Class 6 History Chapter 8 Vital Villages, Thriving Towns Extra Questions and Answers
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Class 6 History Chapter 8 Extra Questions and Answers
Very Short Answer Questions
1: What do you mean by Arretine Ware?
Answer: These wares are the typical of Roman Empire. This proves that Arikamedu had good relations with the Roman traders.
2: Name the north Indian town that was situated on the cross roads of two major trade routes.
3: Name the port described by Greek sailor for having narrow gulf.
4: Where was Barygaza located?
Answer: Barygaza was located on gulf of Khambhat on the western coast of India.
5: State the number of occupations taken up by the young man of the Jataka story.
6: Name the place where a massive brick structure, which may have been a warehouse and pottery from the Mediterranean region have been found.
7: In northern India, a village headman was known as ___________.
Answer: Gram bhojaka
8: Village headmen had large number of duties assigned to him. True/False
9: Who were Vellalar?
Answer: In Tamil region, large land owners were known as vellalar.
10: Where the largest collection of iron tools and weapons is found?
Answer: Megalithic burials.
11: Who was the village headman?
Answer: Grama bhojaka
12: What was the old name for Pondicherry?
13: Name the place where the Sangam texts were composed?
14: Name the materials used to make tools like Sickle, tongs and axe.
15: Capital of Kushanas kings, popular for the worship of Lord Krishna was _________.
16: What was the meaning of the term Jatakas?
17: Jatakas means stories which were composed by ordinary people. True/False
18: Why the earliest coins were called ‘punch marked coins’?
Answer: Because the designs were punched in to the metal.
19: Of what materials the metal of the coins was made?
Answer: Silver or copper
20: Mathura became the second capital of _________.
21: What were Shren is?
Answer: The associations formed by crafts persons and merchants.
22: What were the roles performed by grama bhojaka?
Answer: Grama bhojaka performed the roles of tax collector, policeman and judge.
23: Who were Grihapatis?
Answer: Independent farmers
24: Who were Dasa karmakara?
Answer: Dasa karmakara were landless people who earned their living by working on the fields owned by others.
25: Define Sangam Literature.
Answer: The earliest work in Tamil.
26: Jatakas stories are the part of ________ literature.
27: Jatakas stories were preserved by the Buddhist monks as narrations of Buddhas previous lives. True/False
28: What was the most probable use of the ring wells?
Answer: As drains
29: What was the Greek name of port of Bharuch?
30: Name some sites where ‘Northern Black Polished Ware’ has been found.
Answer: Mahasthan, Chandraketugarh, Bangarh, etc.
31: The ‘Northern Black Polished Ware’ is generally found in the ________ part of the subcontinent.
32: Name an important coastal town.
33: What was the main function of the shrenis?
Answer: To provide training, procure raw material and distribute the finished product.
34: Varanasi and Madurai were the famous centres for the manufacture of paper. True/False
35: Northern black polished ware is a type of _____.
36: Who performed the function of a judge or a policeman in the villages of northern India?
Answer: Grama bhojaka
37: From the site of Arikamedu, the archaeologists discovered a ____________.
38: Where is Arikamedu located?
Answer: Arikamedu is located south of Pondicherry.
39: What was the other name of stamped red glazed pottery?
Answer: Arretine ware
40: How Arretine ware vessels were often made?
Answer: Arretine ware vessels were often made from moulds in order to imitate more expensive metal items.
41: The association of the craftsmen and the merchants was called______________.
42: Who were uzhavar?
Answer: In the Tamil areas, ordinary ploughmen were uzhavar.
43: Who were Grihapati?
Answer: The Grihapatis were owners of small tracts of land.
44: Who were Kadaisiyar?
Answer: Landless people in the Tamil region.
45: Name the capital of Augustus.
46: Which was the first civilization in real sense in Europe?
Answer: Roman civilization
47: A sailor who has described all the ports he visited belongs to ___________.
48: Who wrote “Periplus of the Erythrean Sea”?
Answer: Greek traveller
49: “Rome a city of bricks made it into a city of marble” was said this?
50: In Madhya Pradesh, a famous Ashoka Stupa is located at Sanchi. True/False
Short Answer Type Questions
1: State the importance of Arikamedu.
Answer: Arikamedu was an important trade center around 2200 and 1900 years ago. According to Wheeler Arikamedu was a Tamil fishing village which was formerly a major Chola port dedicated to bead making and trading with Roman traders.
2: How did the pottery design got its name?
Answer: The pottery design got its name due to its predominant presense in the northern parts of the sub continent. The pottery design was popular in the later Vedic period. Some sites where the NBPW have been found are Mahasthan, Chandraketugarh, Bangarh, etc.
3: During the period between 200 BCE to 300 BCE India enjoyed a good deal of prosperity. Explain.
Answer: During the period between 200 BCE to 300 BCE India enjoyed a good deal of prosperity. The number of artisans and craftsmen increased particularly in cities. The growth in art and craft led to specialization and greater technical skill in certain spheres of production.
4: What were aqueducts? Why did the Roman emperor build huge aqueducts?
Answer: Aqueducts were huge channels to supply water. The Roman emperors built these aqueducts to bring water to the city for the baths, fountains and toilets.
5: What is the sangam literature and when were they composed?
Answer: Some of the earliest works in Tamil are known as sangam literature. They were composed around 2300 years ago. These texts were called Sangam because they were composed and compiled in assemblies, known as sangam, of poets that were held in the city of Madurai.
6: List all the women who could be employed by the superintendent. How were women paid for their work?
Answer: The superintendent could employ widows, young women who were differently abled, nuns, mothers of courtesans, retired women servants of the king and women who had retired from service in temples. The women were paid according to the quality and quantity of work.
7: Who were dasa and karmakara?
Answer: In the northern part of the country, there were women and men without land, working on the fields owned by others, they were known as dasa and karmakara.
8: Name three different kinds of people living in the villages of Tamil region?
Answer: The three different kinds of people living in most villages in the southern parts of the subcontinent or the Tamil region were the landowners known as vellala, ordinary ploughmen known as uzhavar, and landless labourers such as slaves known as kadaisiyar and adimai.
9: Who composed Jatakas?
Answer: Jatakas were stories composed by ordinary people and then written down and preserved by the Buddhist monks.
10: What were the functions of towns?
Answer: Each town was famous for a particular activity. Some were religious centres, other was trading centres and yet other was administrative centres.
11: Write short note on the Northern Black Polished Ware.
Answer: Archaeologists, while looking for evidence for fine pottery, found the Northern Black Polished Ware. It got this name since it was found in the northern part of the subcontinent, was black in colour and had a fine luster.
12: What was punch marked coins?
Answer: The earliest coins which were in use for about 500 years were punch marked coins. They are called as punch marked coins because the designs were punched on the metal such as silver and copper.
13: What archaeological sources have been excavated in Arikamedu?
Answer: The archaeological findings include a massive brick structure, pottery such as jars, stamped red-glazed pottery from Mediterranean regions. It is known as Arretine Ware, named after an Italian city. Roman lamps, glassware and gems have also been found.
14: Write a note on the shrenis.
Answer: During this period (2500-2000 BC) many craft persons and merchants formed associations known as shrenis. Their function was to provide training, procure material, and distribute the finished product. Then shrenis of merchants organised the trade. Shrenis also functioned as banks where rich people deposited their money.
15: Certain occupations were not allowed to form Shrenis. Who were they?
Answer: Hunters, fishermen and those who followed life threatening occupations were not allowed to form Shrenis
16: What were the imports that came in from Arikamedu? What were the exports from the coastal port?
Answer: Wine and olive oil were imported from Rome via Arikamedu. Textile, beads, semi-precious stones, glass and shell bangles were the major exports.
Long Answer Type Questions
1: Briefly discuss the different kinds of people living in villages in the northern parts of the subcontinent.
Answer: Villages in the northern part of the country were mostly inhabited by the village headman, independent farmers, field workers and craftsmen. The village headman was known as the grama bhojaka. He was the largest land owner and generally very powerful. The independent farmers were called grihapatis, most of whom were smaller landowners. Then there were people who did not own land and earned their living by working on the fields owned by others. This segment was called dasa karmakara. In most villages, there were also some crafts persons such as the blacksmith, potter, carpenter and weaver.
2: Mathura has been an important settlement for more than 2500 years. Explain.
Answer: Many distinctive features made Mathura an important settlement. Some such features are:
- Its location at the cross roads of two major routes of travel and trade — from northwest to east and from north to south.
- There were fortifications around the city.
- It was an important centre for the production of some extremely fine sculpture.
- It became the second capital of the Kushanas around 2000 years ago.
- Several inscriptions on surfaces such as stone slabs and statues were found in Mathura. Buddhist monasteries and Jaina shrines made Mathura an important religious centre and it was an important centre for the worship of lord Krishna.
3: Write about Grama bhojaka.
Answer: The villages of the northern India were inhabited by many groups of people. The village headmen were known as grama bhojaka. Most of the time the position was held by the same family. Grama bhojaka carried out multifarious functions in the village. He was responsible for maintaining the law and order and settling the disputes among the people.
4: Write short notes on region of Mathura.
Answer: Kushanas kings ruled in the 1st C.E. Mathura was their capital as it was situated on the cross roads of the trade routes. Kushanas had the control over the profitable silk route, a branch of which passes through Mathura in India. Mathura, therefore emerge as a prominent town as craft and trading center. The worship of Lord Krishna is still popular in Mathura and it is one of the pilgrimage centres for Hindu devotees.
5: Why was grama bhojaka powerful?
Answer: Grama bhojaka was the village headman. He was the largest landowner. He did not cultivate his own land and had slaves and hired workers to work on his fields. The King had given him the duty to collect taxes from the village. He functioned as a judge. He also had to perform the duties of a policeman. This added to his prestige and made him powerful.
6: What steps were taken to increase the production?
Answer: The kings and kingdoms could not have existed without the support of prosperous villages. Various effective steps were taken to increase the production.
- New tools and system of transplantation was introduced.
- Apart from these, system of irrigation was also used.
- Irrigation works that were built during this time included canals, wells, tanks and artificial lakes
7: Mention some of the evidence which tell us about the life in early cities.
Answer: The following evidence tell us about the life in early cities:
- Sculptures used to decorate railings, pillars and gateways of buildings. They depicted scenes of peoples’ lives in towns and villages, as well as in the forest.
- Accounts of travellers and sailors who visited these early cities
- Rows of pots or ceramic rings arranged one on top of the other which seems to have been used as toilets in some cases and as drains and garbage dumps in others have been found by archaeologists.
8: Why do you think the kings encouraged building of irrigation works?
Answer: Building of irrigation work was the other important factor resulting in the increase of agricultural produce. Kings would have encouraged these as increase in agricultural produce meant that there was enough and surplus food for the people. Also tax on agricultural produce was a major source of state revenue. Hence more production led to more revenue.