Class 8 History Chapter 9 The Making of the National Movement 1870s – 1947 Important Questions

CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 9 The Making of the National Movement 1870s-1947 Important Questions cover the major concepts of the chapter. Solving answers of these important questions help students to revise the Chapter most competently. We prepared these questions as per the latest NCERT book and CBSE syllabus. Practising the questions before the exam will ensure excellent marks in the exam.

CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 9 Important Questions PDF

Very Short Answer Type Questions

1: What is the literal meaning of sarvajanik?
Answer: The literal meaning of sarvajanik is ‘of or for all the people’. It is made
of two words – sarva = all + janik = of the people.

2: Who was A.O. Hume? What role did he play in the history of India?
Answer: A.O. Hume was a retired British official. He played an important role in bringing Indians from the various regions together.

3: Who was the Viceroy of India at the time of the partition of Bengal
Answer: At that time Lord Curzon was the Viceroy of India.

4: What was the Swadeshi Movement known as in deltaic Andhra?
Answer: In deltaic Andhra the Swadeshi Movement was known as the Vandemataram Movement.

5: Name the three leading members of the Radical group.
Answer: Bepin Chandra Pal, Balgangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai.

6: Why did Mahatma Gandhi along with other Indians establish the Natal Congress in South Africa?
Answer: He did so in order to fight against racial discrimination in South Africa.

7: Name three places where Gandhiji started local movements.
Answer: Champaran, Kheda and Ahmedabad.

8: Why did Rabindranath Tagore renounce his knighthood? 
Answer: Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood to express the pain and anger of the country following the Jallianwala Bagh atrocities.

9: Who were the leaders of the Khilafat agitation?
Answer: The leaders of the Khilafat agitation were Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.

10: What does ‘Punjab wrongs’ refer to?
Answer: It refers to Jallianwalla Bagh massarcre that occurred on 13 April, 1919 in Amritsar on Baishakhi day.

11: Who was Chitta Ranjan Das?
Answer: He was a lawyer from East Bengal and was active in the Non-Cooperation Movement.

12: What does RSS stand for?
Answer: RSS stands for Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.

13: Who was Bhagat Singh? What slogan did he raise?
Answer: Bhagat Singh was a revolutionary nationalist. His slogan was—Inquilab Zindabad.

14. What does HSRA stand for?
Answer. HSRA stands for Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.

15. Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to break the Salt Law?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi decided to break the Salt Law because it established the monopoly of the state on the manufacture and sale of salt

16: On what condition-were the Congress leaders ready to support the British war effort at the time of the Second World War?
Answer: The Congress leaders were ready to support the British war effort on condition that they would declare India’s independence after the war.

17: Did the British accept their condition?
Answer: No, the British did not accept their condition.

18: Who raised the slogan ‘do or die’?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi raised this slogan.

19: Why did the Muslim League announced 16 August 1946 as ‘Direct Action Day’?
Answer: It announced 16 August, 1946 as ‘Direct Action Day’ in support of its demand for Pakistan.

20. Define nationalism?
Answer: The feeling of oneness and unity among the people of a nation or patriotic feeling, principles and policy of national independence is termed as nationalism. 

21. When was Indian National Congress formed?
Answer: The Indian National Congress was formed in December, 1885. 

22. Mention the early leaders of Indian National Congress?
Answer: The early leadership: Dadabhai Naroji, Pherozshah Mehta, Badruddhin Tyabji, W.C. Banerji, Surendranath Banerji, Romesh Chandra Dutt, S. Subramania Iyer.

23. Which British officer helped in the formation of Indian National Congress?
Answer: A retired British official, A.O. Hume helped in the formation of Indian National Congress. 

24. When was Non –Cooperation & Khilafat Movement launched?
Answer: In 1920, NCM and Khilafat Movement were launched. 

Short Answer Type Questions

1. What was Rowlatt Act?

Answer: Rowlatt Act was introduced by the British in 1919.
According to this act, any Indian could be arrested without trial in the court of law. The act curbed fundamental rights such as the freedom of expression and strengthened police powers. 

2. Why did the nationalist leader oppose Rowlett Act?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi, Mohanmad Ali Jinnah and others felt that the government had no right to restrict people’s basic freedoms.They criticized the Act as “devilish” and tyrannical

3. What were the effects of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre?

Answer: On learning about the massacre, Rabindranah Tagore expressed the pain and anger of the country be renouncing his knighthood. During the Rowlatt Satyagraha the participants tried to ensure that Hindus and Muslims were united in the fight against British rule. 

4. What were the aims of NCM and Khilafat Movement?

Answer: The aims of NCM and Khilafat movement were:- 

  • They demanded for Swaraj. 
  • They wanted to reduce the ‘wrongs’ against Punjab and Turkey. 

5. Who were the revolutionaries?
Answer: The revolutionaries were a small group of people who suggested that the use of violence to make a radical change within the society would be necessary to overthrow British rule.

6. When and why was the Non –cooperation Movement withdrawn?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi was against violent movements. He abruptly called off the Non –Cooperation Movement when in February 1922 a crowd of peasants set fire to a police station in Chauri Chaura. 

7. How did the British try to control the Quit India Movement?
Answer: 

  1. The first response of the British was severe repression. 
  2. By the end of 1943 over 90,000 people were arrested and around 1000 killed in police firing. 
  3. In many areas orders were given to machine –gun crowds from airplanes. The rebellion, however, ultimately brought the Raj to its knees. 

8. Mention the people who participated in the Dandi March and what was the British response towards this movement?

Answer: The people who participated in the Dandi March were: 
Peasants, tribals and women participated in large number.  The British response towards this movement was – the government tried to crush the movement through brutal action against peaceful satyagrahis. Thousands were sent to jail.

9. What was the most important feature of the government of India act of 1935 introduced by British?

Answer: Government of India Act of 1935 prescribed provincial autonomy and the government announced elections to the provincial legislatures in 1937. Congress formed governments in 7 out of 11 provinces. 

10. Why is the Indian National Congress (1919 – 1947) referred to as Gandhian Era?

Answer: From 1919 onwards Gandhi played a Major role in Indian National Movement as launched 3 great mass movements such as Non – cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, Quit India Movement. Ultimately it was Gandhi who led the people of India towards independence in the year 1947. 

11. Write a short note on Jallianwala Bagh?

Answer: The Jallianwala Bagh atrocities inflicted by General Dyer in Amritsar on Baisakhi Day (13 April), were a part of Rowlett Act repression. On learning about the massacre, Rabindranath Tagore expressed the pain and anger of the country be renouncing his knight hood. During the Rowlatt Satyagraha the participants tried to ensure that Hindus and Muslims were in the fight against the British rule.

12: How did people participate in the Non-Cooperation Movement during 1921-22?

Answer: (a) During these years, thousands of students left government controlled schools and colleges.
(b) Many lawyers such as Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das, C. Rajagopalachari and Asaf Ali gave up their practices.
(c) British titles were surrendered and legislatures boycotted. .
(d) People lit public bonfires of foreign cloth.

13: Why was the Simon Commission sent to India? Why did Indians boycott it?

Answer: The British government in England sent a Commission headed by Lord Simon in the year 1927 to decide India’s political future. As the Commission had no Indian representative, it was boycotted by all political groups. When the Commission arrived it met with demonstrations with banners saying ‘Simon Go Back’.

14: What role did Ambabai play in the Indian freedom struggle?

Answer: Ambabai came from Karnataka. She had been married at age twelve and was widowed at sixteen. Afterwards she began participating in the Indian freedom struggle. She picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops in Udipi. She was arrested, served a sentence and was rearrested. Between prison terms she made powerful speeches, taught spinning and organised prabhat pheris.

16: Write a brief paragraph on Maulana Azad.

Answer: Maulana Azad was a great leader of the Indian freedom struggle. He was born in Mecca to a Bengali Father and an Arab Mother. He was well- versed in several languages. He was a scholar of Islam and an exponent of the notion of wahadat-i-deen, the essential oneness of all religions. He was an active participant in the movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi. He was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. He never approved Jinnah’s two-nation theory. He wanted a country in which Hindus and Muslims lived in perfect harmony.

17: Write a brief note on Khan Abdul Ghajfar Khan.

Answer: Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan was the Pashtun leader from the North-West Frontier Province. He was popularly known as Badshah Khan. He founded the Khudai Khidmatgars, which was a powerful non-violent movement among the Pattans of his province. He was a staunch supporter of Hindu-Muslim unity and was strongly opposed to the partition of India. He criticised his Congress colleagues for agreeing to the division of India in 1947.

18. How did the British expand its army during the War period?

Answer: People in village were pressurized to supply soldiers for an alien cause. A large number of soldiers were sent overseas.
Many returned after the war with an understanding of the ways in which imperialist powers were exploiting the people in Asia and Africa with a desire to oppose colonial rule in India. 

19. Mention the two demands of the Indian National Congress that it adopted in 1929?
Answer: The two demands of the Congress were:

  • The Congress resolving to fight for Purna Swaraj (complete independence) in 1929 under the president ship of Jawaharlal Nehru. 
  • Consequently “Independence Day” was observed on 26 January 1930 all over the country. 

20. What was the Congress demand after having won the elections?

Answer:  

  • In September 1939, after two years of Congress rule in the provinces, the Second World War broke out. 
  • Critical of Hitler, Congress leaders were ready to support the British war effort. 
  • But in return they wanted that India be granted independence after the war. 
  • The British refused to concede demand. 
  • The congress ministries resigned in protest. 

Long Answer Type Questions

1: What caused the partition of Bengal in 1905?
Or
Under what pretext, did the British divide Bengal?

Answer: At the time of partition Bengal was the biggest province of British India which comprised Bihar and parts of Orissa. The British argued for dividing Bengal for reasons of administrative convenience. But it was a totally false argument. In fact, the partition of Bengal was closely tied to the interests of British officials and businessmen. The British also wanted to curtail the influence of Bengali politicians and split the Bengali people. It was therefore, instead of removing the non-Bengali areas from the province, they separated East Bengal and merged it with Assam.

2: What were the consequences of the partition of Bengal?

Answer: (a) The partition of Bengal enraged people all over the country. Both the Moderates and the Radicals in the Congress opposed this action of the British.
(b) Public meetings and demonstrations began to be organised. Novel methods of mass protest were also developed. They struggled against the partition of Bengal came to be known as Swadeshi Movement. In Bengal this movement was the strongest. In other regions such as in deltaic Andhra the movement was called the Vandemataram Movements.

3: What was the Khilafat agitation?

Answer: In the year 1920 the British imposed a harsh treaty on the Turkish Sultan, known as Khalifa. It enraged people. Indian Muslims wanted that the Khalifa be allowed to retain control over Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile Ottoman empire. The leaders of the Khilafat agitation Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, now wished to start a full-fledged Non-Cooperation Movement. They got support from Mahatma Gandhi who urged the Congress to campaign against “Punjab wrongs’, the Khilafat wrong and demand swaraj.

4. Why were the early years of the Indian National Congress referred to as the moderate phase? 

Answer: 

  1. The Congress in the first twenty years was “moderate” in its objectives and methods. 
  2. During this period it demanded a greater voice for Indians in the government and in administration. 
  3. It wanted the Legislative Councils to be made more representative, given more power, and introduced in provinces where wone existed. 
  4. It demanded that Indian be placed in high positions in the government. For this purpose it called for civil service examinations to be held in 
  5. India as well, not just in London. 
  6. The demand for Indianisation of the administration was part of a movement against racism, since most important jobs at the time were 
  7. monopolised by white officials and the British generally assumed that Indian could not be given positions of responsibility. 
  8. Other demands included the separation of the judiciary from the executive, the repeal of the Arms Act and the freedom of speech and expression

5. What were the economic issues that were raised by the Indian National Congress in its moderate phase?
Answer:

  • The early Congress also raised a number of economic issues:
  • It declared that British rule had led to poverty and famines: increase in the land revenue had impoverished peasants and zamindars, and exports of grains to Europe had created food shortage. 
  • The Congress demanded reduction of revenue, cut in military expenditure, and more funds for irrigation. 

6. Why was Bengal partitioned?
Answer:

  • In 1905 Viceroy Curzon partitioned Bengal. At that time Bengal was the biggest province of British India and included Bihar and parts Orissa. 
  • The British argued for dividing Bengal for reasons of administrative convenience. 
  • “Administrative convenience” was closely tied to the interests of British officials and businessmen. 
  • Even so, instead of removing the non –Bengali areas from the province the government separated East Bengal and merged it with Assam. 
  • Perhaps the main British motives were to curtail the influence of Bengali politicians and to split the Bengali people. 
  • The wanted to divide Hindus from Muslims. 

7. What was the result of the partition of Bengal?

Answer: The portion of Bengal infuriated people all over India: 

  • All sections of the Congress – the Moderates and the Radicals, as they may be called – opposed it. 
  • Large public meetings and demonstrations were organised and novel methods of mass protest developed. 
  • The struggle that unfolded came to be known as the Swadeshi movement, strongest in Bengal but with echoes elsewhere too – in deltaic Andhra for instance, it was known as the Vandemataram Movement. 

8. What do you understand by the term – ‘Swadeshi Movement’?

Answer: The word ‘Swadeshi’ comes from twp words – ‘ swa’ and ‘desh’ which means ones own country. 

  • The Swadeshi Movement sought to appose British rule and in courage the ideas of self – help, Swadeshi enterprise, national education, and use of 
  • Indian languages. To fight for swaraj the radicals advocated mass mobilization and boycott of British institutions and goods. 

9. When was the Muslim league formed and what were its demands?

Answer: A groups of Muslim landlords and Nawabs formed the All India Muslim league at Dacca in 1906.
The league supported the partition of Bengal.
It desired separate electorates for Muslims, a demand conceded by the government in 1906. Some seats in the councils were now reserved for Muslims who would be elected by Muslims voters. 

10. How did the 1st World War affect the economical condition of India?
Answer: 

  1. The first World war altered the economic and political situation in India. 
  2. It led to a huge rise in the defense expenditure of the Government of India. 
  3. The government in turn increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits. 
  4. Increased military expenditures and the demands for was supplies led to a sharp rise in prices which created great difficulties for the common people. 
  5. On the other hand, business groups reaped fabulous profits from the war. 
  6. The war created a demand for industrial goods (jute bags, cloth, rails) and caused a decline of imports from other countries into India. So, Indian industries expanded during the war, and Indian business groups began to demand greater opportunities for development. 

11. What were the methods adopted in the Non – cooperation Movement?
Answer: 

  • The Non –cooperation Movement gained momentum through 1921 -22. 
  • Thousands of students left government –controlled schools and colleges. 
  • Many lawyers such as Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das, C. Rajagopalachari and Asaf Ali gave up their practices. 
  • British titles were surrendered and legislatures boycotted. 
  • People lit public bonfires of foreign cloth. 
  • The imports of foreign cloth fell drastically between 1920 and 1922. 
  • Large parts of the country were on the brink of a formidable revolt. 

12. Why did Mahatma Gandhi organize a ‘dandi march’?

Answer: Purna Swaraj would never come on its own. It had to be fought for. In 1930, Gandhi declared that he would lead a march to break the salt law. 

According to this law, the state had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt. Gandhi along with other nationalists reasoned that it was sinful to tax salt since it is such an essential item of our food. The salt March related the general desire of freedom to a specific grievance shared by everybody, and thus did not divide the rich and the poor. 

13. Who was Mahatma Gandhi?

Answer: Gandhiji, aged 46, arrived in India in 1915 from south Africa. Having led Indian in the country in non – violent marches against racist restrictions, he was already a respected leader, known internationally. His south Africa campaigns had brought him in contact with various types of Indians: Hindus, Muslims, Paris and Christians, Gujaratis, Tamil and North – Indians and upper –class merchants, lawyers and workers. 
Mahatma Gandhi spent his first year in India traveling throughout the country, understanding the people, their needs and the overall situation. 

14: What were the demands of the Congress in its early years?

Answer: In its early years the Congress was moderate in its objectives and methods. It made several demands; which are given below:
(a) The Congress demanded a greater voice for Indians in the government and in administration.
(b) It demanded that Indians be placed in high positions in the government. For this purpose it called for Civil Service examinations to be held in India as well, not just in London.
(c) The Congress demanded for the separation of the judiciary from the executive.
(d) The repeal of the Arms Act and the freedom of speech and expression was also a major demand of the Congress.
(e) It also demanded reduction of revenue, cut in military expenditure and more funds for irrigation.

15. Discuss the people’s response about the Non –Cooperation Movement in different parts of the country.
Answer: 

  • In Gujarat Patidar peasants organised non- violent campaigns against the high land revenue demand of the British. 
  • In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu, liquor shops were picketed. In the Gunur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribals and poor peasants staged a number of “forest Satyagrahas”, sometimes sending their cattle into forests without paying grazing fee. They were protesting because the colonial state had restricted their use of forest resources in various ways. They believed that Gandhiji would get their taxes reduced and have the forest regulation abolished. In many forest villages, peasants proclaimed swaraj and believed that “Gandhi Raj” was about to be established.
  • In sind (non in Pakistan), Muslim traders and peasant were very enthusiastic about the Khilafat call.   
  • In Bengal too, the Khilafat – Non- cooperation alliance gave enormous communal unity and strength to the national movement. 
  • In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the sikhs sought to remove corrupt mahants –supported by the British – from their gurudwaras. 
  • In Assam, tea garden labourers shouting “Gandhi Maharaj Ki Jai”, demanded a big increase in their wages. They left the British owned plantations amidst declarations that they were following Gandhiji’s wish. 

16. How did Gandhi organize Quit India Movement?
Answer: 

  1. Mahatma Gandhi decided to initiate a new phase of movement against the British in the middle of the Second World War. 
  2. The British must quit India immediately he told them. To the people he said “do or die” in your effort to fight the British – but you must fight non –violently. 
  3. Gandhi and other leaders were jailed at once beat the movement spread. 
  4. It specially attracted peasants and the youth who gave up their studies to join it. 
  5. Communications and symbols of state authority were attacked act over the country. 
  6. In many areas people set up their own governments. 

17. What were the demands of the Muslim league in 1946?

Answer: Meanwhite, in 1940 the Muslim league had moved a resolution demanding “Independent states” for Muslims in the north –western and eastern areas of the country.  

  • The resolution did not mention partition or Pakistan. 
  • From the late 1930s the league began viewing the Muslims as a separate “nation” from the Hindus. 
  • In developing this nation it may have been influenced by the history of tension between some Hindu and Muslim groups in the 1920s and 1930s. 
  • More importantly, the provincial elections of 1937 seemed to have convinced the league that Muslims were a minority and they would always have to play second fiddle in any democratic structure. 
  • It feared that muslims may even go unrepresented. 
  • The Congress’s rejection of the league’s desire to form a joint congress – league government in the United Provinces in 1937 also annoyed the league.

18: What was the Rowlatt Act? Give an account of the Rowlatt Satyagraha.

Answer: The British passed the Rowlatt Act in the year 1919. The Act curbed fundamental rights such as the freedom of expression and strengthened police powers. The Act was very repressive and therefore it enraged Indians. Prominent leaders of the freedom struggles such as Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, etc. felt that the government had no right to restrict the basic freedoms of people. They viewed the Act as devilish and tyrannical. Gandhiji decided to oppose this Act. He asked people of India to observe 6 April 1919 as a day of non-violent opposition to the Act, as a day of “humiliation and prayer’ and hartal. He organised Satyagraha Sabhas to launch the movement.

The Rowlatt Satyagraha spread far and wide. It became the first All- India struggle against the British government. In April 1919 several demonstrations and hartals took place in the country. But the government suppressed them taking brutal measures. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre was the climax of its brutality. This incident took place on 13 April in Amritsar on Baishakhi day. Thousands of people had gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh to celebrate the occasion. General Dyre opened fire on them all of a sudden.
Both Hindu and Muslim unitedly criticised the British action.

19: Under what circumstances did Gandhiji initiate the Quit India Movement?

Answer: In September 1939, the Second World War broke out. The. British government in India needed help from the Indian leaders. The leaders were ready to support the British war effort. But in return they wanted that India be granted independence after the war. The British refused to accept the demand. This enraged the Congress ministries. They all resigned to show their protest.
Mahatma Gandhi was deeply perturbed. He now decided to initiate a new phase of movement against the British rule in the middle of the Second World War. This movement came to be known as the Quit India Movement. Gandhiji thought that the British must Quit India without further delay. He raised the slogan ‘do or die’ which spread among the common mass very soon. But at the same time he warned the people not to be violent in any condition.

The British took repressive measures. Gandhiji along with other leaders were sent to jail immediately. But this did not prevent the movement from spreading. It specially attracted peasants and the youth who gave up their studies to join the movement. Communications and symbols of state authority were attacked all over the country. In several areas people set up their own governments.
The British tried to repress these developments severely. About 90,000 people were arrested and wound 1,000 killed in police firing. But the movement did not go in vain. It brought freedom very close.

20. What were the factors that led to the rise of national consciousness among the people of India?

Answer: The factors that led to the rise of national consciousness among the people of India were:  Political associations came into being in the 1870s and 1880s:- Most of these were led by English –educated professionals such as lawyers. The more important ones were the Poona Servajanik Sabha, the Indian Association, the Madras Mahajan Sabha, the Bombay Presidency Association and the Indian National Congress. 

The dissatisfaction with British rule intensified in the 1870s and 1880s. They posted various laws which upset the people of India.
1. The Arms Act was passed in 1878, disallowing Indian from possessing arms.
2. In the same year the Vernacular Press Act was also enacted in an effort to silence those who were critical of the government. The Act allowed government to confiscate the assets of newspapers published anything that was found “objectionable”.
3. In 1883, there was a furore over the attempt by the government to introduce the Ilbert Bill. The bill provided for the trial of British or European persons by Indians, and sought equality between British and Indian judges in the country. But when white opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill, Indians were enraged. 

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