NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 5 Rulers And Buildings
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 5 Rulers And Buildings contains the answers to the exercises given in the NCERT History book. These solutions are easy and accurate that help you to answer the questions asked in the examinations. NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 5 are prepared by our subject experts in very easy language. Practice these solutions regularly to ensure excellent marks in the exams.
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 5
Question 1: How is the “trabeate” principle of architecture different from the “arcuate”?
Answer: In the trabeate principle of architecture, roofs, doors and windows were made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns. On the other hand, in the arcuate principle of architecture, the weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was carried by arches.
Question 2: What is a shikhara?
Answer: Shikhara is the highest roof of the Hindus temples. For example, the Rajarajeshvara temple at Thanjavur had the tallest shikhara amongst the temples of its time.
Question 3: What is pietra-dura?
Answer: Pietra-Dura is a technique where coloured, hard stones were placed in depressions carved into marble or sandstone, thereby creating beautiful and ornate patterns.
Question 4: What are the elements of a Mughal chahar bagh garden?
Answer: A Mughal Chahar Bagh was a garden that was placed within a rectangular walled enclosure. It was divided into four quarters by artificial channels. These gardens were known as ‘Chahar Bagh’ because of their symmetrical division into four parts.
Question 5: How did a temple communicate the importance of a king?
Answer: (i) A Temple communicated the importance of a king as they were meant to demonstrate the power, wealth and devotion of the patron.
(ii) It helped the king to appear like a God as the king took the God’s name because it was auspicious. For example, in the Rajarajeshvara temple, there is an inscription that mentions that it was built by King Rajarajadeva for the worship of his God, Rajarajeshvaram. The king’s name is similar to the God’s name. Through the rituals of worship in the temple one God (Rajarajadeva) honoured another (Rajarajeshvaram).
(iii) It also gives a chance to the king to proclaim close relationships with God and come closer to people.
(iv) The temple was a miniature model of the world ruled by the king and his allies.
(v) They worshipped their deities together in the royal temples; it seemed as if they brought the just rule of the Gods on earth.
Question 6: An inscription in Shah Jahan’s diwan-i khas in Delhi stated: “If there is Paradise on Earth, it is here, it is here, it is here.” How was this image created?
Answer: The image of Paradise on Earth was created through the construction of audience halls, which were modelled like a mosque. The pedestal of Shah Jahan’s throne was frequently described as the Quibla, the direction which Muslims face while praying. These architectural features communicated a sense of divine justice and the idea that the king was the representative of God on earth.
Question 7: How did the Mughal court suggest that everyone – the rich and the poor, the powerful and the weak – received justice equally from the emperor?
Answer: The construction of the royal court in Red Fort emphasized the connection between the imperial court and royal justice. Behind the emperors throne were a series of inlays which pictured Orpheus playing the lute. It was believed that Orpheus’ music calmed ferocious beasts and made them co-exist in harmony. All this gave the impression that the king’s justice would treat the high and the low as equals, creating a world in which all could live in harmony.
Question 8: What role did the Yamuna play in the layout of the new Mughal city at Shahjahanabad?
Answer: The role of the Yamuna in the layout of the new Mughal city at Shahjahanabad was:
(i) The imperial palace commanded the front of river Yamuna in the new city of Shahjahanabad in Delhi.
(ii) Only specially favoured nobles, like Shah Jahan’s eldest son Dara Shukoh were given access to the river.
(iii) All others had to construct their homes in the city away from the River Yamuna.
(iv) The access to the river Yamuna for the nobles was controlled by developing architectural form in which the white marble mausoleum was placed on a terrace by the edge of the river and the garden was to its south.
Very Short Answer Questions
1. Why were temples constructed?
Answer: The temples were a miniature model of the world ruled by the king and his allies. As they worshipped their deities together in the royal temples, it seemed as if they brought the just rule of the gods on earth.
2. How did Sultan Mahmud glorify himself?
Answer: Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in his campaigns in the subcontinent attacked the temples of defeated kings and looted their wealth and idols. By destroying the temple of Somnath, he tried to win credit as a great hero of Islam.
3. Where were Chahar Bagh constructed?
Answer: Chahar Baghs were constructed by Mughals in Kashmir, Agra and Delhi.
4. Give any two features of Humayun’s tomb.
Answer: Features of Humayun’s tomb are:
(i) Tomb has a central towering dome.
(ii) Tomb has a tall gateway.
5. What types of structures were built by kings between 8th and 18th centuries?
Answer: During said period kings built two types of structure:
(i) Palaces, forts, Gardens and Tombs.
(ii) Structure for public activity like Temples, wells, tanks, Mosque and bazars, etc.
6. The Mughal rulers adapted which type of architectural styles in the construction of their buildings?
Answer: The Mughal rulers adapted which type of architectural styles in the construction of their buildings?
Short Answer Questions
1. Why was Rajarajeshvara temple constructed?
Answer: (i) An inscription shows that Rajarajeshvara temple was constructed by king Rajarajadeva for the worship of his god, Rajarajeshvaram.
(ii) The king took the god’s name as it was auspicious and he wanted to appear like a God.
(iii) Through the rituals of worship in the temple, one god (Rajarajadeva) honoured another (Rajarajeshvaram).
2. How did Muslim rulers portray themselves?
Answer: (i) Muslim Sultans and Padshahs did not claim to be incarnations of God but Persian court chronicles described the Sultan as the “Shadow of God”.
(ii) An inscription in the Quwwatal-Islam mosque explained that God chose Alauddin as a king as he had the qualities of Moses and Solomon, the greatest lawgivers of the past.
(iii) The greatest lawgiver and architect was God himself. He created the world out of chaos and introduced order and symmetry.
3. How did new dynasties and kings establish their authority?
Answer: (i) As each new dynasty came to power, kings wanted to emphasise their moral right to be rulers.
(ii) Constructing places of worship gave rulers a chance to proclaim their close relationship with God, especially important in an age of rapid political change.
(iii) Rulers also offered patronage to the learned and pious and tried to transform their capitals and cities into great cultural centres that brought fame to them.
4. When was rule by a king supposed to be just? How did people react to it?
Answer: (i) It was widely believed that the rule of a just king would be an age of plenty when the heavens would not withhold rain.
(ii) At the same time, making precious water available by constructing tanks and reservoirs was highly praised.
(iii) Sultan Iltutmish was given respect for constructing a large reservoir called Hauz-i-Sultani just outside Delhi-i-Kuhna.
(iv) Rulers often constructed tanks and reservoirs for use by ordinary people.
Long Answer Questions
1. Examine the style of architecture from the 12th century.
Answer: Two notable styles of architecture developed from the 12th century. These included:
In this, the weight of superstructure above the doors and windows was held by arches.
From 12th century onwards, use of limestone increased. High quality cement when mixed with stone chips developed into hard concrete which made the building of structures faster and easier.
2. How is an architecture a source of constructing history?
Answer: The architecture of medieval India is the most authentic source of constructing history. The significance can be known from the following facts:
- The monuments portray engineering skills and building techniques of a particular time period.
- They reflect different styles of architecture. Thus, for instance, the Nagara style of architecture is reflected by North Indian temples while South Indian temples reflect the Dravidian style of architecture.
- The havelis and palaces reflect the grandeur of royal families while the forts with high walls and gateways reflect the preparedness for defence against enemy.
3. Describe the architecture style that existed in North India during Gupta Period.
Answer: In North India, nagara style of architecture was famous. Khajuraho temples in Madhya Pradesh were built by the Chandellas. The Kendriya Mahadeva temple has 84 decorated small towers surrounding the main tower. The Shikhara is so designed that it appears like Mount Kailasha, the home of Lord Shiva. The Vishwanath, the Parsvanatha and the Kendriya Mahadeva temples were all based on Nagara style. This style is marked by a curvilinear temple tower which ends up almost in a point.
4. Describe the style of architecture in South India.
Answer: (i) In South India, the Pandyas, the Pallavas and the Cholas were great temple builders.
(ii) The South Indians follow the Dravidian style of architecture.
(iii) The gateway of the temple was known as Gopuram.
(iv) The area where the image of Gods and Goddesses was kept was called Garbhagriha.
(v) The mandapa was located in front of the Garbhagriha. It was an assembly hall where people gathered for prayers.
(vi) The top of the main shrine had a tower-like structure called ‘Shikhara’.
(vii) The famous temples built under Cholas were the Brihadeeshwara temple and the Gangaikondacholapuram temple.
5. Give chief features of Mughal architecture.
Answer: The chief characteristics of Mughal architecture are:
- Use of pure white marble and red sandstone.
- Gold, jewellery and diamond inlay work.
- Paintings on walls; natural scenery, birds and beasts were painted.
- Beautiful gardens were laid around the tombs.
- Bell-shaped domes and minarets.
6. Give features of important Mughal monuments.
Answer: The main features of important buildings are the following:
- Red sandstone was extensively used in the high gateways, several halls, mosques and bazaars of the Red Fort at Agra.
- Diwan-i-Khas and Diwan-i-Aam are exclusively Indian in character.
- Ibadat-khana, the house of worship, was the seat of discussion on questions of theology and philosophy in the presence of Akbar.
- In the Jama Masjid at Fatehpur Sikri, inlaid marble and plaster relief in colour have been freely used.
7. Describe the development of architecture under Jahangir and Aurangzeb.
Answer: (i) Under Jahangir, the building activity slowed down. He built the Akbar’s tomb at Sikandra (Agra).
(ii) The tomb of Itmad-ud-Daulah at Agra was built by Nur Jahan.
(iii) Its exterior had exquisite ornamentation in white marble.
(iv) Architectural innovations stopped under Aurangzeb.
(v) The tomb of Rabia Durrani, Aurangzeb’s wife, at Aurangabad is a poor imitation of Taj Mahal.
(vi) The Badshahi Masjid at Lahore was built during Aurangzeb’s reign.
8. Describe Shah Jahan as the greatest builder under Mughals.
Answer: (i) The world famous Taj Mahal at Agra was built by Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.
(ii) Other famous buildings of Shah Jahan include Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) at Agra, Red Fort and Jama Masjid at Delhi and Jahangir’s tomb at Lahore.
(iii) The Red Fort complex combines the fort, an office complex, Diwan-i-Khas where Shah Jahan held meetings with his ministers and senior officers and Diwan-i-Aam, where he met general public.
Hots (Higher Order Thinking Skills)
1. What were the two types of structures of architecture found in India?
Answer: Grandiose Structures: These included forts, palaces, gardens and tombs, which were places of safe residence in this world and in the world beyond (i.e., after death).
Structures for Public Activity: The second type of structures were structures for public activity which included mosques, temples, wells, caravan, sarais and bazaars. Kings aimed for public good and they did this by building structures for their utility and comfort of the general public. Thus, constructing buildings was an essential part of the medieval period.
2. Why is medieval architecture rich?
Answer: The medieval architecture is rich due to the following reasons:
- Rulers built tombs, palaces and forts to demonstrate their wealth, power and position.
- It was a way to celebrate their victory in war.
- By building temples and mosques, rulers showed their devotion to God. It got them public support.
- The rulers wanted to leave behind structures which would show the future generations the legacy of their grandeur.
3. Describe the architecture under the Sultanate period.
Answer: (i) The Turks and the Afghans introduced a new style of architecture. It was known as the Indo-Islamic style of architecture.
(ii) The Delhi Sultanate built many monuments, mosques, domes and minarets.
(iii) So, the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque in Delhi built by Qutub-ud-din Aibak between 1192 and 1193 was a symbol of Islamic might over India.
(iv) The construction of Qutub Minar was started by Qutub-ud-din Aibak and completed by Iltutmish.
(v) Alauddin Khalji built the Alai Darwaza next to the Qutub Minar.
(vi) The monuments of Tughlaqs, Sayyids and Lodhis include the Tughlaqabad Fort, Firoz Shah Kotla, Bada Gumbad, tombs of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, Muhammand-bin-Tughlaq and Sikander Lodhi.
4. Describe the architecture as it developed under Akbar
Answer: (i) In architecture, Akbar stands as a colossus figure among the patrons of architecture in the history of India.
(ii) He shifted his new capital at Fatehpur Sikri near Agra at an enormous cost.
(iii) Some of the fine buildings in this complex include Diwan-i-Khas, Panch Mahal and Jodhabai’s Palace.
(iv) The red sandstone palace fort built on a rocky ridge overlooks the surrounding plain.
(v) Buland Darwaza was later added to commemorate the victory over Gujarat.
(vi) Other major tombs and palaces include Agra Fort at Agra and Humayun’s Tomb in Delhi.
Class 7 History Chapter 5 NCERT Questions and Answers
CBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 5 Rulers And Buildings are given above. All our solutions are updated as per the latest CBSE Syllabus and Guidelines. Download these NCERT solutions for free from our app and use offline.