Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 Extra Questions and Answers

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Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Extra Questions Civics Chapter 3

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark)

1. What was Civil Rights Movement?

Answer: It was a reform movement launched by Martin Luther to abolish legal racial discrimination against African-American.

2. Who were African-American?

Answer: Afro-American, Black American, or Black are the terms used to refer mainly to the descendants of Africans who were brought into America as slaves between the 17th century and early 19th century.

3. What was the Black Power Movement?

Answer: The Black Power movement emerged in 1966 and lasted till 1975, which was a more militant anti-racist movement, advocating even violence if necessary to end racism in the US.

4. Why Tommie Smith and John Carlos received their medals wearing black socks and no shoes?

Answer: To represent black poverty and to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States. ‘

5. “The silver medallist (Mexico Olympic 1968) Peter Norman wore a human rights badge on his shirt during the medal ceremony”. Give reason.

Answer: He wore a human rights badge to support to the African-Americans who tried to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States.

6. What action was taken against the athletes who raised the Civil Rights issue at Mexico Olympics?

Answer: The International Olympic Association held Carlos and Smith guilty of violating the Olympic spirit by making a political statement. Their medals were taken back. Back home, they were subjected to a lot of criticism. Norman too suffered for his action and was not included in the Australian team for the next Olympics.

7. What did Peter Norman do to show his support to the two American athletes? What action was taken against him for his action?

Answer: (i) Peter Norman, wore a human rights badge on his shirt during the ceremony to show his support to the two Americans.
(ii) Norman was not included in the Australian team for the next Olympics.

8. Which kind of social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions?
Answer: Overlapping social divisions.

9. Mention any two factors responsible for origin of social differences.
Answer: Birth, choice, economic status and religion.

10. What are overlapping social differences?
Answer: When one social difference overlaps another difference, It is known as overlapping social differences.

11. What are cross-cutting social differences?
Answer: When one social issue cross-cut another social issue, it is known as cross-cutting social differences.

12. ‘Most of the social differences are based on accident of birth’. Explain.

Answer: The social differences are mostly based on accident of birth. Normally, we don’t choose to belong to our community. We belong to it simply because we were born into it. We all experience social differences based on accident of birth in our everyday lives. People around us are male or female, they are tall and short, have different kinds of complexions, or have different physical abilities or disabilities.

13. What is homogeneous society? Give two examples.
Answer: A society that has similar kinds of people, especially where there are no significant ethnic differences. For example, Germany and Sweden.

14. What is migration? What is its impact?

Answer: Shifting of people from one region to another within country or to another country, usually for work or other economic opportunities is known as migration.
The process of migration is converting homogeneous countries to heterogeneous countries because migrants bring with them their own culture and tend to form a different social community.

15. How are the social divisions reflected in politics? Explain.

Answer: (i) Political parties talk about social divisions, make different promises to different communities, look after due representation of various communities and make policies to redress the grievances of the disadvantaged communities.
(ii) Social divisions affect voting in most countries. People from one community tend to prefer a party more than others. In many countries, there are parties that focus only on one community.

16. What Is ethnic composition of Northern Netherland?
Answer: (i) Protestants – 53%
(ii) Roman Catholics – 44%

17. “Hie combination of politics and social divisions is very dangerous and explosive as it may lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.” Give one example.

Answer: Political competition along religious ending ethic lines led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent states.

18. What type of society exists in Sweden and Germany?
Answer: Homogeneous.

19. Why do some people belonging to the same religion often feel that they do not belong to the same community?
Answer: Because their castes or sects are different.

20. Mention two similarities between Tommie Smith and John Carlos. 
Answer: (a) Both were African-Americans.
(b) Both were athletes.

Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks)

1.  Explain the Civil Rights Movement in the USA.

Answer: (i) Civil Rights Movement in the USA (1954-1968) refers to a set of events and reform movements aimed at abolishing legal racial discrimination against African-Americans.
(ii) Led by Martin Luther King Jr., this movement practised non-violent methods of civil disobedience against racially discriminatory laws and practices.
(iii) The movement inspired many nationalist to raise the issue of racial discrimination at international level. Inspired by the movement, Tommie Smith and John Carlos raised the issue of racial discrimination in the Mexican Olympics.

2. What was Black Power Movement? How was it different from the Civil Rights Movement?
Or
Who was the leader of the Civil Rights Movement in USA? Explain the importance of this movement.

Answer: The Black Power Movement was an anti-racist movement launched in Africa.
Differences:
(i) The Black Power Movement emerged in 1966 and lasted till 1975. Whereas Civil Rights Movement emerged in 1954 and lasted till 1968.
(ii) The Civil Rights Movement was a non-violent movement. Whereas the Black Power Movement was a militant anti-racist movement, advocating even violence if necessary to end racism in the US.

3. Taking the examples at Carlos, Smith and Norman, explain how social differences divide similar people from one another but also unite very different people?

Answer:(i) Similarity between Tommie Smith and John Carlos : Both Tommie Smith and John Carlos were African-Americans. They both were Blacks and were facing racial discrimination in the United States.
(ii) Similarity between Tommie Smith, John Carlos and Peter Norman : Peter Norman, an Australian and both Tommie Smith and John Carlos belonged to different nations but still they all were one, i.e., they all were athletes.
(iii) United on racial discrimination : All the
three athletes were united on the issue of racial discrimination though one of them belonged to white class.

4.“We all have more than one identity and can belong to more than one social group.” Discuss the statement with suitable examples. 
Or
Explain the statement ‘we have different identities in different contexts’.

Answer: (i) Carlos and Smith were similar in one way, i.e., they both were African-Americans and thus different from Norman who was white. But they were also all similar in other ways – they were all athletes who stood against racial discrimination.

(ii) It is fairly common for people belonging to the same religion to feel that they do not belong to the same community, because their caste or sect is very different. For example, people of Northern Ireland and Netherlands are predominantly Christians but divided between Catholics and Protestants.

(iii) Rich and poor persons from the same caste and creed often do not keep close relations with each other for they feel they are very different. Thus, we all have more than one identity and can belong to more than one social group. We have different identities in different contexts.

5. How far do you agree with the statement that all social differences are not always an accident? Why are most countries emerging as multi-cultural countries?
Or
All kinds of social differences are not based on accident of birth. 

Answer: (i) Many of our differences are based on our choices. For example, some people are atheists (those who don’t believe in God) whereas other choose to follow a religion.
(ii) Many differences are based on the occupation we take up.
(iii) Some differences are also based on ideology. For example, in India there are many political parties based on different ideologies.

6. “The outcome of politics of social divisions depends on how people perceive their identities.” Explain the statement with example. 

Answer: Three factors are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions. First of all, the outcome depends on how people perceive their identities. If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate. As long as people in Northern Ireland saw themselves as only Catholic or Protestant, their differences were difficult to reconcile. It is much easier if the people see that their identities are multiple and are complementary with the national identity. A majority of Belgians now feel that they are as much Belgian as they are Dutch or German-speaking. This helps them to stay together. This is how most people in our country see their identity : they think of themselves as Indian as well as belonging to a state or a language group or a social or religious community.

7. ‘Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions.’ Explain. 

Answer: • When one social difference overlaps another difference, it is known as overlapping social differences.
• Overlapping social differences between Blacks and Whites became a social division in the United States. Overlapping social difference became the main factor for the Black Power Militant Movement.
• Even in India, Dalits face discrimination and injustice. These kinds of situations produce social divisions which are harmful for democracy and weaken the basic foundation of democracy.

8. ‘Social divisions of one kind or another exist in most countries.’ Explain. 
Or
When does a social difference become a social division? Explain any three situations. 

Answer: • Most of the countries of the world are heterogeneous or multi-cultural. India is a vast country with many religions and communities living side by side.
• Belgium, a small country is also a multi-cultural country.
• Even those countries such as Germany and Sweden, that were once highly homogeneous, are undergoing rapid change with the influx of people from other parts of the world. Migrants bring with them their own culture, and tend to form a different social community.

9. ‘In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal, and can be healthy.’ Explain.
Or
How is political expression of social divisions in democracy beneficial ? 
Or
“Assertion of social diversities in a country need not be seen as a source of danger.” Explain.

Answer: (i) This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances, and get the government to attend to these.
(ii) Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their cancelling one another out, and thus, reduces their intensity. This leads to the strengthening of a democracy
(iii) In certain case, countries like India tries to accommodate social division by providing political power to certain backward people.

10. “History shows that democracy is the best way to fight for recognition and also to accommodate diversity.’ ’Justify.

Answer: (i) India: India is a very diverse country. The real success of democracy in India is because our Parliament and government has tried to accommodate social diversities. Many changes have been brought in the Indian Constitution since independence.

(ii) Belgium: The experiment of Belgium also shows that democracy is the only way to accommodate differences. Between 1970 and 1993, they amended their Constitution four times so as to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country.

(iii) Sri Lanka: In case of Sri Lanka, the government failed to respond to needs of the people and tried to follow the principle of majoritarianism. The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict and lead to a Civil War.

11. “Reaction of the government to the demands of different groups is a crucial factor in determining the outcome of social divisions”. Explain the statements.

Answer: (i) If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country. But if they try to suppress such a demand with force and in the name of national unity, this can lead to civil war or division of country, and that is what happened in Sri Lanka.

(ii) According to our Constitution, the use of English for official purposes was to stop in 1965 but when many non-Hindi states demanded the use of English to be continued the Union Government responded in a positive way avoiding any conflict.

(iii) In Belgium, the government responded as per the needs of the people and amended the Constitution several time to avoid any conflict in the society.

Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks)

1. Explain the reasons of social differences. 
Or
Why do social differences emerge in society ? 

Answer: (i) Birth : Birth is the most important factor which is responsible for social differences. A person in India is considered of a low caste because of his birth in the lower class family. A Black is discriminated from White because of his colour which is once again controlled by birth.

(ii) Differences based on choice : Some of the differences are based on our choices. For example, some people are atheists. They don’t believe in God or any religion. Differences also occur because of choice of occupation. Differences occur among the people because of different professions and economic activities also.

(iii) Differences based on religion:
Sometimes religion can be one of the causes of social differences. It is fairly common for people belonging to the same religion to feel that they do not belong to the same community because their caste or sect is very different.

(iv) Differences based on economic status : Economic status can also be responsible for social differences. Rich and poor people belonging to the same community or religion or sect often do not keep close relations with each other as they feel that they are very different. ‘

(v) Differences based on caste/color : In many regions of the world people are differentiated on the basis of caste or colour. For example, in United States and South Africa Blacks were discriminated because of their skin color.

2. Explain the overlapping and cross-cutting differences. 
Or
Explain the cross-cutting differences with suitable examples. 

Answer: • Overlapping differences : These social divisions take place when some social differences overlap with many other differences.
• The difference between the Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in the United States because historically, most of the Blacks are poor, homeless and discriminated against.
• In India, the Dalits tend to be poor and landless. They often face discrimination and injustice.
• These kinds of situations produce social divisions which are harmful for democracy, and weaken the basic foundation of democracy.
• When one kind of social difference becomes more important than any other, and people start feeling that, they belong to different communities then this can lead to the disintegration of the country.

Cross-cutting differences :
• Under cross-cutting differences, people share common interests on one issue but are likely to be on different side on another issue.
• Cross-cutting social differences are easier to accommodate.
• Netherlands and Northern Ireland are Christian countries divided into Catholics and Protestants.
• In Netherlands, class and religion tend to cut across each other. This means Catholics and the Protestants are about equally likely to be poor or rich.
• In Northern Ireland, class and religion overlap with each other, i.e., if one is Catholic, he is also more likely to be poor.

3. “The combination of politics and social divisions is very dangerous and explosive. It can make social divisions into political divisions and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.” Justify.
Or
Explain with special reference to Northern Ireland the ways in which social divisions have resulted in violent and bitter ethno-political conflict. 

Answer: (i) Let us take the case of Northern Ireland that we referred to above. This region of the United Kingdom has been for many years the site of a violent and bitter ethno-political conflict. Its population is divided into two major sects of Christianity: 53 per cent are Protestants, while 44 per cent are Roman Catholics.

(ii) The Catholics were represented by Nationalist parties who demanded that Northern Ireland be unified with the Republic of Ireland, a predominantly Catholic country whereas the Protestants were represented by Unionists who wanted to remain with the UK, which is predominantly protestant.

(iii) Hundreds of civilians, militants and security forces were killed in the fight between Unionists and Nationalists and between the security forces of the UK and the Nationalists.

(iv) It was only in 1998, that the UK government and the Nationalists reached a peace treaty after which the latter suspended their armed struggle.

(v) Political competition along religious ending ethnic lines led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries.

4. ‘Three factors are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions.’ Explain.

Answer: (i) People’s perception : This is the most important factor which decides the outcome of politics of social divisions. If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it will lead to social divisions and violence. As long as, people in Ireland saw themselves as only Catholic or Protestant, their difference prevailed.
It is much easier if the people see that their identities are multiple and are complementary with the national identity. A majority of Belgians now feel that they are as much Belgian nationalist or citizens as they are Dutch or German speaking. This feeling binds them together. Though—India is a multi-cultural country, but the feeling of nationalism binds us together.

(ii) Raising of demands by political leaders : The outcome of politics of social division also depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.

The Sinhalese leaders of Sri Lanka wanted to fulfil their demand at the cost of other communities, and this led to the civil war. In Yugoslavia, the leaders of different ethnic communities presented their demands in such a way that these could not be accommodated within a single country.

(iii) Reaction of Government : The outcome also depends on how the government reacts to the demands of different groups. If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country. But if they try to suppress such a demand with force and in the name of national unity, this can lead to civil war or division of country, and that is what happened in Sri Lanka.

HOTs Questions and Answers

1. Examine two features of the social groups of each North Ireland and Netherlands. 

Answer: (i) Both are predominantly Christians but divided between Catholics and Protestants.
(ii) In Northern Ireland, class and religion overlap with each other. If you are Catholic, you are also more likely to be poor, and you may have suffered a history of discrimination.
(iii) In the Netherlands, class and religion tend to cut across each other. Catholics and Protestants are about equally likely to be poor or rich.
(iv) The result is that Catholics and Protestants have had conflicts in Northern Ireland, while they do not do so in the Netherlands.

2. The medal ceremony of 1968 Mexico Olympic became a historical landmark. Explain by giving examples. 

Answer: (i) The incident provided a boost to the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.
(ii) (a) The athletes tried to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States during the Mexico Olympics.
(b) Their action succeeded in gaining international attention for the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.

3. What action was taken by International Olympic Association against each of the three Olympians, Carlos, Smith and Norman Peter? [CBSE 2013]

Answer: (i) The International Olympic Association held Carlos and Smith guilty of violating the Olympic spirit by making a political statement.
(ii) The medals given to Carlos and Smith were taken back.
(iii) Back home, they were subjected to a lot of criticism.
(iv) Norman too, suffered for his action and was not included in the Australian team for the next Olympics.

4. Discuss the role of political parties in the determination of the outcomes of social division.

Answer: (i) The outcome depends on how leaders of political parties raise the demands of any community.
(ii) It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework.
(iii) They are not at the cost of another community.
(iv) For example, the demand for ‘only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identify of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka.
(v) In Yugoslavia, the leaders of different ethnic communities presented their demands in such a way that these could not be accommodated within a single country.

5. How did the three athletes, Tommie Smith, Johan Carlos and Peter Norman contribute to the Civil Rights Movements in US? [CBSE 2010]

Answer: (i) Tommie Smith and Johan Carlos received their medals in Mexico Olympics, wearing black socks and no shoes to represent black
poverty. With this gesture, they tried to draw international attention to racial discrimination ‘ in the United States. This was supported by Peter Norman, the silver medalist, by wearing a human rights badge on his shirt. Smith and Carlos were standing with clenched fists upraised and heads bowed while the national anthem was playing.
(ii) Thus, they protested against racial discrimination of blacks. Their action succeeded in gaining international attention for the Civil Rights Movement in US.
(iii) Peter Norman’s support motivated non-blacks also. The disciplinary action against them gave momentum to the movement.

Value Based Questions

1. What moral values you have learnt from the action of Tommie Smith, John Carlos and Peter Norman?

Answer: (i) We should raise voice against social or caste discrimination.
(ii) We should not discriminate people on the basis of caste, colour, religion etc.
(iii) We should demonstrate peacefully against any kind of social injustice.

2. “Assertion of social diversities in a country need not be seen as a source of danger”. Explain.

Answer: In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these. Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing their intensity. This leads to strengthening of a democracy.

3. “Every social difference does not lead to social division.” Explain the statement. Suggest any two ways so that social differences do not lead to social divisions.

Answer: (i) People belonging to different social groups share differences and similarities cutting across the boundaries of their groups. Carlos and Smith were similar in one way (both were African- American) and thus different from Norman who was white. But they were also all similar in other ways- they were all athletes who stood against racial discrimination.

(ii) Cross-cutting social differences are easier to accommodate. For example, Catholics and Protestants had no conflict in Netherland through the people were divided.

(iii) In Netherlands, class and religion tend to cut-cross each other. Catholics and Protestants are about equally likely to be poor or rich. The result is that Catholics and Protestants have had conflicts.
Suggestions:
(a) Principle of power sharing should be followed.
(b) Reservation of seats in the legislature, executive and judiciary for the depressed classes.

4. When does a social difference become a social division? Suggest any two ways to check it.

Answer: A social difference means the difference in a group of people due to their race, religion, language or culture. It becomes a social division when some social differences are joined by another set of social differences. In other words, when two or more social differences join together, it turns into a social division. For example, the difference in the Blacks and the Whites in America is due to their different races which is a social difference.

It becomes a social division when, say, the income factor is also seen. The Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and the Whites tend to be rich and educated. This creates a division in the people making them feel that they belong to different communities.
Suggestions:
(i) Celebrating national festivals together.
(ii) Providing economic opportunities to all the people without any discrimination.

5. How are social divisions reflected in a democratic country? Explain.

Answer: (i) Political Parties : In a democracy political parties are formed on different ideologies.
(ii) Pressure Groups and Sectional Interest Groups : In a democratic nation along with political parties, Pressure and Sectional Interest Groups also works.
(iii) Communalism : Most of the democracies are divided into different communities.

6. How do marginalised and deprived people react to social injustice? Explain.

Answer: (i) People who feel marginalized, deprived and discriminated, have a to fight against the injustices.
(ii) Such a fight often takes democratic path, voicing their demands in a peaceful manner and seeking a fair position through elections.
(iii) Sometimes, social differences can take the form of unacceptable level of social inequality and injustices. The struggle against such inequalities, sometimes, takes the path of violence and defiance of state power.

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