NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India contain answers to the textbook exercise questions. The NCERT solutions are easy and accurate that helps with the questions asked in the examinations. These solutions cover all the questions of the chapter in detail. NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 4 are prepared by our subject experts in very easy language. All our solutions are updated as per the latest CBSE Syllabus and Guidelines.

Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 4 NCERT Solutions

Let’s Discuss Page no. 43

Question 1: Some people say that the Bengal famine happened because there was a shortage of rice. Study the table and find out whether you agree with the statement?

Answer: No, I do not agree that the Bengal famine happened due to a shortage of rice. From the table, the availability was much higher than in 1941, although lower than 1942. However, there can be a number of other causes like improper distribution, poor carryover stocks due to less production in 1941, malnutrition or disease, etc.

Question 2: Which year shows a drastic decline in food availability?

Answer: The year showing a drastic decline in food availability is 1941.

Let’s Discuss Page no. 45

Question 1: Why is agriculture a seasonal activity?

Answer: Agriculture has a sowing season and a harvesting season which is a very busy period for farmers. Most of the work is done during these periods. When the plants are growing and maturing no significant amount of work is there.

Question 2: Why is Ramu unemployed for about four months in a year?

Answer: Agriculture has a sowing and harvesting season which is a very busy period for farmers and requires extra labour. So casual labourers like Ramu get employment during these period for about eight months in a year.

Question 3: What does Ramu do when he is unemployed?

Answer: Ramu is a casual agricultural labourer and is only seasonally employed during sowing and harvesting. During that period, he gets employment in bricklaying, or in construction activities in the village

Question 4: Who are supplementing income in Ramu’s family?

Answer: Ramu’s wife Sunhari and his son Somu are supplementing the income in Ramu’s family. Somu works for the Sarpanch by looking after the cattle and is paid ` 1,000 for his work Sunhari also works as house cleaner and a casual labourer during the busy season.

Question 5: Why does Ramu face difficulty when he is unable to have work? When is Ramu food insecure?

Answer: Ramu is seasonally unemployed and does odd jobs to survive But Tome times he is unable to get any work at all and during that period he faces difficulty in getting 2 square meals for his family.

Question 6: When is Ramu food insecure?

Answer: Ramu who is a casual labourer in agriculture becomes seasonally unemployed and does odd jobs during that period But Sometimes, he is unable to get any work at all and is totally unemployed and faces poverty and is unable to buy food for his children. During this period he is food insecure during the four months when he is unemployed.

Let’s Discuss Page no. 47

Question 1: Does Ahmad have a regular income from rickshaw-pulling?

Answer: (i) Ahmad a rickshaw puller does not have a regular income from rickshaw pulling; his earnings fluctuate every day.

(ii) Sometimes, he gets enough earning to save some amount after buying his day to day necessities. On other days he is barely able to earn enough to survive.

Question 2: How does the yellow card help Ahmad

Answer: (i) Ahmad has a yellow card which is a PDS card for below poverty line people. With this card Ahmad gets sufècient quantity of wheat, rice, sugar and kerosene oil for his daily use at rates below the market rates.
(ii) In this way, Ahmad is able to survive even with less income from Rickshaw pulling.

Let’s Discuss Page no. 47

Question 1: Study Graph 4.1 and answer the following questions:

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India image 1

(a) In which year did our country cross the 200 Million tonne per year mark in foodgrain production?
(b) In which decade did India experience the highest decadal increase in foodgrain
production?
(c) Is production increase consistent in India since 2000-01?

Answer: (a) In the years 2001-02 and 2003-04 our country crossed the 200 million tonnes per year mark in food grain production.
(b) India experienced the highest decadal increase in food grain production between 1980-1990.
(c) No the increase in food grain production did not remain consistent after 2000-01 because it declined in 2002-03.

Let’s Discuss Page no. 51

Question 1: Study the Graph 4.2 and answer the following questions:

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India image 2

(a) In which recent year foodgrain stock with the government was maximum?
(b) What is the minimum buffer stock norm for the FCI?
(c) Why were the FCI granaries overflowing with foodgrains?

Answer: (a) In the years 2001-02 and 2003-04 our country crossed the 200 million tonnes per year mark in food grain production.
(b) India experienced the highest decadal increase in food grain production between 1980- 1990.
(c) No the increase in food grain production did not remain consistent after 2000-01 because it declined in 2002-03.

Exercises

Question 1: How is food security ensured in India?

Answer: Food security is ensured in a country when the three dimensions of food security are taken care of. The three dimensions are:

  • Availability of food – Presence of enough food for all the persons
  • Accessibility of food – Absence of barrier on access to food
  • Affordability of food – Capability of all persons to buy food of acceptable quality

Question 2: Which are the people more prone to food insecurity?

Answer: Although a large section of people suffers from food and nutrition insecurity in India, the worst affected groups are landless or land-poor households in rural areas and people employed in ill-paid occupations and casual laborers engaged in seasonal activities in the urban areas.

Question 3: Which states are more food insecure in India?

Answer: The economically-backward states with high incidence of poverty are more food insecure in India. The states of Uttar Pradesh (eastern and south-eastern parts), Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra account for the largest number of food insecure people in the country.

Question 4: Do you believe that green revolution has made India self-sufficient in food grains? How?

Answer: In the late 1960s, the Green Revolution introduced the Indian farmer to the cultivation of high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of seeds. The HYVs (coupled with chemical fertilisers and pesticides) led to a growth in the productivity of food grains (especially wheat and rice), thereby helping India attain self-sufficiency in food grains. Since the advent of the Green Revolution, the country has avoided famine even during adverse weather conditions.

Question 5: A section of people in India are still without food. Explain?

Answer: Although India has become a food surplus country, there are still some people who suffer from food insecurity. As per the data of 1999-2000, about 0.9% of people still suffer from hunger. While this is a very small amount in terms of percentage, it can be a large number in absolute terms.

Question 6: What happens to the supply of food when there is a disaster or a calamity?

Answer: When there is a disaster or a calamity, the production of food grains decreases in the affected area. This in turn creates a shortage of food in the area. Due to the food shortage, the prices go up. The raised prices of food materials affect the capacity of many people to buy the same. When the calamity occurs in a very wide spread area or is stretched over a long period of time, it may cause a situation of starvation. A massive starvation can take the form of famine.

Question 7: Differentiate between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger?

Answer:

Seasonal hunger is related to cycles of food growing and harvesting. This is prevalent in rural areas because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities, and in urban areas because of the casual labour (e.g., there is less work for casual construction labour during the rainy season). This type of hunger exists when a person is unable to get work for the entire year.

Chronic hunger is a consequence of diets persistently inadequate in terms of quantity and/or quality. Poor people suffer from chronic hunger because of their very low income and in turn, inability to buy food even for survival.

Question 8: What has our government done to provide food security to the poor? Discuss any two schemes launched by the government?

Answer:  In the 1970s, three important food intervention progammes were introduced to tackle the shortage of food: Public Distribution System (PDS): This system was made to ensure smooth supply of subsidized food items to the poor. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS): These services were introduced to provide proper nutrition to poor children. Food for Work (FFW): This programme was introduced to help the poor to earn food in lieu of some work.

Or

The food security is ensured in India by the Government by carefully designed food security system. This system is composed of two components:

(a) Maintaining a Buffer Stock of food grains,

(b) Through the distribution of these food grains among the poorer sections of the society with the help of a Public Distribution System (PDS).

In addition to the above, the Government has launched several Poverty Alleviation

Programmes (PAP) that comprise a component of food security. Some of these programmes are – Mid-Day Meals, Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY), and Food-For-Work (FFW) etc.

Two schemes launched by the government to provide food security to the poor are:

  • Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY): This scheme was launched in December 2000. Under this scheme one crore of the poorer among the BPL families, covered by the Public Distribution System (PDS) were identified. Twenty-five kilograms of food grains were made available to each of the eligible family at a highly subsidized rate. After about two years, the quantity was enhanced from 25 kg to 35 kg. In June 2003, and August 2004, additional 50 lakh families were added to this scheme twice. In this way about 2 crore families have been brought under the AAY.
  • Food for Work (FFW): This programme was launched in November 2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country. The main objective of this scheme is to intensify the generation of supplementary wage employment. This scheme is open to all rural poor who are willing to do unskilled labour. In return of the work, the workers are supplied food grains or money as they like.

Question 9: Why buffer stock is created by the government?

Answer: A buffer stock of food grains is created by the government so as to distribute the procured food grains in the food-deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price. A buffer stock helps resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during periods of calamity.

Question 10: Write notes on:
(a) Minimum support price
(b) Buffer stock
(c) Issue price

Answer: (a) Minimum Support Price (MSP) – The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their crops. This price is called Minimum Support Price. The MSP is declared by the government every year before the sowing season to provide incentives to the farmers for raising the production of these crops.

(b) Buffer Stock – Buffer stock is the stock of food grains, mainly wheat and rice, procured by the Government through the Food Corporation of India. This buffer stock is used by the government in case of any calamity or disaster or for the poorer section of the society.

(c) Issue Price – In order to help the poor strata of the society, the government provides them food grains from the buffer stock at a price much lower than the market price. This subsidized price is known as the Issue Price

(d) Fair Price Shops – The food grains procured by the government through FCI is distributed to the poor section of the society through ration shops. The Ration Shops are called Fair Price Shops because food grains are supplied to the poor through these shops at much reasonable and a fair price than the market price which is often high. Any family with a ration card can purchase stipulated amount of food grains, sugar, kerosene etc. every month from the nearby fair price shop.

Question 11: What are the problems of the functioning of ration shops?

Answer: There have many instances of poor management and corruption. Many people complain that after the segregation of APL and BPL, people holding the APL card seldom go to the ration shops because of minor variations with the market prices. The ration shopkeepers often siphon off the food grains into open market and sell poor quality food grains through the ration shop. The shopkeepers are also erratic in their behaviour because of which many people suffer.

Question 12: Write a note on the role of cooperatives in providing food and related items.

Answer: The cooperatives are playing an important role in food security in India, especially in the southern and western parts of the country. The cooperative societies set up shops to sell goods to the poor people at lower prices. For example, out of all fair price shops operating in Tamil Nadu, nearly 94 percent are being run by the cooperatives. In Delhi, Mother Dairy is providing milk and vegetables to the consumers at controlled prices which are decided by the Delhi Government. Amul is another example in this regard. It has brought about the White Revolution in the country. There are many more cooperatives and NGOs also working intensively towards this direction.

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