have different kinds of advantages.
For example: A bacteria that can withstand heat will survive better in a heat wave, i.e. the organisms that are fit in the competitive environment and with great variations will be able to survive and adapt. Thus, more offsprings and population with genetic variations will survive.
Question 9: Name one sexually transmitted disease each caused due to bacterial infection and viral infection. How can these be prevented?
Answer: Sexually transmitted disease caused due to
(i) Bacterial infection is gonorrhoea, and
(ii) Viral infection is AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). These diseases can be prevented by responsible sexual behaviour such as use of condom during intercourse, etc.
Question 10: (a) In the human body what is the role of
(i) seminal vesicles, and (ii) prostate gland?
(b) List two functions performed by testis in human beings.
Answer: (a) The role of seminal vesicles and the prostate gland are as follows:
(i) Seminal vesicles produce seminal plasma which is in the form of fluid makes the transport of sperms smooth.
(ii) Prostate gland secretes prostatic fluid that keeps the sperms alive and helps them to swim vigorously.
(b) Two functions performed by testis in human beings are as follows:
(i) Formation of sperms takes place in testis.
(ii) They secrete the hormone testosterone which regulates the formation of sperms and brings changes in appearance of boys at the time of puberty.
Question 11: What is regeneration? State a reason why a more complex organism cannot give rise to new individuals through this method.
Answer: Regeneration is the ability of a fully differentiated organism to give rise to new individual organisms from its body parts. More complex organisms cannot give rise to new individuals through regeneration because:
(i) their body is highly complicated.
(ii) there are specific organs to do specific functions.
(iii) there is a labour division in the body of complex organisms.
(iv) regeneration is carried out by specialised cells which are not present in complex organisms.
Question 12: What is reproduction? What are its two types? Which one of the two confers new characteristics on the offsprings and how?
Answer: Reproduction is the process of producing new individuals of the same species by existing organisms of a species, i.e., parents. Its two types are: Asexual reproduction and Sexual reproduction.
Sexual reproduction confers new characteristics on the offspring due to variation in DNA copying.
Question 13: List any four reasons for vegetative propagation being practised in the growth of some type of plants.
Answer: (i) Vegetative propagation is a cheaper, easier and more rapid method of propagation in plants than growing plants from their seeds.
(ii) Better quality of plants can be maintained by this method.
(iii) It results in propagation of those plants which do not produce viable seeds or produce seeds with prolonged period of dormancy.
(iv) The plants generated from vegetative means are more uniform and genetically similar to the parent stock.
Question 14: Write differences between binary fission and multiple fission in a tabular form as observed in cells of organisms.
|Binary fission||Multiple fission|
|Two daughter cells are formed from the splitting of the parent’s cell or Nucleus.||Many daughter cells are formed from the splitting of the parent’s cell or Nucleus.|
|Occurs during favourable conditions.||Occurs during unfavourable conditions.|
|Divides only once.||Divides repeatedly.|
|Both the Nucleus and cytoplasm divide simultaneously.||First, the nucleus divides and is surrounded by cytoplasm.|
|Includes definite pattern of division.||Has no definite pattern of division.|
|Example: Amoeba, Bacteria, Euglena, etc.,||Example: Plasmodium, Sporozoans, Algae, etc.|
Question 15: List any four modes of asexual reproduction.
Answer: Four modes of asexual reproduction are—Binary fission in Amoeba, Fragmentation in Spirogyra, Regeneration in Planaria and Budding in Hydra.
Question 16: Why is DNA copying an essential part of the process of reproduction?
Answer: DNA copying is an essential part of the process of reproduction because:
(i) DNA copying provides cellular apparatus in the daughter cells.
(ii) DNA in daughter cells will be able to control the functioning of daughter cells.
(iii) DNA copies will retain the traits.
Question 17: State one genetically different feature between sperms and eggs of humans. What is its consequence?
Answer: The sex chromosome of human male is XY. A sperm of human male carries either an X chromosome or one Y chromosome.
The sex chromosome of human female is XX and hence, the egg always carries the X chromosome.
If a sperm carrying X chromosome fertilises an egg which carries X chromosome, then the’ child born will be a girl. If a sperm carrying Y chromosome fertilises an egg which carries X chromosome, then the child born will be a boy.
Question 18: List two advantages of vegetative reproduction practised in case of an orange plant.
Answer: Two advantages of practising vegetative reproduction in orange plants are:
(i) The oranges produced are similar in size and shape.
(ii) Many oranges do not produce viable seeds and hence, vegetative method is good alternative.
Question 19: How does growing embryo get nutrition from the mother’s blood?
Answer: The embryo gets nutrition from the mother’s blood with the help of a special tissue called placenta. This is a disc which is embedded in the uterine wall and transfers glucose and oxygen from the mother to the embryo.
Question 20: Define the term puberty. List two changes observed in girls at the time of puberty.
Answer: The period, when the rate of general body growth begins to slow down and reproductive tissues begin to mature, is called puberty.
Two changes observed in girls at the time of puberty are:
(i) The breast size begin to increase
(ii) Menstruation starts.
Question 21: What is meant by asexual reproduction? List its any two different forms.
Answer: Asexual reproduction is the process of producing new organism from a single parent without the involvement of sex cells. Fission and fragmentation are two different forms of asexual reproduction.
Question 22: Name an organism which reproduces by spore formation. List three Conditions favourable for spores to germinate and grow.
Answer: Rhizopus reproduces by spore formation. Conditions favourable for spore formation are:
(i) Cool place, (ii) Moist place and (iii) Dark place.
Question 23: “DNA copies generated during reproduction will be similar but may not be identical to the original.” Justify this statement.
Answer: DNA copies generated will be similar, but may not be identical to the original as some variations are so drastic that new DNA copy cannot work with the cellular apparatus it inherits. Such a newborn cell will simply die. Therefore, there could be many other variations in the DNA copies that would not lead to such a drastic outcome. Thus, the surviving cells are similar but slightly different from each other. This tendency of variation during reproduction is the basis for evolution.
Question 24: List two advantages of practising vegetative propagation in plants. Select two plants raised by this method from the list given below:
Banana, Gram, Pea, Rose, Tomato, Wheat.
Answer: Advantages of vegetative propagation are:
- Plants raised by vegetative propagation can bear fruits and flowers earlier.
- Plants produced are genetically similar.
Banana and Rose can be raised by vegetative method.
Question 25: List the parts of human male reproductive system which contribute fluid to the semen. State two advantages semen offers to the sperms.
Answer: Prostate glands and seminal vesicles add fluid in the vas deferens. This makes transportation of sperms easier and also provides nutrition to the sperms.
Question 26: Name the two types of germ-cells present in human beings. How do they structurally differ from each other? Give two differences.
Answer: The two types of germ-cells present in human beings are sperm and ova. The sperm of human have either X or Y chromosome. The ova always carry X chromosome. The sperm is structurally long with a tail. The ova is round in structure.
Question 27: (i) What is fertilisation? Distinguish between external fertilisation and internal fertilisation.
(ii) What is the site of fertilisation in human beings?
Answer: (i) Fertilisation is defined as the fusion of a male gamete (sperm) with a female gamete (an ovum or egg) to form a zygote during sexual reproduction.
|External fertilization||Internal fertilization|
|It occurs outside the body of the female.||It occurs inside the body of the female.|
|A large number of gametes are released into the surrounding medium (e.g., water) where fertilization takes place.||The male gametes are deposited in the body of the female with the help of copulatory organ.|
|External fertilization requires the presence of water for the sperm to be able to unite with the egg.||With internal fertilization, the presence of water is not needed.|
|Organisms that use external fertilization to reproduce must either live in the water or return to the water for reproduction.||Animals that have internal fertilization have completely transitioned to life on land.|
|A Large number of eggs and sperms are needed.||The number of gametes produced is less.|
|Examples: Bony fish, Amphibians, most of the Algae etc.||Examples: Reptiles, Birds, Mammals, Bryophytes and Tracheophytes|
(ii) The site of fertilisation in human beings is in the fallopian tube of female reproductive system.
Question 28: Define the terms unisexual and bisexual giving one example of each.
Answer: Unisexual is the plant whose flowers contain either stamens or carpels but not both. Example: Papaya, Watermelon.
Bisexual is the plant whose flowers contain both stamens and carpels. Example: Hibiscus, Mustard.
Question 29: Differentiate between ‘self-pollination’ and ‘cross-pollination’. Describe double fertilisation in plants.
|Transfer pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same flower.||Transfer pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of a different flower.|
|This process can take place in the same flower or a different flower of the same plant.||This process can take place between two flowers present on different plants.|
|It occurs in the flowers which are genetically identical.||It occurs between flowers which are genetically different.|
|Few species that exhibit self-pollination – Paphiopedilum parishii, Arabidopsis thaliana||Few species that exhibit cross-pollination – apples, daffodils, pumpkins and grasses|
|Causes homogenous conditions in progenies.||Causes heterozygous condition in progenies.|
|Self-pollination increases genetic uniformity and decreases genetic variation.||Cross-pollination decreases genetic uniformity and increases genetic variation.|
|Causes inbreeding.||Causes outbreeding.|
|Reduces the gene pool.||Maintains the gene pool.|
|Produces limited amounts of pollen grains.||Produces large amounts of pollen grains.|
|In self-pollination, both the stigma and anther simultaneously mature||In cross-pollination, both the stigma and anther mature at different times.|
|Transfers a limited number of pollens.||Transfers large numbers of pollen.|
|This process is carried out even when the flowers are closed.||For cross-pollination to happen, the flower should be open.|
|No need for pollinators to transfer pollen grains.||Require pollinators to transfer pollen grains.|
|Pollen grains are transferred directly to a flower’s stigma.||Pollen grains are carried via wind, insects, animals, water, etc.|
During fertilisation in plants, the following events take place:
(i) One of the male gamete fuses with the female gamete present in the embryo sac.
(ii) The other male gamete fuses with the two polar nuclei in the embryo sac.
The first fusion product gives rise to the zygote while the second one forms the endosperm.
The process of two fusions occurring in the embryo sac is called double fertilisation.
Question 30: (a) Explain the terms:
(b) What is the average duration of human pregnancy?
Answer: (a) (i) Implantation: The embedding of a fertilised mammalian egg (embryo) into the inner thick wall of the uterus (womb) where it will continue its development is called implantation.
(ii) Placenta: It is a complex double-layered spongy vascular tissue in human female formed by the joint activity of maternal and foetal tissues in the wall of uterus that is meant for attachment, nourishment and waste disposal for the foetus.
(b) The average duration of human pregnancy is 40 weeks or 280 days.
Question 31: What are sexually transmitted diseases? Name four such diseases. Which one of them damages the immune system of human body?
Answer: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are the diseases which are spread by sexual contact from an infected person to a healthy person. They are caused by various microorganisms that live in warm and moist environments of the vagina, urethra, anus and mouth.
The four sexually transmitted diseases are:
(iv) AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).
AIDS damages the immune system of human body.
Question 32: Write the full form of DNA. Name the part of the cell where it is located. Explain its role in the process of reproduction of the cell.
Answer: The full form of DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid. It is the genetic material found in the chromosomes, which are present in the nucleus of a cell.
Role of DNA in the process of reproduction of the cell:
DNA plays an important role in the reproduction of a cell. The reproducing cell produces an identical copy of DNA through some cellular mechanism. Since the newly formed copy of DNA lacks an organised cellular structure, the cell gets divided to provide cell cover to the newly formed DNA. Thus, two daughter cells are formed from the single cell as a result of the copying of DNA.
Question 33: Explain vegetative propagation with the help of two examples. List two advantages of vegetative propagation.
Answer: In vegetative propagation, new plants are obtained from the parts of old plants like stems, roots and leaves, without the help of any reproductive organ.
There are two ways of vegetative propagation:
(a) Natural Vegetative Propagation, and
(b) Artificial Vegetative Propagation.
Natural vegetative propagation by leaves: The fleshy leaves of Bryophyllum bear adventitious buds in the notches along the leaf margin.
Grafting: In this method of reproduction, two plants of closely related varieties are joined together so that they live as one plant.
- The portion of a plant that is grafted on the other plant is called scion, and the plant in which grafting is performed is called the stock.
- This method is applied to improve variety of fruits like mango, apple, peas, citrus and guava. advantages of vegetative propagation are:
(i) Vegetative propagation is a cheaper, easier and more rapid method of propagation in plants than growing plants from their seeds.
(ii) Better quality of the plants can be maintained by this method.
Question 34: List differences between pollination and fertilisation.
|Pollination is the process of transfer of male gametes (pollen grains) in plants from the male reproductive part (anther) to the female reproductive part (stigma).||Fertilization is the process of fusion of haploid male and female gametes to form a diploid zygote to initiate the development of a new individual.|
|Pollination is a physical process.||Fertilization is a genetic and biochemical process.|
|Pollination is an external process taking place outside the body of the plants.||Fertilization is an internal process occurring inside the parts of the plants.|
|Pollination occurs only in plants with flowers or differentiated male and female reproductive parts.||Fertilization occurs in all types of plants and animals reproducing by sexual mode of reproduction.|
|Pollination is a prerequisite of fertilization in plants and thus occurs before fertilization.||Fertilization occurs after pollination.|
|Pollination is dependent on external biotic and abiotic factors.||Fertilization is independent of external factors.|
|Pollination only involves the movement of pollen grains or the male gametes.||Fertilization involves both male and female gametes.|
|No pollen tube is formed during pollination.||Fertilization in plants occurs via the formation of the pollen tube.|
|Pollination occurs with the help of pollination agents like water, air, insects, and animals.||Fertilization occurs by the process of hydration, activation, and pollen tube formation.|
|Pollen grains undergo dehydration to reduce their masses to ease the process of pollination.||Pollen grains undergo rehydration after reaching the stigma to initiate the process of pollen tube formation.|
|Pollination might occur between two different flowers.||Fertilization always occurs within a single flower.|
Question 35: What does HIV stand for? Is AIDS an infectious disease? List any four modes of spreading AIDS.
Answer: HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
Yes, AIDS is an infectious disease.
Four modes of spreading AIDS are as follows:
(i) By having sexual contact with an infected person.
(ii) By the transfusion of blood from an infected person.
(iii) Through infected needles used for injection.
(iv) Through the placenta from the mother to child during pregnancy.
Question 36: Expand AIDS. List any four methods of prevention (control) of AIDS.
Answer: AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
Four methods of prevention or control of AIDS are as follows:
(i) Use condom during sex.
(ii) Avoid sharing of needles.
(iii) Test blood for AIDS before transfusion.
(iv) Avoid sexual contact with unknown person.
Question 37: (a) List any four reasons for adopting contraceptive methods.
(b) If a woman is using Copper-T, will it help in protecting her from sexually transmitted diseases? Why?
Answer: (a) Four reasons for adopting contraceptive methods are:
(i) To increase the gap between, two children.
(ii)To prevent unwanted pregnancy.
(iii)To prevent transmission of STDs.
(iv)To control population growth. (b) If a woman is using a copper-T, it will not help in protecting her from sexually transmitted diseases. Copper-T prevents only implantation in the uterus.
Question 38: Explain the following methods of contraception giving one example of each:
(i) Barrier method
(ii) Hormonal imbalance method
(iii) Surgical method.
Answer: (i) Barrier Method: In this method, physical devices such as condoms, diaphragm and cervical caps are used. These devices prevent the entry of sperm in the female genital tract during copulation, thus acting ‘ as a barrier between them.
(ii) Hormonal Imbalance Method: In this method, specific drugs are used by females, which are of two types: oral pills and vaginal pills. Oral pills contain hormones which stop the ovaries from releasing ovum into the fallopian tube. These pills are also called oral contraceptives (OCs) which act by changing the hormonal balance of the body so that eggs are not released and fertilisation cannot occur. The use of Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices (IUCDs) prevents implantation in the uterus. This device is copper-T placed safely inside the uterus by a doctor or nurse.
(iii) Surgical Method: In this method, a small portion of vas deferens in male and the fallopian tube in ‘ female is surgically removed or tied. It is called vasectomy in males and tubectomy in females. In this case, if the vas deferens in male is blocked, sperm transfer will be prevented and if the fallopian tube in the female is blocked, the egg will not be able to reach the uterus, thus fertilisation will not take place.
Question 39: List and explain in brief three methods of contraception.
Answer: Methods of contraception are:
- Use of condom for penis or for vagina as a mechanical barrier for the sperms to reach the egg.
- Use of oral pills which change the hormonal balance so that eggs are not released.
- Surgical method where either the vas deferens of male is blocked or the fallopian tube of female is blocked.
Question 40: What is AIDS? Which microbe is responsible for AIDS infection? State one mode of transmission of this disease. Explain in brief one measure for the prevention of AIDS.
Answer: AIDS is the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is caused by a virus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus. AIDS is transmitted by sexual contact with an infected person. AIDS can be prevented by avoiding sexual contact with infected person or by using condom during sex.
Question 41: (a) Name the parts labelled A, B, C, D and E.
(b) Where do the following functions occur?
(i) Production of an egg
(iii) Implantation of zygote.
(c) What happens to the lining of uterus:
(i) before release of a fertilised egg?
(ii) if no fertilisation occurs?
A – Oviduct or Fallopian tube;
B – Ovary;
C – Uterus;
D – Cervix;
E – Vagina.
(b) (i) Ovaries;
(ii) Fallopian tube;
(iii) Lining of the uterus.
(c) (i) The lining of uterus becomes
(ii) The lining of uterus slowly breaks and comes out through the vagina as blood and mucous, if no fertilisation occurs.
Question 42: (a) Draw a diagram showing germination of pollen on stigma of a flower.
(b) Label pollen grain, male germ- cells, pollen tube and female germ-cell in the above diagram.
(c) How is zygote formed?
Answer: (a) and (b)
(c) Zygote is formed when male gamete, Le. sperm fuses with female gamete, i.e. ovum.
Question 43: Draw a longitudinal section of a flower and label the following parts:
(i) Part that produces pollen grain.
(ii) Part that transfers male gametes to the female gametes.
(iii) Part that is sticky to trap the pollen grain.
(iv) Part that develops into a fruit.
Question 44: (a) Explain the role of placenta in the development of human embryo.
(b) Give example of two bacterial and two viral sexually transmitted diseases. Name the most effective contraceptive which prevents spread of such diseases.
Answer: (a) Role of placenta in the development of human embryo: A special tissue develops between the uterine wall and the embryo (foetus) called placenta, where exchange of nutrients, glucose and oxygen takes place. The developing embryo will also generate waste substances which can be removed by transferring them into the mother’s blood through the placenta. The development of the child inside the mother’s blood takes approximately nine months.
(b) Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) transmitted by bacteria are:
STDs transmitted by virus:
(ii) Genital warts
The most effective contraceptive which prevents the spread of these diseases is by the use of mechanical barriers such as physical devices like condoms.
Question 45: Describe in brief the role of (i) testis (ii) seminal vesicle, (iii) vas deferens, (iv) ureter and (v) prostate gland in human male reproductive system.
Answer: (i) Testis: Testes are oval shaped primary reproductive organs in men. The function of testes is to produce sperms and male sex hormone testosterone. The scrotum provides optimal temperature for the formation of sperms.
(ii) Seminal vesicle: Seminal vesicles are a pair of thin walled muscular elongated sac which secrete fluid for nourishment of sperms.
(iii) vas deferens: The sperms are carried by a long tube called vas deferens to organs called seminal vesicles where the sperms get nourishment and stored.
(iv) Ureter It is the tube that carries urine from kidney to the urinary bladder. In humans, there are two ureters, one attached to each kidney.
(v) Prostate glands: Prostate glands produce a fluid which is released in the urethra along with secretion of seminal vesicles for nourishment and transportation of sperms.
Question 46: Draw a diagram of a human female reproductive system and label the part
(i) that produces egg
(ii) where fusion of egg and sperm take place
(iii) where zygote is implanted
What happens to human egg when it is not fertilised?
If the egg is not fertilised, the thick and nourishing lining of the uterus breaks and comes out through vagina as blood and mucous.
Question 47: State in brief the changes that take place in a fertilised egg (zygote) till birth of the child in the human female reproductive system. What happens to the egg when it is not fertilised?
Answer: The egg gets fertilised in the oviduct. The fertilised egg, the zygote gets implanted in the lining of the uterus and starts dividing. The uterus prepares itself every month to receive and nurture the growing embryo. The lining thickens and is richly supplied with blood to nourish the growing embryo.
The embryo gets nutrition from the mother’s blood with the help of a special tissue called placenta. The development of the child inside the mother’s body takes approximately nine months. On completion of 9 months, the child is born as a result of rhythmic contractions of the muscles in the uterus.
If the egg is not fertilised, the thick and nourishing lining of the uterus breaks and comes out through vagina as blood and mucous.