NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 5 When People Rebel
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 5 When People Rebel are given below. These solutions contain answers to all the exercise questions given in the History textbook (Our Pasts III). All our solutions are updated as per the latest CBSE Syllabus and Guidelines. These solutions will also help you to score higher marks with the help of well-illustrated answers. All the questions and answers of Class 8 History Chapter 5 are provided here in PDF format.
Class 8 History Chapter 5 When People Rebel NCERT Solutions
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Question 1: What was the demand of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi that was refused by the British?
Answer: Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi wanted the East India Company to recognise her adopted son as the heir to the kingdom after the death of her husband. This demand was refused by the British. Ultimately, the Company annexed the kingdom as per the Doctrine of Lapse.
Question 2: What did the British do to protect the interests of those who converted to Christianity?
Answer: In 1850, a new law was passed to make conversion to Christianity easier. This law allowed an Indian who had converted to Christianity to inherit the property of his ancestors.
Question 3: What objections did the sepoys have to the new cartridges that they were asked to use?
Answer: The new cartridges were suspected of being coated with the fat of cows and pigs. Both Hindus and Muslim sepoys were offended by the introduction of these cartridges. Before loading these cartridges in the rifles a sepoy had to bite it to open the wrapper. This affected the religious sentiments of the Hindus and the Muslims as the Hindus consider cows as Holy and the Muslims consider the pigs as the dirty animals. Therefore, the sepoys refused to use these new cartridges. They felt that the British were trying to insult their religions.
Question 4: How did the last Mughal emperor live the last years of his life?
Answer: The last Mughal emperor was Bahadur Shah Zafar. His title as the Mughal emperor was a symbolic one. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal rulers had lost their power and held only a symbolic stature. Zafar was also the symbolic head of the 1857 revolt. However, once the revolt was crushed, Bahadur Shah Zafar was tried in court. He was blinded by the British and was imprisoned. Later in 1858, he along with his wife was sent to Rangoon, where he died in 1862.
Question 5: What could be the reasons for the confidence of the British rulers about their position in India before May 1857?
Answer: The British became confident about their position in India because of the following reasons:
(a) The Mughal rulers, after the death of Aurangzeb, were not strong and powerful. Hence, it was easier for the British to annex states.
(b) The disunity among nawabs and the Mughal rulers helped the British have a firm stronghold over Indian society, starting from Bengal.
(c) The policies, like Subsidiary Alliance, helped British annex territories one after another, without the use of any military power.
(d) The revolt of 1857 was crushed by the British leading to their supremacy over Indian society.
Question 6: What impact did Bahadur Shah Zafar’s support to the rebellion have on the people and the ruling families?
Answer: Though, after the death of Aurangzeb, the empire began to disintegrate, Mughal rulers still had their influence over small chiefs and rulers across the country. Threatened by the expansion of British rule, the kings and the nawabs felt that they could rule again only under the Mughal authority. The revolt of 1857 started only when Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last ruler of Mughals, gave his permission. He wrote letters to the various chiefs and rulers of the country to come forward and organise a confederacy of Indian states to fight the British. This single step taken by Bahadur Shah had great implications. His support to the rebellion boosted the morale of the people and the ruling families.
Many small, large kingdoms, rulers and chieftains supported the revolt after the Mughal emperor extended his support to the revolt. Sepoys revolted in Delhi, Awadh and Kanpur. The people also participated in the revolt. Hence, Bahadur Shah Zafar’s support for the rebellion had a widespread effect on the people and the ruling families.
Question 7: How did the British succeed in securing the submission of the rebel landowners of Awadh?
Answer: During the revolt, the defeat of the British forces in a number of battles caused a number of uprisings against the British in various Indian states. A widespread popular rebellion developed in the region of Awadh in particular. The villages took to arms and the landlords led them. After the defeat of the rebel forces, the British had a two-pronged strategy to suppress the rebels and the rebellion. On the one hand, they tried and hanged a number of rebel leaders who had challenged their authority and could do so again in the future.
On the other hand, they tried their best to win back the loyalty of the people. They announced reward for loyal landowners. They were assured that they would be allowed to continue to enjoy traditional rights over their lands. Those who had rebelled were told that if they submitted to the British, and if they had not killed any white people, they would remain safe and their rights and claims to land would not be denied.
Question 8: In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857?
Answer: Changes in the policies of the British after the suppression of the rebellion of 1857:
(i) British Crown took over the control of administration − The British Parliament passed an Act in 1859, under which, the powers of the East India Company were transferred to the British Crown. The British government was now directly responsible for ruling India.
(ii) Provided a sense of security to the local rulers − The ruling chiefs of the country were assured that their territories would never be annexed by the British. However, they had to swear allegiance to the British crown. They also abolished the Doctrine of Lapse, thereby allowing rulers to pass on their kingdoms to adopted sons.
(iii) Provided a sense of security to landowners − Policies were made to protect landlords and zamindars, and give them security of rights over their lands.
(iv) Reorganised the army − The proportion of Indian soldiers in the army was reduced and the number of European soldiers in the army was increased.
(v) Treated the Muslims with suspicion and hostility − Considering them to be responsible for the rebellion in a big way, the British confiscated the land and property of Muslims on a large scale.
(vi) Promised non-interference in the sphere of religion − The British assured the people of India that their religious and social practices would be respected and not interfered with.