NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory are given below. These solutions contain answers to all the exercise questions given in the History textbook (Our Pasts III). All our solutions are updated as per the latest CBSE Syllabus and Guidelines. These solutions will also help you to score higher marks with the help of well-illustrated answers. All the questions and answers of Class 8 History Chapter 2 are provided here in PDF format.

Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory NCERT Solutions

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Exercise Questions

Question 1: Match the following:

DiwaniTipu Sultan
“Tigre of Mysore”right to collect land revenue
faujdari AdalatSepoy
Rani ChannammaCriminal court
sipahiled an anti-British movement


Diwaniright to collect land revenue
“Tigre of Mysore”Tipu Sultan
faujdari AdalatCriminal court
Rani Channammaled an anti-British movement

Question 2: Fill in the blanks:

(a) The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of ______

Answer: Plassey

(b) Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of ________

Answer: Mysore

(c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of ________

Answer: Lapse

(d) Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the _______ part of India.

Answer: South-Western

Question 3: State whether true or false:

(a) The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century.

Answer: False

(b) The English East India Company was the only European company that traded with India.

Answer: False

(c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh wasthe ruler of Punjab.

Answer: True

(d) The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered.

Answer: False

Question 4: What attracted European trading companies to India?

Answer: European trading companies ventured across the oceans so as to look for new lands from where they could buy goods at a cheap price, and carry them back to Europe to sell at higher prices. The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in Europe. Indian spices like pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon too were in great demand. Hence, European trading companies were attracted to India.

Question 5: What were the areas of conflict between theBengal Nawabs and the East India Company?

Answer: After the first British factory was set up in 1651 on the banks of the river Hooghly, East India company started allowing more of its merchants and traders to visit and settle down at the city of Bengal. The reasons that caused the conflicts between Bengal nawabs and East India Company were:

(i) Nawabs denied concessions to the East India Company on many occasions

(ii) Nawabs also demanded large tributes from the company

(iii) The company denied paying taxes

(iv) The company officials wrote insulting letters to the nawabs

Question 6: How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?

Answer: On being appointed the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal, the East India Company acquired greater power and authority. After the assumption of the Diwani, East India Company was benefited in several ways as mentioned below:

(i) It allowed the Company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal.

(ii) Now, trade was fully controlled by the East India Company.

(iii) Company used the revenues from India to finance its expenses like to purchase cotton and silk textiles in India, maintain Company troops, and meet the cost of building the Company fort and offices at Calcutta.

(iv) Revenue of Bengal was used to finance exports of Indian goods.

Question 7: Explain the system of “subsidiary alliance”.

Answer: From 1757 to 1857, the East India Company used a variety of political, economic and diplomatic methods to annex Indian kingdoms. The subsidiary alliance was one such method. According to the terms of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces. They were to be protected by the Company, and had to pay for the “subsidiary forces” that the Company had to maintain for the purpose of protecting them. If Indian rulers failed to make the payment, then part of their territory was taken away as penalty. For example, in 1801, the nawab of Awadh was forced to give over half of his territory to the Company for failing to pay for the “subsidiary forces”.

Question 8: In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers?

Answer: The difference in the administration of the company and that of the Indian rulers is given below:

Company AdministrationIndian Rulers Administration
The company divided the territories into presidenciesIndian rulers divided the territories into district, pargana, tehsil and parishad
Governor ruled the administrative unitsZamindar or Peasants were responsible for their units
Governor-General was the head of the stateKing or Nawab was the head of the state
The introduction of several acts: Regulating Act, Indian Council Acts, Montague-Chelmsford ReformsIndian rulers brought no such acts but used to rule with their farmans.

Question 9: Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army?

Answer: During the eighteenth century, when the East India Company began recruitment for its own army, it started recruiting peasants and began training them as professional soldiers. Like the Mughal army, the Company’s army was also composed of the cavalry and the infantry regiments, with the cavalry dominating the army. However, as warfare technology changed during the nineteenth century, the cavalry requirements of the Company’s army declined. As the soldiers had to be armed with muskets and matchlocks, the infantry regiments became more important.

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