NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism contain answers to the textbook exercise questions. The NCERT solutions are easy and accurate that helps with the questions asked in the examinations. These solutions cover all the questions of the chapter in detail. NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 4 are prepared by our subject experts in very easy language. All our solutions are updated as per the latest CBSE Syllabus and Guidelines.
Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 4 NCERT Solutions
Question 1: Discuss how the changes in forest management in the colonial period affected the following groups of people:
- Shifting cultivators
- Nomadic and pastoralist communities
- Firms trading in timber/forest produce
- Plantation owners
- Kings/British officials engaged in shikar
New forest laws banned shifting cultivation. For shifting cultivators, it was devastating because there was a problem for their survival. Many of them were forced to migrate to take up some other occupations. Many others were forced to work in the tea plantations.
Nomadic and pastoralist communities
Grazing of animals was banned under the new forest laws. It made the life of pastoralist communities difficult. Herds of animals were their only source of livelihood. The nomadic communities were declared as criminal communities. This made their life miserable because they could no longer move freely.
Firms trading in timber/forest produce
Because of huge demand of timber, it was boon for the timber merchants. They must have seen good growth in their incomes.
Land was given at cheaper rates to the plantation owners. Labour was also made available to them at very low wages. Moreover, new policies were made which prevented the workers from going back to their home villages. It was a win-win situation for the plantation owner.
Kings/British officials engaged in shikar
Killing of ferocious animals; like tiger or wolves was monetarily rewarded. Moreover, hunting was viewed as a sign of bravely and valour. The Kings and British officials must have enjoyed the new found honor in the society.
Question 2: What are the similarities between colonial management of the forests in Bastar and Java?
Answer: There were certain similarities in the colonial management of forests in Bastar and Java. In both the cases, the traditional rights of forest dwellers were taken away and they were forced to work for their colonial masters. Large scale deforestation took place and felled trees were replaced with monocultural plantations.
Question 3: Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:
- Agricultural expansion
- Commercial farming
- Tea/Coffee plantations
- Adivasis and other peasant user
There was huge demand of sleepers from the railways. In those days sleepers were made from wood. Expansion of the railway network resulted in large scale deforestation.
Shipbuilding was an important industry because ships were integral part of the military power of the British. When the number of oak trees sharply reduced in Britain, Indian forests provided good source of supply. Thus, shipbuilding also contributed towards large scale deforestation in India.
The growing European population meant an increased demand for food grains. This resulted in expansion of cultivated land in India. More land was cleared of forests to make way for cultivation.
There was increased demand for various raw materials; like cotton, indigo for the expanding industries in Britain. This resulted in large scale commercial farming in India. This could also become possible by clearing forests.
Demand for tea and coffee also increased in Britain. The climate of north- eastern India and the eastern coast was perfect for plantations. Large areas of forests were cleared for making way for plantations. The British plantation owners were given land on very cheap rates.
Adivasis and other peasant users
Adivasis had always been the protectors of forests and hence they had no role in deforestation. However, some peasants may have utilised the opportunity to expand the cultivated land; as had happened in Java. Moreover, the significant increase in cultivated land also indicates towards clearing of forests for farming.
Question 4: Why are forests affected by wars?
Answer: The two World Wars had major impacts on forests. More trees were cut to meet the wartime needs of Britain.
In Java, the Dutch followed ‘scorched earth’ policy just before the Japanese occupation of the region. They destroyed sawmills and burnt huge piles of giant teak logs. The Japanese continued the exploitation of forests. They forced forest villagers to cut down forests. For many villagers, it was an opportunity to expand cultivated area.