Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation Important Questions and Answers
CBSE Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation Important Questions cover the major concepts of the chapter. Solving answers of these important questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising the questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.
CBSE Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation Important Questions PDF
Very Short Answer Type Questions
1. How many different Adivasi groups are there in India?
Answer: There are over 500 different Adivasi groups in India.
2. Name any four states where Adivasis are in great numbers. [V. Imp.]
Answer: Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.
3. How are Adivasi societies most distinctive? Give one point. [V. Imp.]
Answer: There is often very little hierarchy among them.
4. How are Adivasis usually portrayed?
Answer: They are usually portrayed in Stereotypical ways in colourful clothes, headgear and through their dancing.
5. What do we usually think about Adivasis?
Answer: We usually think that Adivasis are exotic, primitive and backward.
6. What is the population of Adivasis in Assam? [Imp.]
Answer: There are 70 lakhs Adivasis in Assam.
7. How is Niyamgiri viewed by Dongarria Konds?
Answer: Dongarria Konds, an Adi vasi community, view Niyamgiri as the sacred mountain.
8. Why are Muslims considered as a marginalised community in India today?
Answer: It is because in comparison to other communities, they have always been deprived of the benefits of socioeconomic development.
9. How are Muslims usually identified?
Answer: Muslims are usually identified by their burqa, long beard and fez.
10.Which factor leads to ghettoisation of the Muslim community?
Answer: Social marginalisation of Muslims leads to ghettoisation of this community.
11.What is commonly believed about the Muslims?
Answer: It is commonly believed that the Muslims prefer to send their children to Madarsas.
12.What reality is brought in light by the Sachar Committee?
Answer: Only 4% of Muslim children are in Madarsas, whereas 66% attend government school and 30% private schools.
Short Answer Type Questions
1: Mention the levels on which marginalization can take place.
Answer: Marginalization can take place on three levels.
They are Individual Community Global.
2: Mention the Names of the communities which experience marginalization in India?
Answer: The major communities which experience marginalization in India are the Adivasis, Dalits and Muslims.
3: Who headed the Committee set up by the government to look into the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim Community in India?
Answer: Justice Rajindar Sachar headed the Committee set up by the government to look into the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim Community in India.
4: What was the conclusion reached by the Justice Rajindar Sachar Committee?
Answer: The committee came to the conclusion that on a range of social, economic and educational indicators the situation of the Muslim community is comparable to that of other marginalised communities like Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
5: What are the consequences of marginalisation?
Answer: Marginalisation results in having a low social status and not having equal access to education and other resources enjoyed by the majority communities.
6. What happened to Adivasis when they lost access to their traditional homelands? [V. Imp.]
Answer: After Adivasis lost access to their traditional homelands, i.e., forests, they became pampers. They faced the problems of livelihood and food. Hence, they migrated to cities in search of work. They got employment there but against very low wages. This made their life miserable. They caught in a cycle of poverty and deprivation 45% of tribal groups in rural areas and 35% in urban areas live below the poverty line. Their children, became malnourished in dearth of adequate food.
6: How are Adivasis portrayed today?
Answer: Today, Adivasis are portrayed as exotic, primitive and backward people. Cultural shows are presented with Adivasis dances. They are represented through colourful costumes and headgears.
Adivasis are blamed for their lack of advancement as they are believed to be resistant to change or new ideas.
This negative portrayal of the Adivasis has led to the marginalization of this community in modern India.
7: How can we tackle marginalization?
Answer: Marginalization is a complex and delicate issue and has to be handled by the Government very carefully. To rectify marginalization a variety of strategies, measures and safeguards have to be undertaken.
It is the duty of every citizen of this country to ensure that the Fundamental Rights of all citizen, whether they belong to the majority community or the minority community is protected. It is only the effort of everyone that will protect the diversity that makes our country unique and promote equality for all.
8. How are Adivasi stereotyped? [Imp.]
Answer: Whenever we talk about Adivasis, their fixed images come into our mind. We have a fixed impression about them. We believe that they are exotic, primitive and backward. Their colourful costumes, headgear, dancing and typical life style often give an impression that they lack advancement. We also believe that they are resistant to change or new ideas. This stereotyping about the Adivasi community leads to their discrimination and marginalisation.
9. Describe various reasons that forced Adivasis to move from their lands. [V. Imp.]
Answer: Various reasons are given below:
(a) More than 50% of Adivasis got displaced due to mines and mining projects.
(b) Huge tracts of Adivasis’ lands have gone under the waters of hundreds of dams that have been built in independent India.
(c) India has 54 national parks and 372 wildlife sanctuaries covering 1,09, 652 sq km. These are areas where tribals originally lived but were evicted from.
Long Answer Type Questions
1. What do you know about Adivasis? [Imp.]
Answer: The term Adivasi means original inhabitant. This community has close relation with forests. They depend on forests for everything. They cannot think a life without forests. About 8% of India’s population is Adivasi. Adivasis are found in states like Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra, Assam, Manipur etc. There are over 500 different Adivasi groups in our country. Only in Orissa there are more than 60 different tribal groups. Adivasi societies are also most distinctive because there is often very little hierarchy among them. They practise their own tribal religions, different from Islam, Hinduism and Christianity. They have their own languages, which are as old as Sanskrit. Santhali is one of the languages which has the largest numbers of speakers.
2. Why are Muslims considered to be a marginalised community in India?
Answer: Muslims are considered to be a marginalised community in India because in comparison to other communities, they have always been deprived of the benefits of socioeconomic development. Most of the Muslims do not avail even basic amenities of life such as water and electricity. They live in kutcha houses. They have little access to education and public employment. Thus, they always lag behind in terms of various development indicators.
Their customs and practices are sometimes quite distinct from what is seen as the mainstream. Some-not – all-Muslims may wear a burqa, sport a long beard, wear a fez and these become ways to identify all Muslims. All these lead to their marginalisation.
3: What are the reasons why a community is marginalized, and how does it affect the community?
Answer: The reasons for a community to be socially marginalized are:
- Different language
- Different customs
- Different religion
- Financial status
Economic, social, cultural and political factors work together to make certain groups in society feel marginalised. Marginalized groups are viewed with hostility and deprived of opportunities that are available to other communities. They experience a sense of disadvantage and powerlessness against more powerful and dominant sections of society.
4: Write a brief note on Adivasis.
Answer: The Adivasis are indigenous peoples and are believed to be the first inhabitants of India. Adivasis have distinct languages, religions and forms of self-government, together with a deep bond to their land and respect for nature. 8 per cent of India’s population are Adivasis. There are over 500 different Adivasi groups in India.
Adivasi communities do not have any hierarchy among them. They are totally different from communities organised around principles of the caste system.
The religion of Adivasis is different from Islam, Hinduism or Christianity. The Adivasis worship their ancestral, village or nature spirits.
During the nineteenth century, substantial numbers of Adivasis converted to Christianity, which has emerged as a very important religion in modern Adivasi history. Adivasis have their own languages which may be as old as Sanskrit. The Adivasi language has influenced the formation of Indian languages, like Bengali.
5: What were the hardships faced by the Adivasis?
Answer: The Adivasis were pushed out of the forests of Jharkhand and they had to migrate to other parts of India and the world. The Adivasis experienced hardship and death during the migration. Five lakh Adivasis had perished in these migrations.
When forests were cleared for mining a majority of tribals are displaced. Wide areas of forest land were submerged under water when many dams were built in India after 1947. Due to this many Adivasis were displaced from the States of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Jharkhand.
In the North east, Adivasi lands are war-torn and occupied by the military.
There are 54 national parks and 372 wildlife sanctuaries in India. These Parks cover an area of 1, 09,652 sq km. of forest land. The Adivasis were evicted from these forests.
6. Describe marginalisation in context of the Adivasi and Muslim communities.
The life of Adivasis is very much associated with the forests. About 8% of India’s population is Adivasi and many of India’s most important mining and industrial centres are located in Adivasi areas such as Jharkhand, Rourkela, etc. There are over 500 different Adivasi groups in our country. They have their own life style. They are usually seen in colourful costumes, and headgear. They can also be identified through their dancing. In the pre-colonial world, Advasis were traditionally ranged hunter-gatherers and nomads and lived by shifting agriculture. Although these remain, for the past 200 years Adivasis have been increasingly forced to migrate to work in plantations, at construction sites, in industries and as domestic. [V. Imp.]
Answer: Adivasi Community: In the precolonial period, Adivasis ruled the forest areas. They were hunter-gatherers and nomads living by shifting agriculture and also cultivating in one place. But as the development and urbanisation took place, forests were cleared off. This affected the life of Adivasis badly. They had to migrate to cities in search of work. They also lost their power. They were now marginalised. Now they had to work in plantations, at construction sites, in industries and as domestic workers. They had no longer direct access to the forest territories. They lost their domain, and were compelled to lead a very miserable life in the cities. Their children are malnourished. They have little access to education. 45% of tribal in rural areas and 35% in urban areas are bound to live below poverty line.
Muslim Community: Muslims are considered to be a marginalised community in India today because in comparison to other communities, they have always been deprived of the benefits of socio-economic development. Most of the Muslims do not avail basic amenities like water and electricity. They are bound to live in kutcha houses. There is little education among them. They have little access to public employment.
Other factors that make them marginalised are their customs and practices. Some-not-all-Muslims may wear a burqa, sport a long beard, wear a fez and these become way to identify all Muslims. Because of this, they tend to be identified differently. Often this becomes an excuse to treat them unfairly and discriminate against them.