NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World contain answers to the textbook exercise questions. The NCERT solutions are easy and accurate that helps with the questions asked in the examinations. These solutions cover all the questions of the chapter in detail. NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 are prepared by our subject experts in very easy language. All our solutions are updated as per the latest CBSE Syllabus and Guidelines.
Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 NCERT Solutions
Question 1: Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?
Answer: The nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another in search of new pastures. When the grass in a particular part is exhausted and the season becomes unconducive, the nomadic tribes move to some other area. The seasonal movement of nomadic tribes is beneficial for the environment. It allows natural re-growth of grass in the pastureland.
Nomadic tribes move from one location in order to maintain their sustenance and way of lie. As they are involved in animal husbandry, the availability of water is paramount to their existence along with fresh pastures for their animals. When the pasture is depleted they move to next area looking for new grazing grounds.
The advantages of the environment are as follows:
(i) The environment gets a chance to regrow and recover, thus maintaining the ecological balance of the area.
(ii) It prevents overgrazing as this will lead to depletion of future grazing grounds.
(iii) The manure of the animals helps in fertilising the soil, which will be instrumental in repeating the nomadic process of moving from one location to another a possibility.
Question 2: Discuss why the colonial government in India brought in the following laws. In each case, explain how the law changed the lives of pastoralists:
- Waste Land rules
- Forest Acts
- Criminal Tribes Act
- Grazing Tax
Waste Land rules: All grazing lands were considered waste lands by the colonial rulers as they brought no revenue to them. If this land could be transformed into cultivated farmland, it would result in an increase in land revenue and production of crops such as jute, cotton and wheat. This is why the Waste Land rules were formulated. However, they sounded the death knell for pastoralists because increase in cultivated land meant an obvious decline in pastures, and a consequent loss of a means of livelihood for them.
Forests Acts: These Acts were introduced to gain control of those forests which had commercially important trees. Moreover, these acts were also utilised to collect some revenue from the pastoralists. The movement of pastoralists was severely restricted because of new Forest Acts. Instead of planning their movement according to the season, the pastoralists now had to move according to the new rules.
Criminal Tribes Act: This Act was introduced to force the nomadic tribes to a settled life. It was difficult to collect taxes from the nomadic people because they did not have permanent address. This Act tarnished the image of nomadic tribes. This disturbed their relationship with peasants and other mainstream communities. It also badly affected their earnings.
Grazing Tax: It was imposed by the colonial government to expand its revenue income. Pastoralists had to pay a tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. This right was now auctioned out to contractors. They extracted as high a tax as they could, to recover the money they had paid to the state and earn as much profit as they could. Later the government itself started collecting taxes. This created problems for the pastoralists who were harassed by tax collectors. It also became an economic burden on them.
Question 3: Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.
Answer: The Maasais lost their grazing lands due to the following reasons:
- In 1885 itself, Maasai land was cut in half by an international boundary drawn between the two colonies: British Kenya and German Tanganyika.
- The best pastures were reserved for white settlements, and the Maasai tribes were given arid, small areas in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.
- This lack of good grazing lands and a two-year drought led to a loss of almost 60% of cattle belonging to the Maasai tribes. Increase in cultivation and promotion of game reserves added to their woes.
Thus, with the increasing power of the colonists and their adverse impact on the Maasai’s social life, this community gradually lost all its grazing lands.
Question 4: There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.
Answer: There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Two changes that were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders are as follows:
(i) Both communities lost their grazing lands due to the preference given to cultivation.
(ii) Both communities were nomadic, and hence, were regarded with extreme suspicion by the colonial powers governing them. This led to their further decline.