NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture are given below. These solutions contain answers to all the exercise questions given in the Geography textbook. All our solutions are updated as per the latest CBSE Syllabus and Guidelines. These solutions will also help you to score higher marks with the help of well-illustrated answers. All the questions and answers of Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture are provided here in PDF format.

Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture NCERT Solutions

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Exercise Questions

1. Answer the following questions.

(i) What is agriculture?

Answer: The word Agriculture is a Latin word which means soil cultivation. It is a primary activity which includes growing of crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. It is also known as farming.

(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture?

Answer: The factors that influence agriculture include soil, climate, topography, population etc.

(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?

Answer: Shifting cultivation or slash-and-burn cultivation is a type of farming activity which involves clearing a plot of land by felling trees, burning the felled trees, mixing the ashes with soil, and then growing crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava on the cleared land. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves on to a new plot.

Disadvantages of shifting cultivation:

  • Leads to deforestation
  • Loss of fertility of a particular land
  • Leads to Soil erosion
  • Burning of trees causes air pollution
  • Insufficient cultivation of crops for a large population.

(iv) What is plantation agriculture?

Answer: Plantations are a type of commercial farming where a single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton is grown. It requires a large amount of capital and labour. The product can be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming. This type of farming can be found in tropical regions of the world like India, Sri Lanka and Brazil.

(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.

Answer: Jute and Cotton are fibre crops.

The climatic conditions required for the growth of Jute are:

  • High temperature
  • Heavy rainfall
  • High humidity

The climatic conditions required for the growth of cotton are:

  • High temperature
  • Light rainfall
  • Bright sunshine

2. Tick the correct answer.

(i) Horticulture means

(a) growing of fruits and vegetables
(b) primitive farming
(c) growing of wheat

Answer: (a) Growing of fruits and vegetables

(ii) Golden fibre refers to

(a) tea
(b) cotton
(c) jute

Answer: (c) Jute

(iii) Leading producers of coffee

(a) Brazil
(b) India
(c) Russia

Answer: (a) Brazil

3. Give reasons.

(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.

Answer: Agriculture is the transformation of a plant to a finished product. It includes activities that are connected with the extraction and production of natural resources. Two-third of India’s population is dependent upon agriculture where people are engaged in growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. Hence, in India, agriculture is a primary activity.

(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.

Answer: The type of crop grown is dependent upon the type of soil and the type of climate of a region. Since different regions have different soil types and climatic conditions so, a crop may have favourable factors of growth in a particular region only. The demand for produce, labour and level of technology are some other factors that decide the type of crops grown in a particular region.

4. Distinguish between the followings.

(i) Primary activities and tertiary activities

Primary activitiesTertiary activities
Connected with the extraction and production of natural resourcesProvide support to the primary and secondary sectors
Example: Agriculture, FishingExample: Services such as banking and transport.

(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.

Subsistence FarmingIntensive Farming
It is a type of farming that is done by the farmer to meet the needs of his family.It is a type of farming that is done by the farmer to increase the production of crops in a small plot of land so as to earn some profit.
It involves the use of low levels of technology and household labour.It involves the use of simple tools and extra labour.

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