Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers

CBSE Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements Extra Questions and Answers is available here. Students can learn and download PDF of these questions for free. These extra questions and answers are prepared by our expert teachers as per the latest NCERT textbook and guidelines. Learning these questions will help you to score excellent marks in the board exams.

Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Extra Questions Civics Chapter 5

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark)

1. When did extraordinary popular movement begin in Nepal?

Answer: In April 2006, Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement.

2. What was the aim of popular movement of Nepal?

Answer: The popular movement aimed at restoring democracy.

3. Who was the constitutional Monarch of Nepal?

Answer: King Birendra was the constitutional Monarch of Nepal.

4. Why did King Gyanendra replace King Birendra?

Answer: King Birendra was killed in a mysterious massacre of the royal family in 2001, so king Gyanendra replaced him.

5. Who dissolved the popularly elected parliament in February 2005 in Nepal?

Answer: King Gyanendra dissolved the popularly elected parliament in Feb. 2005 in Nepal.

6. Why did King Gyanendra dismiss the then Prime Minister and dissolve Parliament?

Answer: He was not prepared to accept democratic rule. He took advantage of the weakness and unpopularity of the democratically elected government.

7. What does ‘SPA’ mean?

Answer: It means “Seven Party Alliance”.

8. What was the role of SPA in Nepal Movement?

Answer: All the major political parties in the parliament forced a Seven Party Alliance and called for a four day strike in Kathmandu to start the popular movement to revive democracy.

9. Who were Maoists?

Answer: Those communists who believed in the ideology of Mao, the great leader of the Chinese Revolution were called Maoists.

10. What were the three main demands of the protestors in Nepal?

Answer: (i) Restoration of Parliament.
(ii) Power to an all-party government.
(iii) A new constituent Assembly.

11. Who was made the new Prime Minister of interim government of Nepal?

Answer: Girija Prasad Koirala was chosen by SPA as the PM of the interim government of Nepal.

12. Where is Bolivia located?

Answer: Bolivia is a poor country located in Latin America (South America).

13. What was the main reason of Bolivia’s popular movement? [CBSE Delhi 2017]
OR
Explain the main reason for ‘Bolivia Water War.’ [CBSE Delhi 2017]

Answer: (i) The government of Bolivia sold the rights of water supply to a multinational company.
(ii) The company increased the price of water by four times.

14. What was ‘FEDECOR’?
OR
What was the main role of ‘FEDICOR’ organisation in Bolivia?

Answer: It was an organisation formed by an alliance of labour, human rights and community leaders who organised a successful four day general strike in Bolivia against MNC for water privatisation.

15. Give some examples of movements.

Answer: (i) Narmada Bachao Andolan
(ii) Movement for Right to Information
(iii) Anti-liquor Movement
(iv) Women’s Movement
(v) Environmental Movement

16. Who are Sectional Interest groups? [CBSE (F) 2017]

Answer: They seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group of society.

17. For whose interest do the public welfare interest groups work? [CBSE (F) 2017]

Answer: Public welfare groups work in favour of-All Sections of society.

18. What does ‘BAMCEF’ mean?

Answer: It is Backward and Minority Community Employees Federation.

19. What is the role of ‘BAMCEF’?

Answer: It is an organisation largely made up of government employees that campaigns against caste discrimination.

20. What is the principal concern of BAMCEF?
OR
State the main aim of Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation. [CBSE (F) 2016]

Answer: Its principal concern is social justice and social equality for the entire society.

21. Which organisation led the protest against water privatisation in Bolivia? [CBSE Delhi 2016]

Answer: The organisation which led the protest against water privatization in Bolivia: FEDECOR.

22. Distinguish between pressure groups and political parties by stating any one point of distinction. [CBSE (AI) 2016]

Answer: Pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power but political parties directly control and share political power.

23. Name any two sectional interest groups. [CBSE (AI) 2016]

Answer: Two Sectional interest groups are →
(i) Trade Union
(ii) Business Association
(iii) Professional bodies of—Lawyers, Doctors, Teachers, etc.

24. Give an example of any ‘pressure group’ of India which functions as a branch of ‘political party.’ [CBSE Delhi 2017]

Answer: Trade unions/Students’ organizations, INTUC, AITUC, ABVP, NSU (I)

25. Differentiate between ‘Sectional interest groups’ and ‘Public interest groups’. [CBSE (F) 2016]

Answer: Sectional interest groups seek to promote the interest of a particular section.
Public interest groups promote collective rather than selective good.

26. Name any one political party of India which grew out of a movement. [CBSE (AI) 2017]

Answer: Political party in India which grew out of a movement is:

(i) Asom Gana Parishad
(ii) DMK (Dravida Munnetra kazhagam)
(iii) AIADMK (All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(iv) AAP (Aam Admi Party)

Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks)

1. How were the movements of Nepal and Bolivia water war different from each other?
OR
Differentiate between Nepal’s movement and Bolivia’s popular struggle. [CBSE Delhi 2017]

Answer: The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy, while the struggle in Bolivia involved claims on an elected democratic government. The popular struggle in Bolivia was about one specific policy, while the struggle in Nepal was about the foundations of the country’s politics. Both these struggles were successful but their impact was at different levels.

2. “The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.” Support the statement.

Answer: (i) Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement in April 2006. The movement aimed at restoring democracy.

(ii) All the major political parties in the parliament formed a Seven Party Alliance (SPA) and called for a five day strike in Kathmandu.

(iii) On the last day of the ultimatum, the King was forced to concede to all the demands of the SPA.

With the result an interim government was formed, becoming a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.

3. How are popular struggles undertaken in a democracy?
OR
Analyse the role of popular struggles in the development of democracy. [CBSE (AI) 2017]

Answer: Democracy evolves through a popular struggle. It is possible that some significant decisions may take place through consensus and may not involve any conflict at all. Democracy usually involves conflicts between those groups who have exercised power and those who aspire for a share in power.

Democratic conflict is resolved through mass mobilisation. Sometimes, it is possible that the conflict is resolved by using the existing institutions like the parliament or judiciary. But when there is a deep dispute, very often these institutions themselves get involved in the dispute.

These conflicts and mobilisations are based on new political organisations. But the spontaneous public participation becomes effective with the help of organised politics. These include political parties, pressure groups and movement groups.

4. “Popular struggles are integral to the working democracy.” Explain the statement in the light of Bolivia’s struggle against privatisation of water. [CBSE (Comptt) 2017]

Answer: The World Bank pressurized the government to give up its control of municipal water supply. The government sold these rights to a Multinational company for the city of cocha bamba. The company immediately increased the price of water by four times. This led to a spontaneous popular protest. The contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates. This came to be known as Bolivia’s water war.

In January 2000 a new alliance of labour, human rights and community leaders joined a four day political strike in the city. The government agreed to negotiate and the strike was called off. Nothing happened and so they protested again though they were brutally suppressed. Another strike took place in april and the government imposed the martial law. The power of the people forced the officials of the MNC to flee the city and made the government to concede to all the demands of the protestors.

5. How do pressure groups and movements influence politics?

Answer: Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in a variety of ways:

They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and their activity by carrying out information campaigns, organising meetings, file petitions, etc. Most of these groups try to influence the media to give attention to these issues.

They often organise protests like strikes or disrupting programmes. Workers’ organisations, employees’ associations and most of the movement groups often resort to these tactics in order to force the government to take note of their demands.

Some persons from pressure groups or movement groups may participate in official bodies and committees that offer advice to the government.

6. What are movement groups? Give examples.

Answer: When an organisation starts a movement to achieve a specific goal or an issue, such organisation is called movement groups.

(i) Narmada Bachao Andolan: The movement started due to a specific issue of displacement of tribal people due to the construction of Sardar Sarovar Dam on river Narmada. They wanted to stop this construction to get back to their homes.

(ii) Nepalese Movement: It was started by a Seven Party Alliance group to regain democracy in Nepal which had been taken over by the ruling King Gyanendra. Its specific objective was to regain democracy.

7. What are sectional interest groups? Describe their functioning. [CBSE Delhi 2016]

Answer: Sectional interest groups:
The groups that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or a group of a society is called sectional interest groups.

Functioning:
(i) They perform a meaningful role in countering the undue influence of other groups.
(ii) They create awareness about the needs and concerns of their own society.
(iii) Their principal concern is the betterment and well-being of their members not society in general.

8. What are public interest pressure groups? Describe their functioning. [CBSE (AI) 2016]

Answer: Public interest groups are those that promote collective rather than selective interests. Their functions is as follows:

(i) It aims to help groups other than their own members.
(ii) They represent some common interests that needs to be defended.
(iii) The members of the organisation may not benefit from the cause that the organisation represents. For example, A group fighting against bonded labour fights not for itself but for those who are suffering under such bondage.
(iv) For example, BAMCEF

9. Who led the protest against water privatization in Bolivia? Describe the ways of protest adopted by that organization. [CBSE (F) 2016]

Answer: Protest against water privatization in Bolivia:
FEDECOR (comprised local professionals, including engineers and Environmentalists), human rights and community leaders

Ways of their Protest:
(i) Organised a successful four-day general strike in the city.
(ii) Influenced the decision through direct participation in competitive politics.
(iii) Created parties and formed governments.
(iv) Formed pressure groups for the protest.

10.How are issue specific movements different from generic movements? [CBSE Delhi 2016]

Answer: Difference between issue specific and generic movements:

(i) Issue specific movements seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame, while generic movements seek to achieve a broad goal in the long term.

(ii) Issue specific movements tend to have a clear leadership and some organisation. But their active life is usually short.

(iii) Generic movements share a broad objective and have a similar approach. Sometimes, these broad movements have a loose umbrella organisation as well

Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks)

 1. How did organisations in a democracy mobilise movements? Give examples.

Answer: Nepal:
In Nepal, the struggle involved many organisations other than political parties. All the major labour unions and their federations joined this movement.
Many other organisations like the organisation of the indigenous people, teachers, lawyers and human rights groups extended support to the movement.

Bolivia:
The protest against water privatisation in Bolivia was not led by any political party but by an organisation called FEDECOR.
This organisation comprised of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists.
They were supported by a federation of farmers, the confederation of factory workers’ unions, middle class students from the University of Cochabamba and the city’s growing population of homeless street children.
So, from both these examples, we can conclude that in a democracy, several different kinds of organisations work behind any big struggle.

2. Differentiate between issue-specific movements and generic movements. Give an example of an issue-specific movement and explain.

Answer: Issue-specific Movements:
(i) They achieve a single objective within a limited timeframe.
(ii) There is clear leadership.
(iii) They have some sort of an organisation, i.e., organisational features of order, stability, leadership, etc. are visible in them.
(iv) Their active life is usually short, e.g., The Nepalese Movement for Democracy.

Generic Movements:
(i) They are more general movements that seek to achieve a broad goal in the long term.
(ii) They have independent leadership.
(iii) There is no single organisation that controls or guides such movements.
(iv) General movements are environmentalists’ movements or the women’s movements.

In India, Narmada Bachao Andolan is a good example of this kind of movement. The movement started with the specific issue of the tribal people displaced by the creation of Sardar Sarovar Dam on the Narmada River. Its objective was to stop the dam from being constructed. Gradually, it became a wider movement that questioned all such big dams and the model of development that required such dams. Movements of this kind tend to have a clear leadership and some organisation. But their active life is usually short.

3. Which organisation contributed in the protest against water privatisation in Bolivia? [CBSE (F) 2017]
OR
“Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in different ways.” Support the statement with suitable examples. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
OR
Analyse any five ways by which ‘pressure groups’ can exert influence on politics. [CBSE (F) 2017]
OR
How do pressure groups and movements strengthen democracy? Explain. [CBSE (AI) 2017]
OR
How do the pressure groups and movements influence politics? Explain with examples. [CBSE (Delhi) 2017]

Answer: The protest against water privatisation in Bolivia was not led by any political party. It was led by FEDECOR. This organisation comprised of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists. They were supported by a federation of farmers who relied on irrigation, middle class students, confederation of factory workers’ unions and the city’s growing population of the homeless street children.

Most of these groups try to influence the media. Business groups often employ professional lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements. Business groups often employ professional lobbyists. Some pressure groups formed and led by the leaders of political parties. Some political parties grow out of movements.

4. What can we conclude about democracy with reference to popular struggles and movements like Bolivian water war? Explain in detail. [CBSE Sample Question 2016]
OR
Explain with appropriate examples the relevance of ‘popular struggle’ of both Nepal and Bolivia for democracy. [CBSE (F) 2017]

Answer: Democracy evolves through popular struggles. It is possible that some significant decisions may take place through consensus and may not involve any conflict at all. But that would be an exception. Defining movements of democracy usually involve conflict between those groups who have exercised power and those who aspire for a share in power. These movements come when the country is going through transition to democracy, expansion of democracy or deepening of democracy.

Democratic conflict is resolved through mass mobilisation. Sometimes it is possible that the conflict is resolved by using the existing institutions like the parliament or the judiciary. These conflicts and mobilisations are based on new political organisations where there is an element of spontaneity in all such historic movements. But the spontaneous public participation becomes effective with the help of organised politics.

5. Describe the popular struggle of Bolivia. [CBSE (AI) 2016]
OR
What do you know about Bolivia’s water war?

Answer: Popular struggle of Bolivia

(i) People’s struggle against privatisation of water in Bolivia power that struggles are integral part of democracy.

(ii) The World Bank pressurised the government to give up its control of municipal water supply. The government sold these rights to a multinational company which increased the price of water by four times. Many people received monthly water bill of ₹1,000 in a country where average income is around ₹5,000 a month.

(iii) In January 2000, a new alliance of labour human rights and community leaders organised a successful four day strike.

(iv) The government agreed to negotiate and the strike was called off.

(v) The police resorted to brutal regression when the agitations started in February followed in April and the government imposed martial law.

(vi) But the power of people forced the officials of the MNC to flee the city and made the government concede to all the demand of the protestors.

(vii) The contract with MNC was cancelled and the water supply was restored with the municipality at old rates.

This popular struggle came to be known as ‘Bolivia’s Water War’.

6. Examine the role of pressure groups and movements in deepening democracy. [CBSE (F) 2016]

Answer: Pressure groups and movements have deepened democracy.
(i) It reminds the government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens.
(ii) Put pressure on the rulers for the unhealthy activities.
(iii) It performs a useful role of countering undue influence of the rich and powerful people.
(iv) One single group cannot achieve dominance over society.
(v) The government gets to hear about what different sections of the population want.
(vi) This leads to a rough balance of power and accommodation of conflicting interests.

7. How are ‘movements’ different from interest groups? Explain with examples. [CBSE Delhi 2017]

Answer: Difference between interest groups and movements:

(i) Interest groups do not have a loose organisation whereas Movements have a loose organisation.

(ii) Decision making of interest groups is formal whereas decision making of movements is informal and flexible.

(iii) They do not depend so much on spontaneous mass participation and formed by people with a common interest and occupation. Movements depend much more on spontaneous mass participation.

(iv) Interest groups seek to promote the interest of a particular section or a group of society such as, trade unions/business association doctor etc. Whereas, the movements groups are issue specific that seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame such as the Nepalese movement for democracy/ Narmada Bachao Andolan etc.

(v) Interest groups promote collective rather than selective good such as BAMCEF(Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation) whereas the movement groups are more general or generic movement that seek to achieve a broad goal in the very long term such as women’s movement.

(vi) Interest groups represent some common or general interest that needs to be defended such as FEDECOR whereas movement group are long term and involve more than one issue such as environmental movement.

Hots Questions (Higher Order Thinking Skills)

1. Inspite of some differences, the story of Nepal and Bolivia share some similarities. Explain three of them.

Answer: Similarities between story of Nepal and Bolivia are following:
(i) Both these movements are the instances of political conflict that led to popular struggles in their respective countries.
(ii) In both cases, the struggle involved mass mobilisation. Public demonstration of mass support clinched the dispute.
(iii) Both instances involved the critical role of political organisations.

2. Explain the influence of mobilisation and organisation.

Answer: Any democratic conflict can be resolved through the means of mobilisation and organisation. They work together to win struggle.

(i) Take the instance of Nepal where call for indefinite strike was given by SPAC or the Seven Party Alliance in Nepal. This alliance included some big parties that had some members in the parliament.

(ii) Protest was also joined by the Nepalese Communist Party which did not believe in parliamentary democracy.

(iii) This party was involved in an armed struggle against the Nepali government and had established its control over large parts of Nepal.

(iv) All the major labour unions and their federations joined this movement.

(v) So mass mobilisation takes place on the issues which appeal to a huge number of people from different walks of life having a common interest. It provides full support to the organisation and the movement.

3. Explain three most effective ways in which the pressure groups and movements influence the politics of a country.

Answer: Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in a variety of ways:

(i) They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and their activities by carrying out information campaigns, organising meetings filing petitions, etc. Most of these groups try to influence the media into giving more attention to their issues. For example, Anna Hazare’s protest on Jan Lok Pal Bill.

(ii) They often organise protest activities like strikes or disrupting government programme. Workers’ organisations Employees’ Association and most of the movement

groups often resort to then tactics in order to force the government to take note of their demands.

(iii) Business groups often employ professional lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements. Some persons from pressure groups may participate in official bodies and committees that offer advice to the government.

4. Pressure groups good for democracy. How?

Answer: Pressure groups have broadened democracy. Putting pressure on government is not an unhealthy activity in a democracy.

Government may at times be influenced by rich people. It is at this time that pressure groups may play a useful role of converting these pressures and reminding the government of needs and aspirations of the people.

Even sectional interest groups may play an important role. If one group’s pressure forces the government to make policies in their favour, the other group will keep a check on this. The government gets to know what people want. It leads to a rough balance of power and accommodation of interests.

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