NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 3 Ruling the Countryside

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 3 Ruling the Countryside are given below. These solutions contain answers to all the exercise questions given in the History textbook (Our Pasts III). All our solutions are updated as per the latest CBSE Syllabus and Guidelines. These solutions will also help you to score higher marks with the help of well-illustrated answers. All the questions and answers of Class 8 History Chapter 3 are provided here in PDF format.

Class 8 History Chapter 3 Ruling the Countryside NCERT Solutions

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Exercise Questions

Question 1: Match the following:

nijCultivation on ryot’s land
ryotiCultivation on planter’s own land


nijCultivation on planter’s own land
ryotiCultivation on ryot’s land

Question 2: Fill in the blanks:

(a) Growers of woad in Europe saw_______ as a crop which would provide competition to their earnings.

Answer: (a) Indigo

(b) The demand for indigo increased in the late-eighteenth-century Britain because of _________

Answer: the expansion of cotton production

(c) The international demand for indigo was affected by the discovery of__________.

Answer: synthetic dyes.

(d) The Champaran movement was against _________.

Answer: indigo planters.

Question 3: Describe the main features of the Permanent Settlement.

Answer: The Permanent Settlement System was a land revenue system introduced in 1793 by East India Company. Rajas and taluqdars were recognized as Zamindars to collect rent from the peasants and pay revenue to the Company. The main features of the Permanent Settlement system are:

(a) The amount paid by the zamindars to the company was fixed permanently

(b) The Rajas were made the zamindars

(c) Zamindars lost their right over the lands whenever they fail to make payments to the company

(d) Exorbitant prices of land which zamindars had to pay to the company (which they failed.)

Question 4: How was the mahalwari system different from the Permanent Settlement?


Mahalwari SettlementPermanent Settlement
The mahalwari system, devised by Holt Mackenzie, came into effect in 1822, in the North Western provinces of the Bengal Presidency.  The Permanent Settlement was introduced in 1793 by Lord Cornwallis.  
It was devised as an alternative to the Permanent Settlement.  It was aimed at ensuring stable revenue for the East India Company.  
The village headmen were in charge of collecting revenue.  The rajas and taluqdars were in charge of collecting revenue  
The revenue amount was not fixed, and was to be revised periodically. The estimated revenue of each plot within a village was added up to calculate the revenue that each village or mahal had to pay.  The revenue amount was fixed and was never to be increased in the future.  

Question 5: Give two problems which arose with the new Munro system of fixing revenue.

Answer: Two problems which arose with the new Munro system of fixing revenue were:

  • Driven by the desire to increase the income from land, revenue officials fixed too high a revenue demand.
  • Peasants were unable to pay the revenue as the crop failed in the countryside and villages became deserted in many regions.

Question 6: Why were ryots reluctant to grow indigo?

Answer: The ryots reluctant to grow indigo because:

(i) The planters paid a very low price for indigo.

(ii) The ryots were not in a position to even recover their cost, earning a profit was a far- fetched idea. This meant that the ryot was always under debt.

(iii) The planters insisted that the peasants cultivate indigo on the most fertile parts of their land, but the peasants preferred growing rice on the best soils after an indigo harvest. The land could not be used for sowing rice, the ryots were reluctant to grow indigo.

Question 7: What were the circumstances which led to the eventual collapse of indigo production in Bengal?

Answer: The ryots began to refuse to grow indigo. They were supported by the village headmen and some zamindars in their fight. The scale of protest was so much that the government had to intervene. The Indigo Commission was set up to enquire into the problems. The Commission accepted the faults of the planters and allowed the ryots to grow whatever they wished. This led to eventual collapse of indigo production in Bengal.

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